The official documentary sources upon which this book is based fall logically into two categories, records seen originally in the Far East Command, and Department of the Army records seen in Washington, D.C., and Alexandria, Virginia. The former records, exploited during research from mid-1950 to early 1953, comprise a variety of record collections and papers some of which have been destroyed as part of the normal records management processes. The remainder have been returned to the United States and are now in custody of the National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration. Department of the Army records examined in the Washington, D.C., area from 1953 to 1956 have been relocated from original repositories as part of the decentralization of records during the late 1960's but remain in custody of the National Archives and Records Service.
Included under this grouping are official records which were maintained under control of the Adjutant General, FEC, the records maintained with the General Staff and Special Staff Sections of GHQ, FEC/UNC, the records of FEAF and COMNAVFE, and the records of Eighth Army and X Corps. In addition, certain "convenience" files were maintained for the Office of the Chief of Staff, GHQ, FEC, and for the Office of the Commander in Chief Far East Command/United Nations Command, all of which were made available for research. The latter files contained memorandums and reports not normally available in the Adjutant General's files. Within the substantial body of Far East Command records, the following were especially important in preparation of this history:
These files, originally located in the Dai Ichi building in Tokyo, adjacent to CINCFE/CINCUNC's offices were not designed for permanent retention. They reflect all major activities of CINCUNC and consist of personal messages and memorandums, command letters, personal letters, and miscellaneous items. Their particular value lies in the manner in which they reflect the day-to-day trends in CINCUNC's thinking and in the fact that they contain his instructions to his senior staff members.
Prepared by the SGS, GHQ, for presentation to the Chief of Staff each morning, these folders contained copies of all pertinent communications between Washington and Tokyo and between CINCUNC and his subordinate commanders. Memorandums for record of important telephone calls, copies of miscellaneous memorandums for record on meetings, and liaison officer reports on visits to Korea are among the particularly valuable items in these files not elsewhere available. These files, comprising twelve file drawers of material, were turned over to the Military History Section, GHQ, FEC/UNC, in October 1951.
Under control of the ACofS G-3, GHQ, FEC/UNC, the Joint Strategic Plans and Operations Group maintained separate files comprising all the joint planning files of the theater. These files, arranged in books by subject, contained detailed staff studies of contemplated operations, operations plans and operations orders, interspersed with attached handwritten comments by key officers of command.
Several recurring reports prepared within the FEC have provided information and views on Korea not available elsewhere. These are:
At the outbreak of the Korean War, the only recurring historical report prepared by the FEC was the Annual Narrative Historical Report, required by Army regulations. The FEC had prepared such a report for 1949 and subsequently prepared a report for the period 1 January-31 October 1950. Thus the period 25 June-31 October 1950 is covered, not by a monthly Command Report (see below), but by the Annual Report which is less detailed. Nevertheless, the staff sections of GHQ/FEC, particularly the ACofS, G-3, included in this Annual Report unique information and documents on Korean planning and operations. In this connection, the Eighth Army was relieved of the requirement for submitting a historical report covering the period 25 June-31 October 1950 and such historical records of Eighth Army's activities as exist for that period consist of War Diaries. The period 1 January to 25 June 1950 is not covered by a historical report from the Eighth Army.
Beginning on 1 November 1950, GHQ, FEC/UNC, prepared and submitted each month to the Department of the Army a Command Report, describing in detail the operations, activities, and problems of the command. The basic narrative report is accompanied by annexes from each General and Special Staff Section of GHQ FEC/UNC. The most valuable of these annexes, from the historian's viewpoint, are those of the ACofS, G-3, the ACofS, G-2, and those prepared by the Commander in Chief and the Chief of Staff GHQ FEC/UNC. The latter annex did not appear until April 1951 when the Military History
Section, GHQ FEC/UNC, assigned an X Corps Special Reports officer to prepare this report for the Chief of Staff.
From the beginning of the war Daily Intelligence summaries were prepared by the Theater Intelligence Division, ACofS, G-2, FEC/UNC. These summaries, in booklet form, contain detailed information on enemy dispositions, order of battle, the combat situation, and estimated enemy intentions. Each summary contains several maps illustrating enemy and friendly action for each 24-hour period. These Daily Intelligence summaries received wide distribution within the command and were sent to Washington daily. Copies are filed with the Command Report, GHQ FEC/UNC. In addition to these summaries, the ACofS, G-2, prepared in similar format special intelligence reports on such subjects as enemy order of battle, enemy LOC's, etc., copies of which were also placed with the monthly Command Report.
The ACofS, G-3, GHQ FEC/UNC, issued a Daily Operations Report, covering friendly and enemy information, and setting forth in some detail the combat operations for each 24-hour period. In many respects this report duplicates the Daily Intelligence Summary, which, of the two, is more useful to the historian. Copies of the Daily Operations Report are also available with the Command Report, GHQ FEC/UNC.
The X Corps prepared special reports on the Inch'on landing, on the Wonsan landing, on the Hungnam evacuation, and on the battle of the Soyang River. These reports, although omitting derogatory information, are nonetheless useful in establishing dates, locations, and the general chain of events. Copies are in custody of the National Archives and Records Service.
By far the most productive segment of Department of Army Records for the historian interested in Korea are the correspondence files of the ACofS G-3, DA, for the period. Bearing a file identification of G3 091 Korea, these voluminous files record the actions and recommendations of the G-3 and of the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, and contain many important national policy papers. They contain all pertinent Joint Chiefs of Staff documents received by the Department of the Army together with the Army input to the Joint Chiefs of Staff. They are complete files in that each action is backed up by all pertinent correspondence and is carried through to the final recommendation or conclusion. Of particular interest are thirty-one notebooks prepared by the Far East and Pacific Branch, ACofS G-3, covering specific matters. These notebooks contain radios, memorandums, and charts and tables used in briefing the ACofS G-3.
In preparing testimony to be presented before the Senate committee investigating the relief of General MacArthur, the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructed the Joint Strategic Survey Committee to prepare a synthesis of all matters relating to the relief of MacArthur and the conduct of the Korean War. This committee presented the Joint Chiefs of Staff with a well-documented narrative of exceptional value to the historian for the period 25 June 1950-30 April 1951. This document is filed with the Top Secret records of the ACofS G-3, DA, for 1951 in custody of the National Archives and Records Service.
The exchanges between Washington and Tokyo, notably between the JCS and CINCUNC, were carried on by radio communication. The messages sent and received by the JCS/Department of the Army to CINCUNC/CINCFE are on file in the Staff Communications Center, Office of the Chief of Staff, DA. Messages exchanged between CINCUNC/ CINCFE and his subordinate commanders are in the Adjutant General's file, FEC, at the Federal Records Center, GSA, Kansas City, Missouri.
Several important teleconferences were held in the first days of the Korean War, followed by routine teleconferences for the remainder of the war, the latter conferences usually on intelligence matters. Copies of these teleconferences are on file in the Staff Communications Center, Office of the Chief of Staff, DA.
As part of the furor surrounding the relief of General MacArthur, the Senate of the United States conducted an investigation. Virtually every responsible official of the Department of Defense testified at the Senate hearings on this matter. The record of this testimony has been printed by the U.S. Government Printing Office in five volumes totaling 3,691 pages of testimony, an appendix of selected documents, and an index. The rather formidable title of this testimony is Military Situation in the Far East, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Eighty Second Congress, First Session, To Conduct an Inquiry into the Military Situation in the Far East and the Facts Surrounding the Relief of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur From His Assignments in that Area. This material is cited in the present volume as the MacArthur Hearings.
Major General Oliver Prince Smith, USMC, commander of the 1st Marine Division during the first part of the Korean War, maintained a diary which he furnished to the Historical Branch, G-3 Division, USMC. Capt. Nicholas Canzona and Mr. Lynn Montross of that branch made available selected portions of that diary to the author. The designation of this document is "Notes by Lt. Gen. Oliver P. Smith on the Operations of the 1st Marine Division During the First Nine Months of the Korean War."
The following books are the principal ones consulted in preparation of this history:
Acheson, Dean. Present at the Creation. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1969.
Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong: North to the Yalu. UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR. Washington, 1961.
Cagle, Malcolm W., and Frank A. Manson. The Sea War in Korea. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1957.
Collins, J. Lawton. War In Peacetime. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1969.
Department of State. The Conflict in Korea. Washington, 1951.
Department of State. In Quest of Peace and Security: Selected Documents on American Foreign Policy, 1941-1951. Washington, 1951.
Department of State. Korea, 1945 to 1948. Washington, 1948.
Department of State. Korea's Independence. Washington, 1947.
Field, James A., Jr. History of U.S. Naval Operations: Korea. Washington, 62.
Futrell, R. Frank. The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950-1953. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1961.
Goodrich, Leland M. Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the United Nations. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1956.
Grajdanzev, Andrew J. Modern Korea. New York: John Day Company, 1944.
McCune, George M., with Arthur L. Gray, Jr. Korea Today. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.
Nelson, M. Frederick. Korea and the Old Orders in Eastern Asia. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1946.
Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. Korea 1951-1953. Washington, 1956.
Ridgway, Matthew B. The Korean War. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1967.
Sawyer, Maj. Robert K. Military Advisors in Korea: KMAG in Peace and War. Washington, 1963.
Truman, Harry S. Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope, Vol. II. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1956.
Whiting, Allen S. China Crosses the Yalu. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960.