John Gibbon(1827-1896) was commissioned in the Artillery. He saw service in the Seminole and Mexican Wars and taught tactics at West Point. He first served as McDowell's chief of artillery and was promoted to brigadier general in May 1862, commanding the "Black Hat" or "Iron" Brigade in King's Division, McDowell's Corps, Army of Virginia. He fought with this brigade throughout the Second Manassas and Antietam Campaigns. He was wounded at Fredericksburg while commanding a division but returned to duty in time to command his division and later its corps (Hancock's) at Gettysburg. There he was wounded again. He rejoined his division to fight with it throughout Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign. Gibbon was given command of a corps in January 1865.
Cuvier Grover(1828-1885), an Infantry officer with extensive frontier experience, evaded Confederates with his command from Fort Union, New Mexico, in 1861. Appointed brigadier general in 1862, he led a brigade on the Peninsula and at Second Manassas. He was transferred in December 1862 to the XIX Corps in Louisiana to command a division there and later in the Shenandoah. He was wounded at Cedar Creek and brevetted for gallantry there.
Philip Kearny(1815-1862) served as aide to the commanding general of the Army between 1840 and 1846, after which he commanded a cavalry company in the campaign against Mexico City. He resigned in 1851, eventually moving to France where in 1859 he earned his second Legion of Honor. Kearny returned to the United States in 1861 to be commissioned brigadier general of volunteers. He first led the Jersey Brigade; then in 1862 was assigned command of the 3d Division in Heintzelman's III Corps, Army of the Potomac. Promoted to major general on 4 July 1862, he had seen action on the Peninsula before fighting at Second Manassas. Kearny was killed at Chantilly, Virginia, on 1 September 1862.
Irvin McDowell(1818-1885) was brevetted for gallantry at Buena Vista during the Mexican War When the Civil War broke out, he was made brigadier general in May 1861 and given command of the troops around Washington. He was defeated at Manassas in 1861. Promoted in March 1862, he commanded a corps around Fredericksburg until it was merged as part of Pope's Army of Virginia. The defeat at Second Manassas destroyed the last vestiges of his reputation as a field leader
John Pope(1822-1892) was commissioned in the Topographical Engineers. Pope received two brevets for gallantry in the Mexican War and was promoted to brigadier general in June 1861, assigned to Missouri. He commanded a district, then a division, and finally the small Army of the Mississippi. He achieved prominent success at Madrid and Island No. 10, helping to open the Mississippi River Pope was promoted to major general in 1862 and participated in the Corinth Campaign until given command of the newly created Army of Virginia in June 1862. After the defeat at Second Manassas, Pope was relieved and assigned to the Department of the Northwest.
George Sykes(1822-1880) was commissioned in the Infantry. Sykes served in the Seminole Wars, on the frontier, and in the Mexican War, where he earned a brevet for gallantry. He began the Civil War as major, 14th Infantry. Sykes commanded the 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry, at First Manassas and a brigade of regulars upon promotion in September 1861, then a division in Porter's Corps. His unit fought at Second Manassas and was lightly engaged at Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. Sykes had been a major general since November 1862 and succeeded to corps command when Meade was promoted to command of the Army of the Potomac. His corps saved the day at Gettysburg when the Union left threatened to collapse.
Gouverneur K. Warren(1830-1882), a Topographical Engineer, was a lieutenant colonel of the 5th New York in May 1861 and fought with it at Big Bethel, Virginia. He assumed command of the regiment as colonel in August. He led it at t e Siege of Yorktown, then in May 1862 assumed command of the brigade to which it was assigned. He fought in all the Peninsula battles and suffered a wound at Gaines Mill. His brigade was sacrificed at Second Manassas to buy time to prevent a Federal rout. Warren was promoted to brigadier general in September 1862 and continued to lead his brigade at Antietam and Fredericksburg. He was made chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac in February 1863, a major general in May 1863.
Ambrose P. Hill(1825-1865) was commissioned in the Artillery; Hill saw service in the Seminole Wars and the Mexican War He resigned his commission and entered Confederate service as colonel, 13th Virginia Infantry, on 1 March 1861. He served with his regiment at First Manassas and was promoted to brigadier general in February 1862. His dynamic brigade leadership in the defense of Williamsburg and on the Peninsula led to his promotion to major general and command of the Light Division on 26 May 1862. He and his unit performed well at Cedar Mountain, Second Manassas, and Antietam. He briefly replaced the fallen Jackson at Chancellorsville until wounded. Hill was promoted to lieutenant general on 23 May 1863 and given command of a newly created corps.
John B. Hood(1831-1879) was commissioned into the Infantry. He resigned on 17 April 1861 and entered Confederate service as a lieutenant of cavalry. He led a cavalry force on the Peninsula before promotion on 6 March 1862 to brigadier general and command of the Texas Brigade. He led this force during the Seven Days Battles, at Second Manassas, and at Antietam. Hood was promoted to major general and command of a division in October 1862. He saw action at Fredericksburg and lost an arm at Gettysburg. Upon recovery, Hood commanded a reinforced corps at Chickamauga in September 1863, where he lost a leg. He returned to corps command and was promoted to lieutenant general in February 1864.
Thomas J. ("Stonewall") Jackson(1824-1863) became a Confederate major in 1861. Jackson was promoted to brigadier general on 18 June 1861 and transferred to the brigade that was to share his nickname. At First Manassas his force served as the rallying point for the Confederates. Jackson was promoted to major general on 7 October 1861 and assigned to command the Valley District, where he performed brilliantly. Jackson joined Lee at Richmond in 1862 where he did not perform as successfully. His greatest moments were when he enjoyed independence, as during the flank march around Pope at Second Manassas in August 1862 and his capture of Harpers Ferry and rush to Sharpsburg during the Antietam Campaign in September. Jackson was promoted to lieutenant general on 10 October 1862.
David R. Jones(1825-1863) resigned his commission 15 February 1861 an entered Confederate service as a major and chief of staff to P. G. T Beauregard at the siege of Fort Sumter He was promoted to brigadier general on 17 June 1861 in time to command a brigade at First Manassas. On 10 March 1862 he was promoted to major general and led a division with solid competence throughout the Peninsula Campaign. His division secured Thoroughfare Gap 28 August 1862 and later proved a key element in the decisive assault on the second day of Second Manassas. The next month Jones again distinguished himself at South Mountain and at Antietam.
Robert E. Lee(1807-1870) was in the Corps of Engineers and won three gallantry brevets in the Mexican War. He was superintendent of West Point 1852-1855. Lee entered Confederate service 20 April 1861. Adviser to President Jefferson Davis, commander of the Army of Northern Virginia 1 June 1862 to the end of the war, "Lee ranks among the ablest field commanders in American History. In battle he was imperturbable. He enjoyed a rare ability to command respect and affection from his troops, was a master in the art of field fortifications, and possessed an uncanny understanding of his opponents. " (Freeman) Lee was president of Washington College (later Washington and Lee) in Lexington, Virginia, after the war until his death.
James Longstreet(1821-1904) was serving as a paymaster at the time he resigned his commission and entered Confederate service 1 June 1861 as a brigadier general. He commanded a brigade at First Manassas, earning promotion and division command in October 1861. He led his unit with distinction during the Peninsula battles. His performance led General Lee to place him in command of one of the wings of his army during the Pope campaign and at Antietam. Longstreet fought at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Chickamauga. Wounded at the Wilderness in May 1864, Longstreet returned to duty in October, when he served in the defense of Richmond and Petersburg until the end of the war.