Bibliographical Note

This volume was written primarily from records kept by the Department of the Army and subordinate commands during the Korean War, interpreted with the help of a number of other sources, principally armed forces' histories, reports, and monographs. Unless otherwise specified, the primary materials discussed below may be found in the collections in the custody of the National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration, Washington, D.C.

Primary Sources

For the Washington side of the narrative, the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations, official central correspondence file, arranged according to the Army decimal system, forms the most complete and useful Army collection of high-level policy and planning papers. Since G-3 acted as the executive agent for the Chief of Staff, most of the important letters, memorandums, reports, and studies pertinent to the direction of the war in Korea passed through this office.

G-3 also maintained a special collection of the official transcripts, letters, and other documents pertaining to the truce conference. The minutes of meetings of the plenary, subdelegate, liaison, and staff officers sessions and the correspondence between the delegations will be found in this collection.

The bulk of the correspondence between the JCS/Department of the Army and the Far East Command United Nations Command was carried on by radio communication. A complete file on the messages sent and received by the JCS/Department of the Army to the UNC/FEC is kept in the Staff Communications Center, Office of the Chief of Staff, DA.

Messages exchanged between UNC/ FEC and subordinate commands in the field are available in The Adjutant General's files, FEC, at the Federal Records Center, GSA, Kansas City, Missouri, and in the files cited in the footnotes of the text.

For the theater story the most valuable sources are the command reports submitted on a monthly basis by each major command. The narrative sections of the reports provide an excellent guide to the major activities of the month; the accompanying staff section reports, annexes, appendices and inclosures amplify the narrative sections and include copies of many of the basic documents discussed. The UNC/ FEC and the Eighth Army Command reports were especially helpful in the preparation of this volume.

Theater files on plans, operations, command, administration, and the armistice are in several collections. Far East Command files covering 1951 and 1953 activities in these departments and a small group of numbered binders originating in the ,Joint Strategic Plans and Operations Group are in the custody of the National Archives and Records Service. But the FEC G-3 and General


Administrative files for 1952 are at the Kansas City Records Center, as are the Eighth Army Operational Planning and General Administrative files.

The combat story is based principally upon battalion, regimental, and divisional journals and reports. These contain both narrative accounts of the action and much of the raw materials that provided the basis for the narrative. The journal entries and transcripts of exchanges were especially helpful.

During and shortly after the war, members of the Historical Detachments attached to the Far East Command and to the Eighth Army produced a number of monographs, studies, and after action reports on different phases of the conflict. Covering the armistice, small unit actions, logistics, and a myriad of other subjects, these manuscripts are invaluable, especially the comprehensive fourvolume study on the armistice negotiations. Copies of the FEC and Eighth Army monographs are in the Office of the Chief of Military History files.

The records of the interviews conducted by the author and the correspondence between the author and various participants in the events covered in the volume will also be found in OCMH files.

Admiral Arleigh A. Burke graciously turned over to the author a number of personal letters written during his tour as a member of the armistice delegation. These letters are in OCMH files.

Secondary Sources

The following list is by no means complete but notes the works the author found most useful.


Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong: North to the Yalu. UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR. Washington, 1961.

Barclay, Brigadier C. N. The First Commonwealth Division: The Story of British Commonwealth Land Forces in Korea, 1950-1953. London: Aldershot, Gale and Polden, Ltd., 1954.

Berger, Carl. The Korean Knot: A MilitaryPolitical History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.

Biderman, Albert D. March to Calumny. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1963.

Cagle, Malcolm W., and Frank A. Manson. The Sea War in Korea. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1957.

Chung Kyung Cho. Korea Tomorrow: Land of the Morning Calm. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1959.

Clark, Mark W. From the Danube to the Yalu. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954.

Clews, John. The Communists' New Weapon- Germ Warfare. London: Lincoln Pragers, 1953.

Department of State. The Conflict in Korea. Washington, 1951.

Department of State. In Quest of Peace and Security: Selected Documents on American Foreign Policy, 1941-1951. Washington, 1951.

Department of State. Korea, 1945 to 1948. Washington, 1948.

Department of State. Korea's Independence. Washington, 1947.

Dille, John. Substitute for Victory. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1954.


Field, James A., Jr. History of U.S. Naval Operations: Korea. Washington, 1962.

Futrell, R. Frank. The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950-1953. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1961 .

Goodrich, Leland M. Korea: A Study of U.S. Policy in the United Nations. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1956.

Grajdanzev, Andrew J. Modern Korea. New York: John Day Company, 1944

Joy, Admiral C. Turner. How Communists Negotiate. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1955.

Kinkead, Eugene. In Every War But One. New York: W. W. Norton &. Co., Inc., 1959.

Lyons, Eugene M. Military Policy and Economic Aid: The Korean Case, 1950-1953. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 1961.

McCune, George M., with Arthur L. Gray, Jr. Korea Today. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1950.

Marshall, S. L. A. Pork Chop Hill. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1956.

Montross, Lynn. Cavalry in the Sky: The Story of the U.S. Marine Combat Helicopters. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1954.

Montross, Lynn, Maj. Hubard D. Kuokka, and Maj. Norman W. Hicks. "U.S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950-1953," Vol- IV. The East-Central Front, Jan 1951-March 1952. Washington, 1963.

Nelson, M. Frederick. Korea and the Old Orders in Eastern Asia. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1946.

Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. Korea 1951-1953 Washington, 1956.

Oliver, Robert T. Verdict in Korea. State College, Pennsylvania: Bald Eagle Press, 1952.

Poats, Rutherford M. Decision in Korea. New York: The McBride Company, 1954

Sawyer, Maj. Robert K. Military Advisors in Korea: KMAG in Peace and War. Washington, 1963.

Truman, Harry S. Memoirs: Years of Trial and Hope, vol. II. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1956.

United Nations and Far East Command, The Communist War in POW Camps. Tokyo: United Nations and Far East Command, 1953.

United States Senate, 83d Congress, 1st Session, Hearings Before the Committee on Armed Services on Ammunition Supplies. Washington, 1953.

Vatcher, William H., Jr. Panmunjom: The Story of the Korean Military Armistice Negotiations. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc., 1958.

White, William L. The Captives of Korea: An Unofficial White Paper of the Treatment of War Prisoners. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Whiting, Allen S. China Crosses The Yalu, New York: The Macmillan Company, 1960.


Bradley, General of the Army Omar N. "The Question of War or Peace in Korea," in Department of State Bulletin, vol. XXVIII, No. 716 (March 16, 1953).

DeReus, C. C. "The Perimeter Pays Off," in Combat Forces Journal, vol. 3, No. 5 (December, 1952).

Holton, Captain James L. "Operation Changey Changey" in National Defense Transportation Journal, vol. VIII, No. 3 (May-June, 1952) .

Kinney, Col. Andrew J. "Secrets From the Truce Tent," in This Week Magazine, New York Herald-Tribune (August 31, 1952) .

Lyons, Eugene M. "American Policy and the United Nations Program for Korean Reconstruction," in International Organization, vol. XII, No. 2 (1958)

Murray, Col. James C. "The Korea Truce Talks: First Phase," in U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings, vol. 79, No. 9 (September, 1953).


Henning, Charles N. ORO Study T-211, Economic and Related Political Factors in Civil Affairs Operations, Republic of Korea. Washington: Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins University, 1952.

Operations Research Office, Report ORO-R-11, The Utilization of Negro Manpower in the Army. Washington: Operations Research Office, Johns Hopkins University, 1955.


Mossman, B. C. Ebb and Flow. In preparation for the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR.

Schnabel, Lt. Col. James F. Policy and Direction: The First Year. In preparation for the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN THE KOREAN WAR.

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