- 1 AR 625-5, 25 Jan 49, Women's Army Corps, General Provisions. This Army regulation, and its successors, was commonly called the WAC regulation.
2 SR 140-190-1, 18 Oct 49, Utilization and Training of WAC Members of the Active Reserve in the Organized Reserve Program, CMH Library. This special regulation was revised 18 Aug 50 and superseded by AR 140-140, 4 Dee 52, Army Reserve, Assignment and Attachments.
3 Memo, DWAC to Gen Paul, 21 Feb 46, sub: Personnel and Administrative Functions under Reorganization Recommended in the Report of the Board of Officers on Organization of the War Department, file 320.1, Organization of the Office of the Director, WAC, RG 165.
4 Interv, Col Hallaren with the author, 23 Mar 79. The position was not dropped until 1952.
6 Office of the Dep CofS for Personnel (ODCSPER), "Chronological History of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel 1942-1972," Oct 78, CMH Ref Br. Hereafter cited as ODCSPER Chronological History.
7 The military personnel assigned at that time were Col Hallaren; LtCol Milligan; Maj Mary C. Fullbright, who replaced Maj Mary L. Kersey on 1 Sep 48; Capt Cora M. Foster; 1stLt Mary B. Warner; and TSgts Mary F. Lever, Mary E. Cuthbert, and Catherine Howe.
8 ODCSPER Chronological History.
9 AR 625-5, 25 Jan 49, Women's Army Corps, General Provisions, describes the composition of the WAC and gives a list of commands authorized WAC Staff Advisers. TM 12-406, Feb 1946, Commissioned Officers Military Occupational Specialties, was superseded by SR 605-105-5, 1 Mar 54, same subject.
10 Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors and WAC Staff Officers Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, ODWAC Ref File, WAC Staff Advisers Conferences, CMH.
11 SS, ACofS, G-1, to the CofS (prepared by Maj Selma Herbert, ODWAC exec officer). 2 Oct 46, sub: Administration of the Office of the Director, WAC, file 320, Organization of the Office of the Director WAC, RG 165.
12 Memo, CofS to Directors, Personnel and Administration; Organization and Training; Services, Supply, and Procurement, and Chiefs, Public Relations; Information and Education, 14 Oct 46, sub: Administration of Office, Director, WAC. Superseded by Memo, 1 Oct 48, same subject, and Memo 625-10-1, 24 Jan 49, same subject. All in file 320.1, Organization of the Office of the Director WAC, RG 165.
13 Memo, DWAC to Chiefs, General and Special Staff Divisions, 27 Oct 48, sub: Plans and Policy Committee, Women's Army Corps, file 337, Conferences, RG 165.
14 "Women in the Air Force," Army and Navy Register, 19 June 48, p. 20;
US. Air Force Register, 1 Jan 50, p. 131.
15 Sec 509a, PL 80-381, was included in sec 104d, PL 80-625.
16 Sec 103, PL 80-625.
17 Memo, DWAC to DOT, DA, thru D/PAD, 10 Jul 48, sub: Establishment of Administrative and Training Positions for WAC Officers, file 320, Organization of the Office of the Director WAC, RG 165; SR 625-10-5, 27 Jan 49, Women's Army Corps Administrative and Training Positions for Officers, CMH Library. The list of key positions did not include the dep dir of the WAC because her position was specified in PL 80-625. SR 625-10-5 was superseded by AR 600-100, 25 Jul 1958, Women's Army Corps General Provisions.
18 Dr. Esther B. Strong, "Women in the Department of Defense," Rpt of the WAC Staff Advisors and WAC Staff Officers Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, pp. 2-3.
19 DOD, Semi-Annual Report of the Secretary of Defense, 1 January to 30 June 1950 (Washington, DC: GPO, Sep 1950), p. 27.
20 DOD Personnel Policy Board, Report of Conference of Civilian Women
Leaders, Jun 48, pp. 16768, ODWAC Ref File, CMH. Hereafter cited as Rpt Conf of Civilian Women.
21 Ibid., p. 163.
23 DOD Dir 110.09-2, 12 Oct 1951, authorized the committee and set forth its objectives. Also see
History of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the
Services, ODWAC Ref File, DACOWITS. CMH. The one-year term was later lengthened to three years.
24 DF, ACofS, G-1 to the CG, ASF, 26 Feb 46, sub: Establishment of WAC in the Regular Army and the Organized Reserve, file 320, Selection of a Training Center, RG 165.
25 DF, ACofS, DOT, WDGS, to D/PAD, WDGS, 27 Jun 46, comment 7, and Memo, Site Selection Team to LtGen Charles P. Hall, DOT, WDGS, 20 Apr 47, sub: Report on Selection of a Location for a WAC Training Center, folder 320.0, WAC Training Center, Records of the War Department's General Staff, Director of Organization and Training, RG 319, Modern Military Br. NARA, Washington, DC. The selection team included Col George E. Bush and Maj Elizabeth C. Smith from ODOT; Maj Albert H. Smith and Maj Louise M. Nielsen, HQ, AGF; and Col Boyce and LtCol Hallaren, ODWAC.
26 Memo, LtGen Charles P. Hall, DOT, to MajGen Edward F. Witsell, TAG, 9 Jun 47, file 320.0, WAC Training Center, RG 319.
27 WD GO 80, Sec I, 22 Aug 47, CMH Library. TAG School conducted courses in personnel management and administration, recruiting, postal operations, data processing, typing, stenography, etc.
28 DF, DWAC to D/PAD, 1 Aug 46, sub: Planning for the WAC in the Regular Army, with comments, ODWAC Ref File, Fort Lee, CMH.
30 Ibid., comment 4, D/PAD to DOT, 24 Nov 47.
31 DA Cir 64, 10 Mar 48, Organization of the Army, CMH Library.
32 DA GO 43, Sec III, 21 Jun 48, effective 15 Jun 48, CMH Library; Ltr, HQ, Second Army to CG, Camp Lee, VA, 19 Jun 48, sub: Establishment of the 2004th ASU, WAC Training Center, AIABC-0 322, ODWAC Ref File, Fort Lee, CMH.
33 DF, BrigGen Thomas S. Power, Dep ACofS, G-3, to D/PAD, WDGS, 3 Oct 47, sub: Training of Women in the Air Force, ODWAC Ref File, Fort Lee, CMH.
34 Press Release, USAF Public Information Div, sub: Air Force Men and Women Will Attend Same OCS, 17 Dec 48.
35 DA Cir 64, 10 Mar 48, Organization of the Army, CMH Library.
36 This policy was incorporated into AR 350-170, Women's Army Corps School, 23 Jun 55, revised 14 Dec 56 and 11 Apr 60.
37 DA GO 43, Sec III, 21 Jun 48, activated the WAC Training Center, 15 Jun 48, CMH Library.
38 PL 80-625 contained a provision that permitted the DWAC to nominate WAC officers to the higher grade needed to fill a key administrative or training position. Col Hallaren used this authority only once-for Maj Smith's promotion.
39 Ltr, WAC Staff Dir (Capt Sue Lynch), HQ Second Army, Fort Meade, to Plans Officer (Capt Cora M. Foster), ODWAC, 16 Aug 48, file 312.2, Correspondence with WAC Staff Directors, RG 165.
40 Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors and WAC Staff Officers Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, p. 68.
41 WD Cir 325, 14 Dec 43, authorized 2 tubs for each 150 women. Later, AR 415-107, 7 Jun 50, Space Allowances at Permanent Installations, authorized I tub for each 25 women, in addition to showers.
42 Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, p. 68.
43 Ltr, CG, Second Army to CG, Camp Lee, 19 Jul 48, sub: Establishment of 2004th ASU, Camp Lee, Virginia, AIABC-322, ODWAC Ref File, Fort Lee, CMH. This letter authorized activation of the 2004th ASU (Army Service Unit) and its integral units. See also Camp Lee GO 15, 9 Jul 48.
44 Ltr, DWAC to CG, Second Army, Fort George G. Meade, 1 Sep 48, sub: Rehabilitation of WAC Training Center Area, Camp Lee, Virginia, file 354.1, WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, RG 165.
45 1st Ind, Dir of Logistics, GS, to D/PAD, DA, Attn: DWAC, 23 Sep 48, to Memo, DWAC to Dir of Logistics, through D/PAD, 4 Sep 48, sub: Rehabilitation of WAC Training Center Area, Camp Lee, Virginia, file 354.1, WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, RG 165; Ltr, ACofS, G-4 (Col N. A. Burnell) HQ Second Army, Ft. Meade, MD, to Col Hallaren, 20 Oct 48, ODWAC Ref File, Fort Lee, CMH.
46 WAC Training Center, S-1 Division, Camp Lee, 14 Dec 48, "Historical Report of the WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, Virginia, for Period 14 June 1948 to 14 December 1948," History Collection, WAC Museum.
47 Treadwell, Women's Army Corps, pp. 139-41.
48 "History of the WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, Virginia, from June 1948 to January 1949," History Collection, WAC Museum. Unless otherwise noted, information on the WAC Training Center during this period is from this source.
49 HQ Second Army, GO 132, 11 Aug 48, and Ltr, TAG to CG, Second Army, 28 Jul 48, sub: Activation of the 14th Army Band, ODWAC Ref File, Bands, CMH. The only TO&E unit that was all-WAC, the band was assigned to HQ, Second Army, and attached for duty to the 2004th ASU, WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, HQ 2001 ASU HQ MRU Augmentation, Fort Meade, SO 42, par 4, 2 Mar 49, CMH Library.
50 DF, D/PAD to DOT, 14 Feb 49, sub: WAC Training Center, and Ltr, DOT, DA, to CG, Second Army, 3 Mar 49, same subject, in file 322, Correspondence with Organization and Training, RG 165; SR 55-760-1, Preparation of Individual Replacements for Overseas Movement (POR), 4 Nov 49, CMH Library.
51 Army Training Program, ATP 21-121, Aug 51, Basic Program for Female Military Personnel without Prior Service.
52 WAC Training Ctr, Fort Lee, VA, "History of the WAC Training Center 30 June 1948 to 31 December 1953," History Collection, WAC Museum.
53 MacGregor, Integration in the Armed Forces, pp. 224-26.
54 Press Release, WD, ODWAC (approved by Acfg D/PAD, WD GS, BrigGen William E. Bergin), 16 Jul 46, WDWAC file 342, Enlistment and Reenlistment, Jan-Dec 46, RG 165.
55 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 31 Dec 50; EO 9981 in DA Bulletin 32, Sec III, 2 Aug 48, CMH Library. The four black officers were Maj Harriet M. West, TAG's office, Pentagon; Capt Bernice G. Hughes, Commander, WAC Det, Fort Ord, CA; Capt Jeanne G. Childs, Admin Officer, Army Medical Center, Washington, DC; 1stLt Alma O. Berry, Exec Officer, WAC Det, Fort Ord.
56 SR 600-629-1, 16 Jan 50, Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Army, superseded WD Cir 124, .946, which contained the policy sustaining segregation, both in CMH Library;
MacGregor, Integration in the Armed Forces, pp. 434-36.
57 WAC Training Center, Quarterly Historical Rpt for the period ending 30 Jun 50, History collection, WAC Museum.