Army Ground Forces, Study No. 1



1. WD ltr AG 320.2 (7-25-40)M(Ret) M-OCS, 26 Jul 40, sub: GHQ. 320.2/3. The basic WD memo is OCS 21152-2 OCS-OW to TAG GHQ, 25 Jul 40, sub not given. AGO Records. Other background papers in AGO Classified Records, WPD 3209-10.

For the general defensive measures taken by the Army, see Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the U. S. Army, July, 1939, to June 30, 1941 to the Secretary of War, pp 1-2. (Cited hereafter as Biennial Report, CofS, 1941).

2. (1) Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1940, pp 26, 27, and 40. The enlisted strength of the Regular Army as given does not include some six thousand Philippine Scouts. (2) Annual Report of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, 1940, p 6.

3. WD ltr OCofS, 9 Aug 32, sub: Establishment of the Fld Armies.

4. A brief history of the Second, Third, and Fourth Armies in the period preceding mobilization will be found in the History of the Army Ground Forces, Studies Nos 16, 17, and 18.

5. General MacArthur explained the purpose in view: “Heretofore the War Department has never been linked to fighting elements by that network of command and staff necessary to permit the unified tactical functioning of the American Army.” Before World War I “the military force then existing was conceived of and administered as a collection of infantry, cavalry and artillery regiments.” By establishing the “skiletonized Army Group on a satisfactory basis,” and by decentralizing certain responsibilities to army commanders, General MacArthur believed that the War Department was providing “a suitable framework for the assimilation of the thousands of recruits who will, almost simultaneously with the declaration of war, volunteer for service with the colors.” Without the constitution of such an authority, existing units would be swamped and immobilized with organizational and training detail. “The four Field Arm organization... constitutes a logical and definite basis for initial expansion.” WD ltr OCofS to CGs four Fld Armies, 22 Oct 32, sub: Development of the Four Fld Armies. AGO Records, 320.2 (8-6-32) Sec 1A.

6. The replacement training centers were not set up until the spring of 1941, and their output was never sufficient for the purpose stated. From the beginning, many of the fillers went directly to tactical units and received in these their training in Mobilization Training Programs which were programs for basic training in the various arms and services. In the actual process of expansion the tactical unit became the school of the individual soldier.

7. The deliberations and report of this Board will be found in The National Defense: Historical Documents Relating to the Reorganization Plans of the War Department and to the Present National Defense Act Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, 69th Congress, 2d Session, (1927), pp 568-648. (Hereafter cited as Historical Documents).

8. (1) Preliminary Rpt of Committee on “Nucleus for General Headquarters in the Field in the Event of Mobilization,” 11 Jul 21, especially par 9. Historical Documents, pp 571 ff. (2) Par 15, Sec IV, Go 41, WD, 16 Aug 21.

9. (1) Historical Documents, p 576. (2) AR 10-15, 25 Nov 21, with changes 1933. (3) The changes made in 1936 included the designation of officers in each General Staff Division to reinforce WPD when it took the field as the staff of GHQ.  Memo OCS 15313-5 pf DCpfS USA for CofS USA, 16 Apr 36, sub: Reorgn of GHQ, approved the same date by the CofS, and memo of the Sec WDGS for ACofS WPD, 17 Apr 36, sub as above. OPD Records 3209.

10. The directive of 26 July 1940 stated that the jurisdiction of GHQ was to be “similar in character to that of Army Commanders.”

11. Notes (C) on a talk at GHQ by Gen Marshall, 9030 13 May 41. 337/4 (C).

12. Corrected WD ltr AG 320.2 (9-27-40)M-C, 3 Oct 40, sub: Orgn, Tng, and Adm of the Army. 320.2/8.

13. Memo G-3/42980 for CofS USA, 19 Jul 40, sub: Div Tng. AGO Records,  AG353(12-28-39), Tng Dir 1940-41(2).

14. GHQ 1st ind, 7 Aug 40, to above.

15. Sec V, Consideration of Non-concurrences, memo G-3/42980 for CofS USA, 19 Jul 40, cited in note 13.

16. WD ltr AG 320.2(10-14-40)M-C-M, 19 Oct 40, sub: Change in Dir on Orgn, Tng, and Adm of the Army. 320.2/18.

17. 3d ind, 16 Sep 40, to memo G-3/42980 for CofS USA, 19 Jul 40, cited in note 13.

18. GHQ 1st ind, 7 Aug 40, to above.

19. WD ltr AG 320.2(7-25-40)M(Ret)M-OCS, 26 Jul 40, sub: GHQ. 320.2/3. The basic memo is OCS 21152-2 OCS-OW, 25 Jul 40. AGO Records.

20. Par 11 b corrected WD ltr AG 320.2(9-27-40)M-C, 3 Oct 40, sub: Orgn, Tng, and, Adm of the Army 320.2/8. The arguments for this device are fully set forth in a memo of G-3 WD for CofS USA, 24 Aug 40, sub: Adm of Posts. AGF Records, G-3/43332.

21. (1) Annual Report of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, 1941, .pp 6-9. The period of field tram for the Guard was increased to three weeks in 1939-40 and to four in the summer of 1941. (2) Biennial Report, CofS,1941, p3.

22. Annual Report of the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, 1941, p 27.

23. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1941, p 101.

24. Biennial Report, CofS, 1941, Chart 4.

25. This figure is given in the Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1941, p 96.

26. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1941, p 96.

27. Draft memo (S) of CofS USA for USW, 30 Sep 41, sub: Morale of the Army, AGO Records, 352 (9-19-40)(1)(Morale of the Army) (S)

28. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1940, pp 35-36, 40.

29. Annual Report of the Secretary of War, 1941, p 110.

30. Biennial Report, CofS, 1941, p 2.

31. WD ltr AG 320.2 (8-31-40)M(Ret)M-C, 10 Sep 40, sub: Reorgn of Triangular Divs. 320.2/6. The charts had been issued with WD ltr AG 320.2 (8-12-40)P(C), 23 Aug 40, sub: Charts for Orgn of the Triangular Div, the Type Army Corps, and Army Trs of a Type Army of Three Corps. (As approved 8 Aug 40.) 320.2/4. An example of the achievement of our Army in bringing an army to life in spite of insufficient personnel and funds is recorded in the History of AGF, Study No 17, History of the Third Army, Chap I.

32. The 32d, 34th, and 37th Divisions were triangularized in January, and all of the others except the 27th in February 1942. The 27th, which had been sent to Hawaii, was reorganized on 24 August. Directives in 322, 322.13, and 320.2 (S).

33. Biennial Report, CofS, 1941, p 10.

34. For General Marshall’s policy for the selection of officers for GHQ, see p 53 below and minutes of his talk at GHQ, 13 May 1941. 337/4 (C). The other statements in this paragraph were obtained from 330.3 (Monthly Rosters-Strength Returns), checked with Lt Col Seleno, Ground AG Sec.

The officer personnel of the staff on 31 May 1941 was as follows:

Maj Gen Lesley J. McNair

Lt Col Jerry V. Matejka

Col William E. Lynd

Lt Col Bryan L. Milburn

Lt Col, Lloyd D. Brown

Lt Col Richard B. Moran

Lt Col Mark W. Clark

Lt Col Charles B. Spruit

Lt Col Frederick J. deRohan

Maj James C. Christiansen

Lt Col Charles H. Gerhardt

Maj Thomas E. Lewis

Lt Col Farragut F. Hall

Maj Hammond McD. Monroe

Lt Col Morris Hardwerk

Maj William D. Old

Lt Col Vernon K. Hurd

Maj Julian E. Raymond

Lt Col Clyde L. Hyssong

Col Kenneth Buchanan (attached)

Lt Col Allen F. Kingman


35. This statement is based on the recollections of staff officers on duty at Hq AGF in May 1943, notable General Hyssong and Lt Colonel Seleno, and par 1, ltr of Gen McNair to TAG, 9 Jan 41, sub: Enl Pers for Duty at GHQ USA (AGO Records, OCS 21152-2) stating that all officers at present, except the AG, are assigned to the General Staff and perform the dual function of general and special staff officers.

36. The Army War College was suspended by WD ltr AG 352.01 (6-11-40) M-MC, 11 Jun 40, sub: Courses at AWC and C&GS Sch, 1940-41. AGO Records.

37. WD ltr AG 320.2 (12-5-40)M-P-M, 13 Dec 40, sub: GHQ Trs and Armies. 320.2/87.

38. Memo of CofS GHQ for Staff GHQ, 15 Jan 41, 320.2/3/3.

39. WD ltr AG 320.2 (2-28-41)M-WPD-M to CGe, CofS GHQ, etc, 17 Mar 41, sub: Defense Plans—Continental US, with atchd charts. AGO Records.

40. For a discussion of these measures see below, Chap VIII.

41. WD ltr (R) AG 320.2 (6-19-40)MC-E-M, 3 Jul 41, sub: Enlargement of the Functions of GHQ 320.2/3/34.

42. Note, 17 Jun 41. AGO Records, WPD 3209-11 (S).

43. Par 1 b (1), WD ltr, 3 Jul, cited in note 41 above.

44. Pars 2 and 3, Sec I, WPD memo (S) for CofS USA, _Jun 41, sub: Enlargement of the Functions of GHQ. 320.2/1 (S). This GHQ copy bears the following note, initialed “F. L. P(arks)”: “This staff study was approved and promulgated by restricted letter AG 320.2 (6-19-41)MC-E-M, Subject: ‘Enlargement of Functions of GHQ. Parts were not put in letter to avoid classification of ‘Secret’ (verbally from Gen. Malony to Col. Parks).”

45. Pars 1-4, Sec I, WPD memo, Jun 41, cited in note 44 above.

46. WD ltr (R) AG 320.2 (6-19-41)MC-E-M, 3 Jul 41, sub: Enlargement of the functions of GHQ.        320.2/3/34 (R) .

47. WD ltr AG 320.2 (3-24-41)M-WPD-M, 25 Mar 41, sub: Defense Plans—Continental US. (320.2/158/3.) AG 320.2 (11-27-40)1

48. This was a staff section of the Air Force Combat Command. Its chief was Colonel Lynd, who had been General McNair’s Air Officer from the beginning. The Air Annexes were prepared in this section. Statement to AGF Hist Off by Mrs. Naomi Allen, who was in charge of the Records Section, Army War College, as well as the processing of war plans framed by GHQ.

49. Memo (S) of Gen McNair for CG FF, 18 Jun 42, sub: Future Operations. McNair Correspondence with CofS (S).

50. This summary is based on (1) the Diary (S) of GHQ, 314.81 (S), and (2) Minutes (S) of Staff Conferences, (GHQ, 337 (S), and (3) 381 General (S), all in GHQ Records; (4) various papers filed under the names of pertinent “color” plans and base and defense commands in AGO Classified Records Section, and in the Combined Subjects file of OPD records, where they were consulted through the courtesy of Miss Alice Miller; (5) the file “Status, War Plans,” AWC Records 111-55c, a ledger of the plans prepared by GHQ, in the custody (1945) of Mrs. Naomi Allen. The assistance of Miss Miller and Mrs. Allen, supported by their recollections, has been of great value. No evidence has been found that the Central Defense Command submitted a plan to GHQ.

51. (1) Min (S) of Staff Conferences, GHQ, 17 Sep 41. 337 (S). (2) GHQ memo (S) for all Staff Secs GHQ, 10 Oct 41, sub: Preparation of Plans, Rainbow 5. Originally consulted in 381 R-5/3 (S); document missing in records at time of final revision.

52. Ibid. See also mimeographed model of operations plan, Cpy 3. AWC Records, 111-55B.

53. The information in this and the foregoing paragraph was drawn largely from interviews of the AGF Historical Officer with Maj. Gen. Harry J. Malony, formerly DCofS GHQ, 10 Jan 44, and with Brig. Gen. Paul McD. Robinett, formerly ACofS G-2 GHQ, 5 Feb 44.

54. GHQ Quarterly Rpt (S), 15 Sep 41. 320.2/1 (S).

55. (1) WD telg (S) AG 320.2 (7-8-41)MC-E to First Army, 8 Jul 41. AGO Records, 320.2 (7-8-41)MC-E-M to CofS GHQ, sub: Comd of US Army Units in Bermuda. AGO Records, 320.2 (BBC)(7-8-41).

56. (1) WD ltr (S) AG 320.2 (7-10-41) MC-E-M, 10 Jul 41 sub:  Comd of US Army Units in Greenland. AGO Records, 320.2/7 (Greenland) (S). (2) WD ltr (C) AG 320.2 (11-5-41) MC-C-M, 26 Nov 41, sub: Activation of Greenland Base Comd. AGO Records, WPD 4173-126 to Greenland Sec 5 (S).

57. WD rad (S) to Lt Gen Voorhis, SC PCZ, 10 Feb 41, sub: Caribbean Defense Comd. AGO Records, 320.2 (1-8-41)(S).

58. Telg No 7 (S), CG GHQ to CG CDC, 28 Nov 41. AGO Records, 320.2/3 (CDC)(S)

59. (1) WD ltr (S) AG 320.2 (12-11-41) MC-F to CG WDC, 11 Dec 41, sub: Supplementary Directions for WDC. (2) Telg No 10 (S) to CG WDC, 14 Dec 41, signed Marshall “Official, Hyssong,” no sub given. Both in AGO Records, 320.2/34 (WDC Str)(S).

60. WD ltr (C) AG 371 (12-19-41) MSC-E-M, 20 Dec 41, sub: Creation of ETO. AGO Records.

61. (1) Min (S) of Staff Conferences, GHQ, 6 Aug 41. 337 (S). (2) Memo (S) for all Staff Secs GHQ, 7 Aug 41, sub: Expansion of GHQ. 320.2/22 (S). (3) “We have advance copies of directive of tasks to be turned over to GHQ. In general all projects and outlying bases are to be ours.” Min (S) of Staff Conferences, 9 Aug 41. 337 (S). On 15 November the DCofS reported that Alaska and the Philippines would be transferred “when construction was in better shape and further advanced, and when equipment and supply matters were in better shape in the Philippines.” Ibid, 5 Nov 41.

62. (1) WPD memo (S) for TAG, 19 Dec 41, sub: Unity of Comd in the Caribbean Coastal Frontier. AGO Records, 381 (Unity of Comd) (12-17-41)(S). (2) A telegram (S), Andrews to GHQ, 20 Dec 41, reported assumption of command by the Navy on that date. 320.2/93(CDC)(S). (3) The protest of GHQ is recorded in memo (S) of Gen McNair for CofS USA, 18 Dec 41, sub: Unity of Comd in Caribbean and Panama Coastal Frontiers. 320.2/93 (CDC)(S). (4) For Bermuda: WPD memo (S) for CofS USA, 6 Feb 42, sub: Unity of Comd in Bermuda. Same file as (1) this note.

63. The figures given are drawn from the following sources: (1) For officers on 24 June, immediately after the increase of strength on 18 June, par 2, memo (S) of Lt. Col Carrington, ACofS G-1 GHQ for Sec GS GHQ, 28 Aug 41, sub: Resume of the Orgn and Opns of GHQ. 320.2/1 (S). (2) For enlisted men, same date, par l a, GHQ ltr to TAG, 15 Jul 41, sub: Pers.Asgd to Hq Sp Trs GHQ and Hq and Hq Co GHQ.          (3) For the other dates the figures are compiled from GHQ Rosters, 330.3.

64. Memo of CofS GHQ for CG FF, 23 Jan 42, sub: Construction of Additional Office Space for GHQ, 680.341/23. The additional office space immediately needed was created by clearing the Cavalry stable of the AWC Post. The new building, T-5, was not ready for occupancy by 9 Mar 42. The strength requested on 27 Jan 42 was 212 officers and 489 enlisted men. The actual strength on that date was 146 officers and 266 enlisted men. Ltr 320.3/4 GHQ-A to TAG, 27 Jan 42, sub: Revised T/O. AGO Records.

65. The Secretary (Col Floyd L. Parks) “recommended to the Staff that in view of the limited time of the Chief of Staff and the Deputy Chief of Staff in offices, the Staff take final action whenever possible and avoid references to the Deputy or the Chief of Staff except when policy or matters of major importance were involved. To keep the Chief of Staff and the Deputy Chief of Staff informed by short memos in matters they should know about to maintain a general background of current business.” Min (S) of Staff Conferences, GHQ, 17 Oct 41. 337 (S).

66. Pars 1 and 3, ltr of CofS GHQ to TAG, 9 Jan 41, sub: Enl Pers for Duty at GHQ USA. AGO Records, OCS 21152-2. Chief Clerks were requested for the following special sections: Armd Force, CA, Engrs, FA, MC, QMC, and Sig C. The special sections represented by officers, in addition to the seven just named, were, at that time: Avn, Cav, Inf, Med, NG, and Organized Res. GHQ off memo, 10 Jan 41. 312/2 (Correspondence, Methods, Forms, etc.).

67. (1) GHQ memo (S) to CG FF, 15 Sep 41, sub: Quarterly Rpt of Planning and Opns Activities GHQ, to include 10 Sep 41. 320.2/1(S). (2) The officers reporting were Brig Gen H. J. Malony, Lt Col G. De L. Carrington, Lt Col George P. Hays, Lt Col George P. Hays, Lt Col E. N. Harmon, Maj L. L. Lemnitzer, Maj A. M. Gruenther. Memo (S) of ACofS G-1 GHQ for the Sec GS GHQ, 28 Aug 41, sub: Resume of the Orgn and Opns of GHQ. 320.2/1 (S). (3) On 18 June General Malony was made DCofS, Col Carrington G-1, Col Clark G-3, Col Barmon G-4. GHQ SO 66, 18 Jun 41. 320.2/3/9. Shortly afterward Col Paul McD. Robinett, formerly Secretary of the War Department General Staff, became G-2.

68. For section chiefs of the staff as reorganized after 3 July 1941, see appendix.

69. “4.31 A.M. (Dec 8)… This headquarters is open on a 24-hour basis.” Diary (S), 8 Dec 41. The whole effort to expand the staff to authorized strength can be followed by examining 320.2/3, Binders 1 and 2.

70. WD ltr AG 320.2 (6-28-41) MR-M-C, 8 Jul 41, sub: Activation of Hq Co GHQ and Sp Trs GHQ. 320.2/3/16.

71. GHQ Monthly Rosters. 330.3 (Str Returns).

72. See the chart on page 11. Found in 320.2/3/43.

73. General Malony’s memo on the subject read: “Consequently there is no solidity in the organization. There are no promotional prospects for staff heads. G-3 (Operations) is the worst sufferer.” Par 2 b, memo of Gen Malony, DCofS GHQ for CofS GHQ, 5 Dec 41, sub: GHQ-Orgn. 320.2/3/108.

74. GHQ GO 2, 8 Dec 41, sub: Change in Orgn of GHQ USA. 320.2/3/119. The creation of G-5 Sec was authorized 2 Feb. 1st ind TACO, 2 Feb 42, to CG FF AWC on GHQ memo for ACofS G-1 WD, 11 Dec 41, sub: Expansion of GHQ. 320.2/3/140. The division of duties between G-3 and G-5 is defined in memo for all Staff Secs GHQ, 31 Jan 42, sub: Staff Functions G-3, G-5, with background recommendations from G-3, G-5, and Gen McNair. 320.2/3/153.

75. GHQ off memo, 18 Dec 41, sub: Operating Procedure with Respect to the Increased Functions and Responsibilities of GHQ. 312.11/15. See also par 2, WD ltr (R) (6-19-41) MC-E-M, 3 Jul 41, sub: Enlargement of Functions of GHQ. 320.2/3/34.

76. “Gen. Marshall wants GHQ to be an agency for quick action.” Min (S) Staff Conferences, GHQ, 17 Oct 41. 337 (S).

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