1864 EVENT
Feb  John C. Breckinridge is appointed to command C.S. Department of Western Virginia.
Mar U. S. Grant develops strategic scheme to exert pressure and mass at all points.
10 Mar Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel is appointed to command U.S. Department of West Virginia.
30 Apr Federals under Sigel advance south from Martinsburg.
5 May Capt. John H. McNeil conducts raid on B & 0 shops at Piedmont and Bloomington.
6 May Col. Jacob Higgins and 500 men from 22d Pennsylvania and 15th New York Cavalries leave Winchester for Moorefield.
9 May Sigel departs Winchester.
9 May Crook defeats Jenkins at Battle of Cloyd's Mountain.
*9 May Higgins' cavalry column is ambushed by Imboden (18th and 23d Virginia Cavalries) at Lost River Gap near Moorefield, is chased to Romney and eventually Springfield, West Virginia. (Sixty-mile rout ends night of 10 May.)
10 May VMI cadets are alerted late at night.
Sigel camps north of Cedar Creek.
11 May VMI cadets (264, including 7 cadre) begin march north, 0700 reach Midway, 18 miles.
11 May Echols' and Wharton's brigades concentrate at Staunton.
11 May Sigel continues south 0700, reaches Woodstock 1600; there Confederate telegram messages are captured and Sigel learns of Breckinridge's presence.
12 May Cadets arrive at Staunton.
12 May Imboden sets up line north of New Market.
*13 May Col. William Boyd with 200 men from 1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry arrives at New Market Gap; crosses Smith Creek at 1700. Is attacked and dispersed by Imboden (18th and 23d Virginia Cavalries).
13 May 1600: Breckinridge leaves Staunton.
14 May 0500: Breckinridge leaves Harrisonburg (18 miles from Staunton).
Breckinridge reaches Lacey's Springs, 15 miles.
  Col. Augustus Moor leaves Woodstock with 1st West Virginia, 34th Massachusetts, 123d Ohio Infantries, Snow's Maryland plus one-half of Ewing's G 1st West Virginia Batteries and cavalry under Col. John E. Wynkoop, Wynkoop's 20th Pennsylvania (170 men), 15th New York (130 men), 1st New York (Lincoln), 1st New York (Veteran), 21st New York Cavalry (600 men) (c. 2,350 men of all arms).
Moor becomes engaged at Mt. Jackson.
He pushes Imboden through New Market, sets up on New Market Valley.
  Sigel sends 18th Connecticut to Edinburg.
Col. G. S. Smith defends with artillery from Shirley's Hill; he had a thin line from there to the Smith Creek Bridge.
  Federal position is on Bushong's Hill south to New Market Valley, east to Smith's Creek.
15 May 0100: Breckinridge leaves Lacey's Springs for New Market, 7 miles.
VMI cadets move out from bivouac at Mt. Tabor Church, Lacey's Springs.
Col. Moor has all his units on line.
These two engagements eliminated one-third of Sigel's cavalry strength.
  Confederates arrive at point about 4 miles south.
Col. Moor learns of the presence of Breckinridge's troops and sends 34th Massachusetts back to Bushong's, then recalls.
Artillery duel, Imboden's cavalry makes feints to draw out Moor.
Breckinridge decides to attack.
Confederates deploy on Shirley's Hill and move about to give impression of greater numbers.
c. 1100:
18th Connecticut, less three companies, arrives from Edinburg (15 miles) and immediately deploys.
  (The first Federal line was on the brow of Manor's Hill.)
c. 1100:
Confederates begin attack preceded by 30th Virginia as skirmishers.
c. 1140:
Confederate artillery deploys from Shirley's Hill to just south of New Market on both sides of the Pike. Jackson's Battery remains with infantry.
c. 1200:
Attack begins through ankle-deep mud.
  26th Virginia is brought on line on extreme west to go down Indian Hollow. There was little Federal resistance except from the 18th Connecticut opposite the 51st Virginia.
Sigel arrives on the battlefield.
New Market is completely cleared of Federals; one-half hour cannonade ensues.
c. 1300:
Imboden with 18th and 23d Virginia Cavalries and four guns crosses Smith's Creek to flank Stahel.
c. 1345:
Confederates renew attack in driving rainstorm-mud and knee-high grain.
  Confederate artillery sets up on north edge of town.
c. 1415:
Sigel's main line is set up.
  (Sullivan leaves Woodstock 0500, arrives at Mt. Jackson c. 1030 with 28th Ohio (-), 116th Ohio, and DuPont's Battery.)
c. 1420:
54th Pennsylvania comes into line after a forced march from bivouac at Mt. Jackson; it had left Woodstock that morning. It followed the 12th West Virginia onto the battlefield.
Dupont's Battery arrives south of Rude's Hill.
Part of 51st Virginia and 30th Virginia north of Bushong's north fence are pounded by Federal artillery and begin to waver and pull back to fence; Woodson's men engage in sharpshooting Kleiser's.
Confederate line is stalled everywhere.
  Breckinridge directs commitment of VMI cadets.
  The cadets move through the Bushong property to the north fence. The 26th Virginia fills in rest of gap.
Federal cavalry charges down the Pike, into artillery with 22d Virginia on west and 23d Virginia on east flanks, are easily repulsed amid violent thunder and lightning. 12th West Virginia moves up behind guns and 34th Massachusetts.
  One company of the 26th Virginia approaches Federal batteries on the river bluff.
Sigel orders charge by infantry on west (34th Massachusetts, 1st West Virginia, 54th Pennsylvania).
  1st West Virginia moves 100 yards, is halted by Confederate fire and falls back. This exposes the 54th Pennsylvania to encirclement in its charge, forcing its withdrawal.
  34th Massachusetts on other side of 1st West Virginia advances even farther, loses 200 men, and retires.
Confederate west line charges. 34th Massachusetts continues firing to give artillery time to withdraw (54th Pennsylvania continues resistance [254 casualties out of 566], the highest of any unit engaged.)
  Snow's Battery withdraws first with all guns.
  Carlin is forced to abandon three pieces during withdrawal.
Breckinridge orders the cadets out of pursuit. "Well done Virginians, well done men."
Federal line forms on Rude's Hill, 116th and 28th Ohio anchor line west from Cedar Grove Dunker church. DuPont delays by platoon.
Confederates pause for an hour to reorganize and resupply.
  Artillery duel continues, including VMI section.
c. 1730:
Federals continue withdrawal.
c. 1900:
DuPont burns Shenandoah Bridge.
Federals retire from Mt. Jackson to Cedar Creek.
16 May Sigel retreats to Cedar Creek.
17 May Breckinridge's force is entrained for Lee's army.
19 May Sigel is relieved and given local command at Harpers Ferry.
21 May David Hunter takes command of Federals at Cedar Creek.
26 May Hunter begins advance south.
5 Jun Hunter defeats W. E. Jones at Battle of Piedmont.
17 Jun Early's Corps begins to arrive in Lynchburg; Breckinridge places himself under Early's command.
18 Jun Hunter is defeated at Battle of Lynchburg.
27 Jun Early reorganizes and moves down Valley.
3-4 Jul  Early's forces bypass Harpers Ferry garrison, cross Potomac at Shepherdstown.
8 Jul Early reaches Frederick, Maryland; sends Johnson's Cavalry Brigade to raid Baltimore and Point Pleasant Prison.
9 Jul Early defeats Lew Wallace at Battle of Monocacy.
11 Jul  Early reaches Silver Spring, Maryland; VI Corps arrives and occupies Washington defenses; 1st Div., XIX Corps, en route to Petersburg from New Orleans, is diverted from there to District of Columbia.
12 Jul Skirmishing at Ft. Stevens, Washington, D.C.; Early makes a night withdrawal.
14 Jul Early crosses Potomac at Whites Ferry, near Leesburg, Virginia.
18 Jul General Horatio Wright establishes contact with Early at Snicker's Gap; is joined by Crook of Hunter's command. Battle of Cool Spring.
20 Jul Federal cavalry under W. W. Averell defeats Ramseur at Stephenson's Depot.
22 Jul Federals enter Winchester.
22-23 Jul Early defeats Crook at Second Battle of Kernstown; advances and wrecks Martinsburg rail yards; then chases Crook to Williamsport, Maryland, by 26 July.
29 Jul VI Corps returns to Harpers Ferry after learning of Kernstown.
30 Jul Confederate cavalry (John McCausland and Bradley T Johnson) burns Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Early's northern thrust causes almost as great a stir as his District of Columbia raid. Grant decides to defeat him and/or make the Valley unusable to him.
5 Aug Grant visits Hunter at Monocacy. Federals occupy Halltown positions south of Harpers Ferry Early sends troops across Potomac at Williamsport and at Shepherdstown, gathering a harvest (diversion to help his cavalry in Pennsylvania).
7 Aug Federal Middle Military Division is created under Philip Sheridan to coordinate against Early. [Included VI Corps (Wright), VIII Corps (Crook), XIX Corps (Emory), and Cavalry Corps (Torbert).] Month of maneuvering follows. McCausland and Johnson are routed at Moorefield, West Virginia, by Averell.
3 Sep Meeting engagement at Berryville between Crook and Kershaw. Kershaw's recall is deferred.
4-15 Sep Skirmishes north and east of Winchester.
14 Sep Kershaw's division departs for Lee's army.
19 Sep Sheridan defeats Early at Third Battle of Winchester or Opequon; Early retreats to Fisher's Hill.
20 Sep Sheridan follows to Strasburg, Virginia. Pickets on opposite sides of the villages.
21 Sep Breckinridge is ordered back to Department of West Virginia.
22 Sep Early is defeated at Battle of Fisher's Hill and is pursued eventually to Harrisonburg; Sheridan begins "burning" as far south as Staunton, Virginia. Federal cavalry is reorganized, with Merritt and Custer given divisions. Kershaw and Rosser, in the vicinity of Culpeper, are ordered back to support Early.
23 Sep VI and XIX Corps advance from Woodstock, VIII Corps polices battlefield. Early pulls back from Narrow Passage to Mt. Jackson, then is pushed back to Rude's Hill by Federal cavalry.
24 Sep VI and XIX Corps, in Mt. Jackson, are joined by VIII Corps. Battle line presses Early south. Brief skirmish occurs in New Market.
25 Sep Early continues south to Port Republic, is joined by Kershaw's Division on 27 September. Sheridan arrives at Harrisonburg.
28 Sep Early moves to Rockfish Gap; retreat ends.
1 Oct Early takes up position at Mt. Sidney, midway between Staunton and Harrisonburg. Feeling it logistically impossible to proceed farther, Sheridan decides to pull north.
5 Oct Grant initially agrees to withdrawal and Sheridan burns his way north, but Grant reconsiders the move.
6 Oct Sheridan departs Harrisonburg and camps at Rude's Hill that evening.
7 Oct Early's main force reaches New Market.
8 Oct Sheridan arrives at Strasburg. Rosser presses Federal cavalry hard; Merritt holds at Tom's Brook; Sheridan commands Torbert to turn and fight, "either whip the enemy or get whipped yourself."
9 Oct Battle of Tom's Brook. Sheridan watches from Round Hill. The fight lasts two hours, Lomax is pursued to Mt. Jackson, Rosser to Columbia Furnace.
10 Oct Sheridan camps north of Cedar U Creek; turns down a plan to open Manassas Gap Railroad.
13 Oct Early closes forward to Fisher's Hill; he sends a force to Hupp's Hill and engages Thoburn's Division with artillery (Stickley's Farm). Wells' and Harris' Brigades deploy across Cedar Creek; Kershaw's Division deploys off Hupp's Hill. Harris' Brigade is forced back and Wells is enfiladed by James Connor's Brigade. Meanwhile, Confederate cavalry on the Back Road attacks Custer.
19 Oct Sheridan defeats Early at Battle of Cedar Creek.
20 Oct Early retires to New Market. Stays there three weeks, cavalry at Edinburg, reinforcements from south West Virginia.
26 Oct Federal cavalry probe is repulsed at Milford in Fort Valley.
9 Nov Sheridan pulls back to Kernstown.
10 Nov Early moves to Woodstock.
11 Nov Skirmish takes place at Middletown.
12 Nov In cavalry skirmish at Cedarville, Confederates are defeated.
22 Nov In skirmish at Rude's Hill, Federals are repulsed.
6-16 Dec Early's reduced forces go into winter camps in the vicinity of Staunton and Waynesboro; Gordon's Corps is recalled to Richmond.
1865 EVENT
27 Feb Sheridan proceeds south from Winchester.
2 Mar Remnants of Early's force are annihilated at Waynesboro by Custer. Sheridan goes on to join Grant.



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