In obedience to the resolution of the House of Representatives, May 11, 1820, Mr. Calhoun, then Secretary of War, submitted to the House on the 12th of the following December a plan for the reorganization and reduction of the Army. Since the reorganization of the artillery, in 1814, this arm of the Service had consisted of a regiment of light artillery and the corps of artillery.
The views of Mr. Calhoun, in so far as they related to the artillery, were adopted by Congress; and in accordance with the act of March 2, 1821, the first four regiments now in service were organized from the regiment of light artillery, the corps of artillery, and the ordnance. Each regiment was to consist of one colonel, one lieutenant-colonel, one major, one adjutant, one supernumerary captain to perform ordnance duty, one sergeant-major, one quartermaster-sergeant, and nine companies; and each company was to consist of one captain, two first lieutenants, two second lieutenants, and fifty-five enlisted men. One company was to be equipped as light artillery; and A company was designated as the light company for many years, but continued on foot to the contrary notwithstanding. The general order of May 17, 1821, from the adjutant and inspector-general's office contains the names of the officers of the 4th Artillery, their assignment to companies, and their stations.
John R. Fenwick, lieutenant-colonel of the regiment of light artillery, was made colonel of the "Fourth," with headquarters at Pensacola; and the companies were assigned to the stations on the Florida and Gulf coasts, extending from Saint Augustine to New Orleans. The following table indicates the organizations from which the companies of the regiment were taken:
| Companies and Captains Fourth U. S. Artillery.
|| Old Organization.
|| Captains of old Organizations.
Co. K, Light Artillery.
Co. C, 3d B., S. D.*
Co. D, 4th B., S. D. (and part of L).
Co. G, 3d B., S. D.
Co. M, 1st B., S. D.
Co. A, 3d B., S. D.
Co. E, Light Artillery.
Co. I, 1st B., S. D. (and part of E).
Co. M, 4th B., S. D.
- *B., S. D. in the table stands for " Battalion, Southern Division."
- † Organized by Alexander Hamilton in 1776.
It will be seen from this table that the companies were then serving in the South with the exception of A and G; which were sent South from Boston. Some of the lieutenants were afterwards exchanged to other regiments, so that the student of the personnel of the Fourth Artillery will have to consult the War Department order of August 16, 1821.
Under the order of the War Department, dated April 15, 1824, establishing the Artillery Corps of Instruction at Fortress Monroe, Colonel Fenwick was ordered to that post in command of the new school, with Lieutenant-Colonel Eustis of the 4th Artillery as the second in command. Companies C, D and I were selected from the regiment as its quota to the Corps of Instruction.
In April, 1826, regimental headquarters returned to the South, Lieutenant-Colonel Eustis being left in command at Fortress Monroe. Two of the companies of the regiment were changed at the same time. Soon after its organization the regiment suffered severely from the ravages of yellow fever, and the records for several years indicate great mortality. The southern stations were regarded as unhealthy, and in 1827 General Jacob Brown ordered a general transfer of regiments "as the commencement of a system promising to the artillery generally the advantage of a biennial exchange, and the garrisons of the sickly stations in particular (on the southern frontier) the hope of periodical relief."
The headquarters of the regiment were ordered to Fort Columbus, with the companies distributed to stations at Forts McHenry, Delaware, Columbus, Monroe, and at West Point. The total expense for moving all the regiments was $15,680, an outlay that must have astonished Congress, as the House called for the reasons for such an expenditure. In his letter of reply General Brown says: * * * "It will be only necessary to state the fact that one of our regiments, lately relieved from the Gulf Frontier, has constantly furnished garrisons for the dreary and sickly posts in that quarter since the organization of the Army in 1821. The number of deaths among the officers of that regiment within this period, six years, has amounted to sixteen, being four times greater than the average number in all the other regiments of artillery."
He should have added that the regiment lost two hundred and twenty enlisted men by death during that tour.
During the next few years there were changes of station between companies of the regiment, and at the opening of the year 1829, regimental headquarters were transferred to Philadelphia.
This was the beginning of the practice of separating the headquarters from the companies, and was continued, at times, for many years. The Black Hawk War, in 1832, necessitating the concentration of more troops in the West, in June of that year Brevet-Major Payne (captain of E company) was ordered to proceed to Chicago with E, F and H companies of the regiment; and at the same time five companies from Fortress Monroe were ordered West. This battalion included C and G companies of the regiment, and was under the command of Major Crane, of the 4th Artillery. Lieut.-Colonel Eustis, 4th Artillery, commanding Fortress Monroe, was ordered to the frontier to take command of all the artillery.
These troops formed part of Scott's forces; and instead of arriving in time to fight the Indians, they were, while en route, assailed by a more dreadful foe; for on the passage up the lakes the cholera broke out among them.
After terrible sufferings the depleted battalions arrived at Chicago in August, and finally reached Rock River; but too late for active hostilities.
The artillery troops returned to their stations that fall, excepting companies E and H, which remained at Fort Gratiot until May, 1834, when E took station at Fort Trumbull and H at Fort Hamilton.
The political aspect of affairs in South Carolina demanded the attention of the Government, and some troops were sent to that section; companies B, C and G taking station at Fort Moultrie for a few months in 1832-33.
Regimental bands had been merely existing; but in 1832 the regiments of artillery were given "a sergeant to act as master of the band, and one corporal or private in addition to the ten men" allowed to act as musicians.
In the winter of 1833-34, companies A, B and C were part of the forces under Colonel Twiggs, in Alabama. The necessity for troops having passed, they returned to Fortress Monroe in March. Regimental headquarters moved temporarily to Fort Hamilton, but in November, 1835, were established at Fort McHenry. The annual return of the regiment for that year contains the following pertinent remark: "It is the opinion of the colonel that were the regiment concentrated under the command of its own officers, its discipline as well as its instruction might be improved and the number of desertions might be diminished, and a higher spirit of pride and emulation created."
The Seminole War in Florida, began in the fall of 1835, and that winter and spring the Creek Indians, in Georgia and Alabama, also gave trouble; so that in May, 1836, seven companies of the regiment were ordered to Fort Mitchell, Alabama.
Companies B, D, E, F, G, H and I, reached Fort Mitchell in June, and General Fenwick was ordered to command all the troops concentrated there; but being in poor health he soon after returned to Fort McHenry. During that summer the companies were constantly engaged in marching through the swamps on service against the Indians: and when no longer required in the Creek Country, were transferred to Florida. Companies A and C had been sent to Florida the preceding July, so that the entire regiment was concentrated in the Seminole Country that fall.
Company C, under Lieutenant Pickell, was, August 21, 1836, in the fight at Fort Drane, where it had four men severely wounded. The same company, and part of A, were with Governor Call, October 13, 1836, when he was opposed by the Indians in attempting to cross the Withlachoochee River, and Companies A, C, D, E, F, G and H, were with his second expedition and participated in the battle of Wahoo Swamp, November 21, 1836, where one sergeant of H Company was killed. General Jesup relieved Governor Call and opened his campaign in January, 1837, with Companies B, C, D, E, F, G, H and I, forming part of his command. E Company, under Lieutenant Brent, was engaged at A-ha-pop-ka Lake, January 23d, and
again at Hatchee-Lustee, four days later, as were other companies of Henderson's Brigade, Company I losing one man killed.
Lieutenant-Colonel Fanning and Lieutenant Thomas were engaged in the defense of Fort Mellen, February 8, 1837.
The war seemed over in the spring and the regiment was ordered to New York harbor, excepting D and I Companies, which were to take station at Fort Mifflin. But the flight of the Indians under Osceola, in June, renewed hostilities, and many months elapsed before the regiment left Florida. That summer, B Company was mounted and did duty as light artillery during active operations. , A, B, D and H Companies were in Taylor's fight at Lake Okecho-bee, in December, 1837, when the Indians were routed, and B, D and H Companies were in the fight at Locha-hat-chee, January 24, 1838.
Companies D and G were part of Bankhead's forces when he made an expedition into the "Everglades," in March, and fought so successfully the band of Arpieka. Company I under Lieutenant Soley, was engaged at Tuscawilla Pond, April 29, 1838, losing one private killed. At the close of the campaign, the regiment was ordered to the Cherokee Country, western North Carolina, and after assisting in the removal of the Cherokee Indians came north to Fort Columbus, New York. Its period of rest was short, for in September it was ordered back to Florida for service. The act of July 5, 1838, added K Company to the regiment. It was organized at Governor's Island, July 24th, and went to Florida in October. The same act cut off one second lieutenant from each company, but more than compensated therefor by the addition of sixteen privates.
The regiment remained in Florida until April, 1839, and was constantly engaged in scouting and in building roads and forts. The only action we find reported was the successful defense of Fort Maitland, in May, 1839, by a detachment of ten men under the command of Lance Sergeant Thomas Baldwin, a corporal of D Company.
May 27, 1839, the entire regiment was at Fort Columbus, and was sent from there to the Grand Camp of Instruction held at Trenton that summer, at which B Company was mounted as a light battery September 27th, receiving its horses from the Dragoons. On the breaking up of the encampment, the regiment was ordered to the Lake Frontier and the headquarters and seven companies took station at Detroit, A and K at Fort Gratiot, and G, at Cleveland, Ohio. H Company was subsequently sent to Fort Mackinac. During the summer of 1840, Companies C, F and I, under Captain Galt, and a detachment of Light Company B, acting as cavalry, under Lieutenant Soley, were engaged in guarding the emigrants passing through the Indian Country, and collecting the Pottawattomie Indians for emigration. The companies exchanged stations at different times, and in August, 1841, regimental headquarters were removed to Buffalo, N. Y., with companies as far east as Madison Barracks. March 19, 1842, General Fenwick, who had been in bad health for a long time, died at Marseilles, France, and John De B. Walbach, then seventy-eight years of age, became colonel of the regiment. In May, the regiment was ordered from the northern frontier to the seaboard. Headquarters and all the companies, excepting B, arrived at
Fort Columbus in June and July, only to be again transferred, for the order had already been issued for headquarters and six companies to take station at Fortress Monroe, with two companies at Fort Washington, one at Fort McHenry, and one at Fort Severn. Some change in the order must have been made, for eight companies went to Fortress Monroe and none to Fort Washington.
The "light companies" of the Third and Fourth Artillery regiments were to garrison Fort McHenry. The Act of August 23, 1842, reduced the strength of each company by seventeen men, so that in order to keep the light batteries efficient they were reduced to four guns; and under orders 17, of 1844, two companies of each regiment were to be associated together for instruction in light artillery. Light Company B was then at Carlisle, Penn., and Company K was sent there to join it in November, and they remained together until the following September.
Space will not permit us to give more than a brief sketch of what the regiment did in the Mexican War. In the fall of 1845 Lieutenant-Colonel M. M. Payne, 4th Artillery, and companies D, G, E and I, of the regiment, were sent to join the "Army of Occupation" at Corpus Christi. G Company took from Fortress Monroe the matériel for a light battery, and the other companies were armed with flint-lock muskets; but expected to have the new percussion muskets sent to them in Texas. Lieutenant-Colonel Payne was appointed inspector-general of the army of occupation, G Company was relieved of the field guns, and all four companies were assigned to Child's artillery battalion. In the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, May 8th and 9th, 1846, the companies above mentioned did their share of the work, Lieutenant-Colonel Payne being wounded and eight enlisted men killed and wounded. Major Gardner, with F and H companies, joined Taylor's army in July; and in September Light Company B arrived at San Antonio and joined Wool's forces. E Company was broken up in July, and A and K companies left Fortress Monroe in October for the seat of war.
During the year, A, D, F, G, H, I and K companies were armed with the percussion musket, "which have so far proved a very efficient weapon, far superior to the flint," says the report of the regimental commander for the year 1846. When Taylor moved from Camargo and from there on Monterey, D, G, H and I companies, with Harvey Brown acting major of the battalion, formed part of Child's battalion of the first brigade, second division, F company having been left at Fort Polk.
Early on the morning of September 21, 1846, the battalion of the 4th Artillery was engaged near Monterey, and at noon of that day G and H companies were selected as part of the command to storm the batteries on Federacion Hill. Early the next morning G and I companies were part of the storming party to carry the works that crowned the Independencia Hill (which was finally accomplished with the bayonet) and afterwards the Bishop's palace. Worth's columns of attack on the morning of the 23d contained the four companies of the 4th Artillery, and they bore off full honors in the fighting that ensued before the capitulation of the city, with a loss of twelve men killed and wounded. First Sergeant Hazzard of I
company was one of the nine soldiers mentioned in the official dispatches as having been highly distinguished. We now turn to Light Company B at the battle of Buena Vista, in February, 1847. It had, besides its four 6-pdr. guns and two 12-pdr. howitzers, two 4-pounder Mexican guns that had been added after its arrival at San Antonio, and its personnel was increased by volunteers from the 1st and 2d Illinois regiments. In this battle, B company greatly distinguished itself; Captain Washington, with part of the battery, protecting the right flank of the army, while Lieutenant O'Brien, with the remaining guns, covered himself with glory on the plain. On the 22d O'Brien was so hard pressed that, for lack of horses and cannoneers, he was forced to abandon one of the 4-pounders; and the following day, though wounded himself, and all his cannoneers excepting a few, disabled or killed, this gallant officer fought his guns à l'outrance, winning the highest praise from his foe,* who was held in check by those guns, that were "lost without dishonor," until the batteries of Sherman and Bragg came up, and Bragg "saved the day." B battery may well feel proud of its work at Buena Vista, for it is unexcelled. It lost two officers and twenty-four men in killed and wounded.
When General Scott began his campaign that culminated in the capture of the City of Mexico, regimental headquarters, Major J. L. Gardner, commanding, with companies A, D, F, G and H belonged to Twigg's division of his army. Company K was left in garrison at Carmago and I at Fort Polk. The Fourth Artillery participated in the various duties of artillery and infantry in the trenches and on picket at the siege of Vera Cruz. Then moving with Riley's brigade of the division it was engaged at Cerro Gordo April 17th and 18th, 1847, entered Jalapa two days later, add was there joined by E company the following week. In May they all went to Puebla and were there joined by C company. This company left Vera Cruz as light artillery, but was immediately dismounted on reaching Perote, and joined the battalion of the regiment. G company was designated in general orders of July 16th, as the additional light battery of the regiment, but was not mounted until after the battle of Contreras.
In the battle of Contreras, August 19th and 20th, Riley's brigade, with the Fourth Artillery leading, pushed into the village of San Geronimo on the 19th, and when the next morning the storming columns were formed to attack Valencia's troops at Contreras, the column on the right consisted of the Fourth Artillery and part of the Second Infantry, the Fourth Artillery being in front in double column. As the victorious troops were pushing forward, the color sergeant of the regiment (Sergeant Goodwin) was killed, and gallant Lieut. Calvin Benjamin, seizing the colors of the Fourth Artillery, bore them the first into the works. G was the first company to enter, and "recovered with glory" the very guns that O'Brien had fought and lost at Buena Vista.
After the battle the regiment collected around the guns with the greatest feeling of pride and exultation, and received the hearty congratulations of its companions in arms. General Scott, arriving, joined in the cheers, congratulated the regiment on having recaptured the guns that "were lost
- * See letter of General Ferres to Don P. Barrasmonda.
by it on the field of Buena Vista without dishonor and recovered with glory," and also promised that, with an appropriate inscription to its honor, they should be given to the regiment in perpetual token of its achievement. Alas! they now rest in the niches of the Administration Building at the Military Academy. "Remember this, and show yourselves men: bring it again to mind, 0 ye transgressors."
These guns were at once given to Drum, and they formed part of the armament of his company, which was regularly mounted that day. The regiment lost in the battle one officer and thirty-seven men killed and wounded.
At Molino del Rey, September 8th, Battery G did tremendous work. The other companies of the regiment were with the threatening force in front of the south side of the city, and on the morning of September 12th were in the demonstration against the Garita de Candelaria; and on the afternoon of the following day were detached for the purpose of - making a diversion on the Piedad Causeway. Battery G was engaged at the storming of Chapultepec, September 12th; and when volunteers were called for that afternoon to storm the heights the Fourth Artillery soon made up its quota (consisting of Lieuts. D. H. Hill and G. A. DeRussy and twenty-seven men from C, E, F and H companies), which formed part of Casey's storming party the following day, while Battery G worked hard at covering the movement by its fire. After that G Battery fought along the Belen Causeway up to the very gate of the city, losing so many men that additional cannoneers were twice furnished by the South Carolina Regiment. Capt. Simon H. Drum, Lieut. Calvin Benjamin and four men killed, and Lieut. FitzJohn Porter and twenty men wounded, attest the hot position of the battery in that fight; and General Quitman truly says in his report: "The losses sustained by Captain Drum's heroic little band of artillerists from the Fourth Artillery evince their exposure during the day. I do them, officers and men, but justice when I add that no encomium upon their conduct and skill would be misplaced."
The storming party of the regiment at Chapultepec had not gotten off without loss, six men having been wounded. The following day the regiment entered the city. On the very night the gates of the City of Mexico were opened the siege of Puebla (where we left A Company) began, and continued for thirty-two days, A Company being actively engaged at various times during the siege.
The Act of February 11, 1847, gave the regiment another major and a regimental quartermaster; while that of March 3d added L and M Companies. M Company was organized at Fortress Monroe, July 28th, and L Company at Fort Columbus, N. Y. H., November 12, 1847. Both of these companies Joined the regiment in Mexico the following December.
In the war with Mexico the regiment lost two officers killed and four wounded, and one hundred and twenty-four enlisted men killed and wounded.
When the regiment left Mexico for Fortress Monroe, in the summer of 1843, Light Battery B and Company K were ordered to remain on the line of the Rio Grande. G Company turned in its horses at New Orleans, but
took its guns to Fortress Monroe, where it was regularly dismounted in accordance with the Circular of September 30, 1848, A. G. O. Under the Act of July 14, 1848, the companies were reduced to forty-two enlisted men. In October the regiment was ordered to Florida, and headquarters were established at Fort Pickens, but moved to Pensacola in the following spring.
General Orders 22 of 1849 mounted an additional battery in each regiment. G, of the Fourth, having been designated for that duty, was sent from Fort Pickens to Jefferson Barracks; and after being there mounted proceeded to Leavenworth and engaged in field duty. It did not remain mounted very long, for in March, 1851, all the light batteries, were dismounted excepting Taylor's of the First, and Bragg's of the Third Artillery. While in Florida the companies were kept constantly at work moving through the country. The orders of October 8, 1850, sent the regiment North with headquarters at Fort Columbus, the companies being distributed to that post and Forts Lafayette, Hamilton, Mifflin and Washington. A, C, H and M Companies did not remain long at their new stations, for in June, 1851, they were sent to the coasts of North and South Carolina, only to be sent North again the following June, when headquarters were ordered to Fort Hamilton and a number of the companies to stations on the Lakes, as far as Fort Mackinac.
In 1853 some of the companies again changed station, C and I Companies going to Fort Independence, Massachusetts, while D and M, less fortunate, were sent to the Rio Grande. General Walbach established regimental headquarters at Baltimore, October 1, 1853, the regimental quartermaster and band remaining at Fort Hamilton. In May, 1855, G Battery was ordered to prepare for the field as a mountain-howitzer battery, and was so exercised on two occasions; but after firing a few rounds of ammunition at practice, the matériel was so much injured by the cracking of axles, etc., that the scheme had to be abandoned. The battery subsequently joined in the Sioux expedition, mounted on the battery horses and armed with long range rifles, and September 3, 1855, was engaged under Captain Howe in the battle of Blue Water against the Brulé Indians, being the only one of the four mounted companies that attacked the enemy on the heights on foot, losing two men in the fight but killing and capturing a number of the Indians. October 10th, it encountered a band of Indians and captured five, and subsequently took station at Fort Laramie.
The first part of the following year it operated as cavalry under Cooke, but in August it proceeded to Fort Leavenworth, resumed its guns and participated in the Kansas troubles. It was dismounted under G. O. 9 of 1856, which permitted only one battery to each regiment, and was sent to Fortress Monroe in December to form part of the artillery school.
In the fall of 1856, the regiment was again sent to Florida, the field and staff arriving at Fort Brooke, December 13th. All the companies, excepting B and G were that winter in Florida, having been drawn from Fort Mackinac on the north and Fort Brown on the south, "in order to carry on a vigorous campaign against the Seminoles, who have within the year given evidences of their hostility."
Light Battery B had already been sent from Texas to Jefferson Bar-
racks, and in March, 1857 joined at Fort Leavenworth to form part of Harney's Utah expedition. It there received the horses of G Company, recently dismounted, its own having been turned in at New Orleans.
The regiment was very actively engaged in hunting Indians while in Florida, and suffered great hardships in some of its expeditions through the swamps. The only casualty reported was the wounding of Pvt. King of M Company, in an engagement at Big Cypress, March 13, 1857.
General Walbach died June 10, 1857, at the advanced age of ninety-three years, and Francis S. Belton was made colonel of the regiment. The operations in Florida were prosecuted with good promise of a successful termination of the campaign, but the War Department concluding that its services were needed in Kansas, all the regiment was sent to that Territory in the fall of the year 1857, and soon after distributed through Utah and Nebraska. The field staff and band and Companies A and I took station at Fort Laramie, in August, 1858; Company C and Light Battery B went to Salt Lake, D and E to Platte Ridge, F, H and K to Fort Kearney, and L and M to Cheyenne Pass.
The following summer headquarters and companies E, H, I, L and M were sent to Fort Randall, Dakota, A, to Salt Lake, and F and K to Fort Ridgely, Minn. The privates of D Company were transferred to other companies of the regiment, and the officers and non-commissioned officers proceeded to Fortress Monroe, where the company was reorganized and took station. During the trouble at Harper's Ferry, in the fall of 1859, G and part of D Company were sent to that place and remained there several weeks in November. In 1860, the companies in Utah were kept busy protecting the parties of emigrants going West, and keeping open the mail routes. Light Battery B, operating as cavalry, marched during that summer 2000 miles over a barren and desert country, and though the Indians were continually hostile, the roads were kept open. The battery had a successful fight against 200 Indians at Eagan's Canyon, August, 11, 1860, losing three men wounded (one mortally). August 10th, Sergeant Bishop, commanding a small detachment of the battery, was attacked and forced to withdraw to Deep Creek, where in a fight with a party of Indians, September 6th, he was wounded. All the companies on the plains were kept busy scouting that summer. L Company was sent from Fort Randall to Fortress Monroe that year, exchanging with Company G.
In the War of the Rebellion the active service of the batteries (the term by which we shall hereafter designate the units of the regiment) was so continuous and they were so separated that it is simply impossible, in a short magazine article, to attempt more than a general indication of the work performed by them. The outbreak of the War soon brought the regiment in from the plains. Regimental headquarters took station at Fort McHenry, but were subsequently sent to Fort Washington. Colonel Belton was retired August 28, 1861, and Charles S. Merchant became colonel of the regiment. He was retired August 1, 1863, and Horace Brooks was made colonel.
We will now give, in alphabetical order, the services of the batteries during the War.
BATTERY A.—Batteries A and C were united at Washington, D. C., in October, 1861, made a light battery (4 10-pdr. Parrotts) and attached to Sumner's Division in December. In March, 1862, its armament was changed to 6 12-pdr. guns, and it was assigned to Richardson's Division of the Second Corps.
It was first engaged with the enemy at Rappahannock Station April 28, 1862, being with Howard's Brigade; and in the ensuing campaign against Richmond it did its full share of hard work. It fought well at Fair Oaks June 1st; and, forming part of the rear guard of the Army, was heavily engaged at Allen's Farm and Savage Station June 29th, and at White Oak Swamp June 30th (Capt. G. W. Hazzard of C being mortally, and Lieut. A. Morris slightly wounded), and was in reserve at Malvern Hill the following day.
With Sumner on the right flank of the Army at Antietam it fought desperately, and in the language of its corps commander, rendered " distinguished service." It was next engaged at Charlestown, W. Va., October 16, 1862. Two days later the batteries (A-C) were separated at Harper's Ferry.
A Battery obtained seventy men from the 4th Ohio, proceeded to Washington to refit, obtained 6 3-in. rifles, and rejoined the Second Corps.
It was near the right of Hays' Division of Artillery when Fredericksburg was bombarded, and afterwards crossed the river and was in the fight of December 14th. It afterwards formed part of the artillery reserve of the Second Corps; and though present and occupying several positions at Chancellorsville, it was not regularly engaged. After that it became part of the artillery brigade of the Second Corps, and was engaged with the enemy at Haymarket May 28, 1863.
On the afternoon Of July 2, 1863, it was put in position just on the right of Webb's Brigade of the Second Division, and fought hard and well; and when, the following afternoon, this point became the objective of the opposing forces, and Pickett's men pushed forward to the stone wall, Battery A of the Fourth Artillery, just in rear of the wall, though hard hit itself, poured withering fire into the advancing ranks. The battery may well be proud of its magnificent record in the battle of Gettysburg, and Lieut. Alonzo H. Cushing, killed in Pickett's charge, has left a name for gallantry that cannot be excelled.
Cushing and Milne (1st R. I. A. attached) killed, Canby wounded, thirty-eight men killed and wounded, three limbers blown up, carriages and guns broken and injured, and sixty-five horses killed and wounded bear witness to the fact that A Battery was engaged at Gettysburg. What remained of it was attached after the battle to I Battery of the 1st Artillery, but was separated from it July 16th, made a horse battery (2 3-in. rifles and 2 12-pdr. Napoleons), assigned to the First Brigade of Horse Artillery, and remained with it until dismounted in June, 1864.
Its service while a horse battery was with the cavalry, and it fought at Sulphur Springs September 11th and 12th, at Bristoe Station October 14th, and at Parker's Store November 29, 1863.
In Grant's Wilderness campaign, in the spring of 1864, it was engaged
at Todd's Tavern May 5th, at Tiney Woods May 6th, again at Todd's Tavern May 7th, and at Pine Run May 8th.
Starting on Sheridan's raid May 9th, it fought at Ground Squirrel Church May 10th, before Richmond May 11th, at Mechanicsville May 12th, and at Salem Church and Harrison's Store May 28th. It reached Harrison's Landing June 3d, and was there dismounted. It was sent the next day to Washington, equipped as a light battery, and remained in the defenses of Washington from that time until the close of the War.
BATTERY B.—B Battery was a light battery throughout the War. It was armed with six 12-pdrs. until May, 1864, when two of the guns were turned in, and it thereafter served as a four-gun battery. It reached Washington in October, 1861, obtained its new armament, and was assigned to M'Dowell's Division the following month. When Pope's army was organized in June, 1862, it was assigned to the 4th (Gibbon's) Brigade of the 1st (King's) Division of the 3d (M'Dowell's) Corps.
It was first opposed to the enemy at Orange Court House July 26, 1862, was under fire at Cedar Mountain August 17th-19th, engaged in the defense of the Rappahannock at Rappahannock Station August 21St-23d, in action at Sulphur Springs August 25th-26th, fought hard at Gainesville August 28th, and at the second battle of Bull Run August 29th-30th.
When McClellan resumed command of the Army King's Division was assigned to the 1st (Hooker's) Corps. The battery, still with Gibbon, fought gallantly at South Mountain September 14th, and in the battle of Antietam September 17th, when Hooker was directed to turn the left flank of the enemy, B Battery was in the thickest of the fight, and though subjected to a murderous fire at short range dealt desperate and effective blows in return. Lieut. J. B. Campbell wounded, thirty-nine men and thirty-three horses killed and wounded are indicative of the position of the battery in that battle. At Fredericksburg, with Doubleday's Division of the 1st Corps, it crossed the river and was engaged in the battle from the 13th to the 15th of December, 1862, and won the highest encomiums from its corps commander, John F. Reynolds. After the battle it became part of the artillery brigade of its division. It was engaged at Fitzhugh's Crossing April 26, 1863, and was next under fire at Chancellorsville May 4th, 5th and 6th.
After that the artillery of the corps was consolidated and it became part of the artillery brigade of the 1st Corps. It went into action at Gettysburg on the afternoon of July 1st, and was severely engaged, barely escaping capture, and finally fell back to Cemetery Hill. The next day it was hard at work under a very heavy fire, and continuing in position, had the same experience July 3d. Lieuts. James Stewart and James Davison (5th Art, attached) wounded, and thirty-two men and thirty-two horses killed, wounded and missing, one caisson blown up, three broken down, and two guns placed hors de combat are indicative of the positions occupied by "Jock" Stewart's Battery on the field of Gettysburg. The battery was engaged at Funkstown July 11th, at Warrenton July 23d; and at Haymarket October 19th, and Mine Run Nov. 30th it was in position.
It fought in the Wilderness in May, 1864, being engaged at Spottsyl-
vania Court House May 12th, Po River May 20th, North Anna May 23d, and Tolopotomy Creek May 25th. It was in position June 1-4th at Bethesda Church, losing heavily in the fighting on the third and fourth days. In position at White House June 15th, and engaged all day in the fighting before Petersburg on June 18th, and remained in that vicinity the rest of the year. It was engaged in a fight at Hatchers Run October 28, 1864, fought well at Gravelly Run March 29, 1865, where Lieut. John Mitchell was wounded, and ended its fighting in the Civil War at Quaker Road March 30, 1865. Its war record is magnificent, excelled by none, and only equalled by that of Battery K.
BATTERY C.—C Battery had to its record, when separated from Battery A in October, 1862, the various engagements indicated in the record given above of Battery A. Its captain, G. W. Hazzard, was mortally wounded at White Oak Swamp. When A and C batteries were separated, the horses, guns and equipments were turned over to C Battery, which remained with Hancock's division of the Second Corps. It crossed the river with the Irish Brigade December 12, 1862, was placed in position opposite Marye's Heights the following day, and during the battle of Fredericksburg, when the infantry struggled so hard to carry the Heights, C Battery did all that it could to assist its sister arm. It next fought at Chancellorsville May 2-3, 1863, where part of the battery was with Hancock and Geary, and when the Third Corps was forced back on Sunday morning the half of C Battery at the Salient Angle, subjected to a terrific fire, poured canister into the enemy not sixty yards distant. The struggle was desperate, Lieutenant O'Donohoe (attached) was killed, and the intrepid Field voluntarily remained with Geary and did good work long after he had been ordered out of action.
The battery was afterwards assigned to Ransom's (First Regular) Brigade of the Reserve Artillery. It was sent forward July 2d to the line of battle at Gettysburg, just to the left of the Second Corps, and on that and the following day was well fought by Evan Thomas, losing Lieut. John M'Gilvray wounded, and seventeen men and twenty-nine horses killed and wounded. In August it was reduced to a four-gun battery (12-pdr. Napoleons), and during October operated with the Third Division of the Sixth Corps. It was regularly assigned to that corps October 16th, and fought at Mine Run November 30, 1863.
It was united with E Battery as a horse battery April 11, 1864 (2 3-in., 2 12-pdrs.) and they remained so united until after the close of the War.
This united battery was at once assigned to the first brigade of horse artillery, and during the spring campaign of 1864 was attached to the third division (Wilson's) of the cavalry corps, and was engaged at Craig's Chapel and Todd's Tavern May 5th; at Spottsylvania Court House May 8th; and, participating in Sheridan's raid, fought at Meadow Bridge May 12th, and at Mechanicsville, May 14th, losing five men and twenty-two horses. Continuing with the cavalry corps it was engaged at White Oak Swamp June 3d, also at Riddell's House the same day. Starting on Wilson's raid June 22d, it fought at Nottoway Court House June 23d, Roanoke Station June 25th, Stoney Creek Station June 28th, and June 29th at Ream's Station, where
Wilson ran into the Confederate infantry, and after some severe fighting the battery was captured. The guns were spiked, the carriages destroyed, and the men mounted on the battery horses with pistols and sabres picked up on the road, fought their way out, and rejoined the horse artillery brigade the following day, after having lost several men wounded and eighteen captured. It was at once re-equipped as a horse battery, receiving the same armament as before.
It went with Wilson's cavalry division to operate under Sheridan in the Shenandoah, and was engaged at Winchester August 17th; Summit Point August 21st; Kernsville August 25th Berryville September 5th; after which it joined the reserve at Pleasant Valley. October 25th, with a brigade of the 19th Corps, it was successful in repulsing the attempt of Mosby to capture the paymaster's train at Bunker Hill, and joining Sheridan the following day was assigned to the second brigade of the first cavalry division.
The half battery of rifled guns formed part of Sheridan's command; when he made his raid that began February 27, 1865, and this part of the battery did good work in the fights that occurred at Waynesboro March 2d; Dinwiddie Court House March 31st; Five Forks April 1st; Scott's Cross Roads, Sutherland Station, and Brown's Cross Roads April 2d; Nelson's Farm and Sailor's Creek April 6th; Appomattox April 8th; and on the following day formed part of the fighting line that barred Lee's way and forced the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.
BATTERY D.—D Battery was mounted as a light battery in February, 1862, (6 12-pdr, guns) and remained a light battery throughout the War. A detachment of it was at Big Bethel June 10th, and at Fort Hatteras August 28, 1861.
The battery formed part of Wool's force for the capture of Norfolk in May, 1862, and the following September was sent to Suffolk, where it remained with the troops under General Peck, forming part of the first division of the 7th Corps; and was sent on various expeditions while serving in that vicinity. The right section (platoon is the name now given to what was then designated a section), under Lieutenant Whitney, was engaged at Franklin, Va., October 4th, and the entire battery having marched 50 miles in 30 hours, was in action at the same place October 31st. It was next engaged when General Corcoran had his fight at Deserted House January 29, 1863 and again the same afternoon, ten miles from Suffolk, losing in the latter fight eleven men killed and wounded. April 24th the left section was in action at Edenton Road under General Peck, and from April 10th to May 30th, the battery was engaged in the siege of Suffolk. It was also in action May 24th while engaged under General Corcoran in destroying the Petersburg R. R.
It fought at Franklin, Va., June 18th, and at Windsor June 22d, being part of the first division of the 7th Corps. When the 18th Corps was organized in April, 1864, to play its part in Grant's campaign against Richmond, the battery belonged to the artillery brigade of the Second (Weitzel's) Division, and moved to Bermuda Hundred in May. The right and left sections were, with the first division of the 18th Corps, engaged against the enemy at Point of Rocks May 7th, and the right section had several men wounded
in the fight near Petersburg May 9th. The centre and left sections were heavily engaged with severe loss at Fort Darling May 14th, the entire battery at the same place two days later, and in front of Petersburg June 15th, 16th and 17th. The left and centre sections were engaged at Deep Bottom July 26th. The battery forming part of the artillery brigade of the 10th Corps participated in the siege of Petersburg, being daily engaged from August 26th to September 24th, 1864, and also fought at Laurel Hill September 29th, and at New Market Road October 7th of that year. It remained in front of Petersburg until December, when it is reported as in front of Richmond, where it remained until April 3d, when it marched through the city that had been so long the capital of the Confederacy.
BATTERY E.—Battery E, armed with 6 10-pdr. Parrott's, was mounted as a light battery at Camp Monroe, Ohio, in August, 1861, and joined Rosecrans' army in West Virginia. In December it was sent to General Kelly at Romney, and a section was with Dunning in his little fight near Blue Gap, January 7, 1863. The battery now belonged to Landers' Division, which afterwards became the second (Shields') division of the 5th (Banks') Corps in the organization of March, 1862. Four guns of the battery were in the skirmishes at Middletown and Cedar Creek March 18th, and the entire battery, with Kimball's Brigade, fought at the battle of Winchester March 23d, and was in the skirmish at Mount Jackson April 17, 1862.
May 1st, Shields' Division was transferred to M'Dowell's department. One section of the battery was engaged at Front Royal May 31st, and June 9th the entire battery was heavily engaged at Port Republic where, after a desperate resistance, it lost three guns and two caissons. One of the guns it had the satisfaction of recapturing during the battle. The lost guns were not replaced; but in July the battery was made a horse battery, retaining its four Parrott guns. When the 1st, 2d and 3d Corps were organized in June, 1862, the battery remained with M'Dowell, being reported as unattached; but in August it was assigned to Reno's Division of the 9th Corps, and was engaged in the defense of the Rappahannock August 15-26th.
Temporarily attached to Hooker's Division it was engaged at Broad Run August 27th. Then rejoining Reno it fought at the battle of Second Bull Run August 29th and 30th, where it "behaved nobly," and was in action at Chantilly September 1st. In the reorganization of the Army it became part of Sturgis' (2d) Division of the 9th Corps, and did good fighting at South Mountain September 14th. It participated in the battle of Antietam September 17th, where Lieut. E. L. Baker was killed, and Capt. J. C. Clark was four times wounded. The battery being without officers, General Hunt selected Lieut. Geo. W. Dickenson, 4th Artillery, to reorganize the battery after the battle and prepare it for field service. Temporarily with Hancock's Division, it was in the fight at Charlestown, W. Va., October 16, 1862. It formed part of the grand battery opposite Fredericksburg, then crossed the river with its division (Sturgis') on the morning of December 12th, and was heavily engaged on the following day, when it was subjected to a terrific fire. In less than twenty minutes "the gallant Dickenson fell gloriously at his post," while twelve of the cannoneers were killed and wounded, and all the men were twice driven from their guns.
In March, 1863, it was assigned to the first brigade of horse artillery. After Fredericksburg "Sam" Elder was placed in command of the battery and retained it until the following November when he joined his own regiment. It fought at Kelly's Ford April 14, 1863, while on Stoneman's Raid, and after returning from the raid the Parrott guns were turned in and replaced by four 3-inch rifles. The battery was next engaged at Beverly Ford June 14th, with Buford, and next with Kilpatrick's division at Hanover June 30th; in the Battle of Gettysburg July 1st, 2d and 3d; at Smithsburg July 5th; at Hagerstown July 6th; at Boonsboro July 8th; at Funkstown July 10th; again at Hagerstown July 11th; at Port Conway September 3d; at Brandy Station October 10th and 11th; at Buckland Mills October 13th; fought again the next day, and again near Buckland's Mills October 19th. October 27th and 28th it was in action while engaged in guarding Raccoon Ford, and in December went into winter quarters with its brigade of horse artillery. A new armament of 3-inch guns was obtained in March, 1864, but on the 11th of April C and E batteries were consolidated and made a horse battery (two 3-inch rifles and two 12-pounder guns) and the war record of E battery from that time on has already been given in the record of Battery C.
BATTERY F.—Battery F arrived in Washington from the West on the 18th of April, 1861, after having had a number of its men injured from stones, etc., thrown by the mob while passing through Baltimore. It was sent to Carlisle in June and there equipped as a light battery (four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers) and formed part of Patterson's command, the sections being distributed to the different brigades. The battery was first engaged at Falling Waters July 2d, 1861; July 8th it is reported as attached to Stone's brigade.
In the organization of the Army, October 15, 1861, it was assigned to Banks' division, of which it then formed part, and was engaged for several days in December in defending dams Nos. 4 and 5. In the reorganization of March, 1862, it was assigned to to [sic] the First (Williams') Division of the Fifth (Banks') Corps. One section was in action at Newton May 24th, and the entire battery fought in the battle of Winchester the following day. In June, 1862, the armament was changed to six 12-pounder Napoleon guns. When Pope's army was formed Banks' corps became the Second Corps. At Cedar Mountain the battery fought hard and well, suffering severely and losing, by an accident, one gun in the retreat. After Pope's campaign Banks' corps was made the 12th Corps (General Mansfield's) which, after Antietam, became Slocum's. The battery was, in the reorganization, taken from the division to form part of the artillery brigade of the corps, and was held in reserve at Antietam and not engaged during, the battle.
It was at Chancellorsville that it covered itself with glory, being engaged May 1st, 2d and 3d. Lieut. E. D. Muhlenberg, with his guns at the angle near Geary, did work of which the battery may well feel proud, for with "courage, coolness and indomitable bravery-he contended against the fearful odds before him until every gunner was killed or wounded at his post, seven horses killed and his ammunition exhausted." Lieutenant F. B.
Crosby, a most gallant and efficient officer of the battery, was killed on the 3d.
We next find the battery engaged at Gettysburg, when July 2d it was in action near Culp's Hill, and on the following day, placed about the centre of the line of the 12th Corps, it rendered valuable service by its work against the enemy. That ended the fighting of F Battery for the War. It went West with the 12th Corps that fall, and in the spring of 1864 was sent to Nashville to form part of the first division of the reserve artillery of the Army of the Cumberland. In October, 1864, it was dismounted, the privates assigned to M Battery, and the officers and non-commissioned officers sent east to recruit. It was not remounted nor did it again rejoin the forces in the field.
BATTERY G.—Early in June, 1862, Battery G was equipped as a light battery 4 6-pdr. guns and 2 12-pdr. howitzers) at Cincinnati, and joined McClellan in West Virginia, being present at the fight at Rich Mountain July 11th. On the 25th of July it was assigned to the Third (McCook's) Brigade by Rosecrans, and subsequently joining the First (Reynolds') Brigade, it fought well at Green Briar River October 3d, losing six men killed and wounded. In December it joined the Army of the Potomac as part of the reserve artillery, and received a new armament of 6 12-pdr. Napoleon guns.
It participated in the Peninsular campaign, being actively engaged in the siege of Yorktown. After that it was attached to the Second (Slocum's) Division of the Second (Franklin's) Corps, and a month later joined Getty's Brigade of Reserve Artillery. June 28, 1862, it joined Naglee (of Peck's Division of the Fourth Corps), who was left behind to hold Jackson in check, and was that afternoon engaged in the fight at Bottom's Bridge. It was on the line of battle and slightly engaged on several occasions during the retreat, serving with Peck, and also Smith's Division of the Sixth Corps, after which it returned to the artillery reserve. It next appeared with Sykes' Division at Antietam, and while the battle was going on was sent to Burnside; but it practically did nothing in that battle.
At Fredericksburg it belonged to the right centre division of the reserve artillery, was placed just to the left of the Lacy House December 10th, and the next day was engaged and did well in covering the crossing of the troops. It was next in action near Falmouth May 3-4, 1863, and the month after was assigned to the Artillery Brigade of the Eleventh Corps. July 1st, with the First (Barlow's) Division of its Corps, it was severely engaged at Gettysburg, losing its commander, Lieut. Bayard Wilkeson, "an officer of great gallantry." That night it was placed in position on Cemetery Hill, where, under Lieut. E. A. Bancroft, it did heavy fighting July 2d and 3d, losing thirteen men and twenty-four horses killed and wounded. It participated in the movements of the Army of the Potomac until that fall, when it was sent West with its corps; fought at Chattanooga October 22d, 23d and 24th, and engaged in the pursuit of the enemy on the 26th and 27th. The matériel of the battery was turned over in February, 1864, to the First Ohio, the officers and men of the battery being sent to Nashville, where in April four guns (4 12-pdr, Napoleons) were given to it, and in June
a full complement of horses was obtained. The battery was dismounted in the following October, the privates transferred to Battery I, and the officers and non-commissioned officers sent to New York to recruit. Its field service in the War of the Rebellion was over, but in February, 1865, it was remounted as a light battery at Washington, D. C.
BATTERY H.—H and M Batteries arrived at Louisville, Ky., in January, 1862, from the West, February 1st they were united, mounted as a light battery (2 3-in. and 2 12-pdrs.), and assigned to Crittenden's Division. that formed part of Buell's command.
At the battle of Shiloh, April 7th, this battery went into action near the left of Nelson's line and did magnificent work, and later in the day, with the 14th Brigade, it added lustre to its record. In the reorganization in May, 1862, it was assigned to Nelson's Division and was engaged in the siege of Corinth; and while in the trenches at that place received two more guns (3-in. rifles). It moved out of the trenches with the 22d Brigade on the 28th of May and seized the bridge at Bridge Creek, where it had a heavy fight.
One section was with Jackson's Cavalry, when he had his fight at Tuscumbia Creek, May 31st. June 2d the armament was again increased by the addition of 2 12-pdr. howitzers. The battery was at the battle of Perryville, October 8th, but not engaged. When Rosecrans assumed command in October, 1862, it was attached to the Third (Grose's) Brigade of the First (Smith's) Division of Crittenden's Corps, and at the battle of Stone River, December 29 and 31, 1862, and January 2, 1863, it was heavily engaged. A few days after that battle the batteries were separated, H retaining the four 12-pdr. howitzers and M the 3-in. rifles. H Battery remained with Grose's Brigade and fought at Chickamauga, September 19th and 20th, where Lieutenant Robert Floyd (3d Art. attached) was mortally wounded, twenty men and twenty-five horses killed and wounded, and one gun lost. In this battle the battery, under Lieutenant H. C. Cushing, did magnificent fighting and fully earned the high praise bestowed on it.
February 24 and 2 5, 1864, it was engaged against the enemy at Buzzard's Roost Gap. The following month it was relieved from duty with Grose's Brigade, sent to Nashville to form part of the reserve artillery, and was there dismounted in October, 1864, the privates being transferred to Battery I, and the officers and non-commissioned officers sent east to recruit. It was then sent to Washington where it was remounted as a light battery, in March, 1865, but its war service was over.
BATTERY I.—In June, 1861, Battery I joined McClellan's headquarters in West Virginia, and was present at Rich Mountain, July 11th-12th. July 22d, it was mounted as a light battery (4 mountain howitzers) and three days later was assigned by Rosecrans to the Second Brigade. That fall, with different brigades, it was engaged in several minor actions, viz.: Carnifex Ferry September 13th; New River November 5th; again at New River November 11th, and the following day used two 10-pdr. Parrott's (recently added to its armament) at the same place. Leaving its howitzers in West Virginia, the battery joined Buell's forces in Kentucky in December, there received 4 6-pdrs. (two of which belonged to the 4th Michigan) and was as-
signed to Thomas' Division, which subsequently became T. W. Sherman's. The battery was engaged in the siege of Corinth, in May, 1862, and joined in the pursuit of the enemy after the evacuation of the town. In August it was regularly assigned to the Third (Steedman's) Brigade of the Third (Thomas') Division, which was then under command of General Schoeppe and participated in the manoeuvres against Bragg. After that the section of the 4th Michigan was relieved and the armament of the battery became 2 6-pdr. guns and 2 10-pdr. Parrott's.
The Third Division passed into Gilbert's Corps, and was engaged near Springfield, October 4th, and at Perryville, October 8, 1862. When Rosecrans took command and reorganized the army the battery became part of the Third (Steedman's) Brigade of the First (S. S. Fry's) Division of the Fourteenth (Rosecrans') Corps, October 24, 1862. In February, 1863, its armament was changed to 4 12-pdr. guns. It skirmished with the Confederate Cavalry near Chapel Hill March 3d and near Harpeth River March 8th, and was sent several times during that month to the Harpeth River to prevent the enemy from crossing. It participated in the Tullahoma campaign, and on the morning of September 19, 1863, opened fire at Chickamauga, where it was heavily engaged on that and the following day, losing Lieutenant N. Redmond wounded, twenty-three men and nineteen horses killed and wounded, one limber blown up and the battery wagon captured. This was the heaviest and most brilliant work of the battery in the War, and the clear judgment of Lieutenant F. G. Smith, in holding it at Snodgrass Hill, after Negley's withdrawal, which subsequently became the key point for the artillery that turned the tide of battle, enhances the value of the work well done.
While at Chattanooga the battery, with the other troops, suffered for lack of supplies and most of the horses died of starvation while standing at the picket line; so that when it moved out in November it had only some thirty nearly starved horses and a few mules to draw the guns and caissons.
At the battle of Chattanooga, November 23, 1863, it was put on duty with the Second (Sheridan's) Division of the Fourth Corps and was engaged near Bushy Knob on that and the following day. It joined, with its own division, in the pursuit on the 26th, but the horses were in such poor condition that it had to be sent back to Chattanooga, where it was dismounted in March, 1864, and sent to Nashville to form part of the garrison artillery. In October it was filled up by the transfer of the privates from G and H Batteries, obtained the four 12-pdr. guns from H Battery, and was regularly mounted as a horse battery. It was assigned to Johnson's Division of Cavalry, and in the following month to Wilson's command of Cavalry. It was engaged against the enemy at Charlotte's Pike December 15, 1864, and at Pulaski ten days later, where, owing to the loss of seventeen horses and lack of support, one gun was lost.
When Wilson prepared for his raid through Alabama in the spring of 1865, the battery under Lieut. G. B. Rodney, with eight horses to each of its four 12-pdr. Napoleons, formed part of Upton's Division. It skirmished with the enemy at Jasper March 26th, fought near Montevallo March 31st,
was present at Ebenezer Church April 1st, engaged at Selma April 2d; and April 16th did its last fighting in the War at Columbia.
BATTERY K.—In August, 1861, Battery K was sent to Washington, mounted as a light battery (2 20-pdr. Parrott's and 2 12-pdr. howitzers), and in the organization in October was assigned to the Reserve Artillery. In December its armament was changed to 6 12-pdr. Napoleon guns. It remained a light battery throughout the War, retaining its six guns until May, 1864, when two of them were turned in, under the order reducing the batteries to four guns each.
It participated in the Peninsular campaign, being engaged at Yorktown April 28, 1862. June 2d it was assigned to the Third (Heintzelman's) Corps, and fought at Fair Oaks June 25th, at Ropers' Church June 30th, at Malvern Hill July 1st, and again at the same place August 6th. It did not reach Second Bull Run in time to participate in the battle, but was engaged at Chantilly September 1st.
When Burnside took command of the Army it was assigned to the Second (Sickles') Division of the Third (Hooker's) Corps, having been previously part of the reserve/ artillery of the corps. It was engaged in the bombardment of Fredericksburg December 11th and 12th, forming part of Tompkins' Division of Artillery; then joining Franklin's troops on the following day, it did excellent service against the right flank of the enemy.
May 3d it fought at Chancellorsville, losing Lieut. I. Arnold (Ord. Dept. attached), wounded, and 44 men and 59 horses killed and wounded. It was in this battle, on the height at Fairview, at the extreme left of the crest, while under the most terrific fire, that K Battery won the admiration of all who beheld it, and its record at Chancellorsville under Lieut. F. W. Seeley, that prince of battery commanders, must always form one of the brightest pages in the history of our light artillery. Its work may be equalled but it cannot be surpassed.
After the battle it became part of the corps artillery, was assigned to Humphreys' Division of the 3d Corps for the battle of Gettysburg, and July 2d and 3d did work that, in the language of that magnificent soldier, Humphreys, "excited my admiration as well as that of every officer who beheld it." Lieutenant Seeley was severely wounded and 24 men and 28 horses were killed, wounded and missing. The Battery was next engaged at Union Mills October 18th, and at Mine Run November 30, 1863. In April, 1864, when several of the Army corps were consolidated, the Battery was assigned to the artillery brigade of the 2d Corps, and during the succeeding campaigns of the War, under command of Lieut. J. W. Roder, its hard fighting added to the magnificent reputation it had already acquired. In the Wilderness campaign it was engaged at Spottsylvania Heights May 10th, 12th, 16th and 18th; near North Anna May 22d, 24th, 25th and 26th.; at Sheridan's Farm May 30th and 31st, at Cold Harbor June 3d, 4th, 5th and 12th; near Petersburg June 16th, 17th, 19th, 20th and 26th; at Deep Bottom August 16th, and Boydton Plank Road October 27, 1864.
The right section was engaged at Hatcher's Run, February 7, 8, 1865. and the Battery participating with its corps in the final campaign against Lee, was in action near Hatcher's Run March 22d, in the vicinity of Fort
Cummings March 25th, at Hatcher's Run April 1st and 2d, at Sailor's Creek April 6th, and had the satisfaction of being at Appomattox Court House on the 9th of April when the Army of Northern Virginia laid down its arms.
BATTERY L.—Battery L was mounted as a light battery at Fortress Monroe, in July, 1861 (6 12-pdr. Napoleons), and remained so mounted throughout the War. Its first engagement was March 8, 1862, when, from its position at Newport News, it was in action against the famous Merrimac.
It was sent to Suffolk in July to form part of General Mansfield's force, and remained in that vicinity until the organization of the Army of the James, when it joined that army and participated in its operations. When the 7th Corps was formed, in September, 1862, the Battery became part of Peck's Division of that Corps. It was attached to Ferry's Brigade in the operations that fall, and fought at Blackwater October 26th, and at Joiner's Ford December 13th of that year.
Getty's Division of the 9th Corps became the 2d Division of the 7th Corps in March, 1863, and the battery was attached to it. It participated in the siege of Suffolk, which lasted from April 10th until May 3d, and also fought near Suffolk May 3d; near Franklin May 16th, and was again in action a few days later, when it assisted in the destruction of the Petersburg railroad. In July, 1863, it was sent with Sear's Brigade of Cavalry on a raid into North Carolina, and was engaged against the enemy's entrenched position near Jackson, on the 28th of that month; after which it proceeded to Winston and embarked for Portsmouth, Va. About this time the 7th Corps was discontinued and the battery was sent to Yorktown in October to form part of General Wistar's command, which in the reorganization of April, 1864, passed into the 2d Division of the 18th Corps, the Battery becoming part of the artillery brigade of its division. A few weeks after, all the batteries of the corps were formed into a brigade of corps artillery.
The Battery moved to Bermuda Hundred with Butler's forces and under General Heckman, was engaged at Valley Farm, May 6, 1864, and at Walthall Junction the following day. It fought within two miles of Petersburg, May 10th, at Proctor's Creek May 13th, and on the following day was engaged for five hours against an entrenched battery. When Grant detached four divisions from the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps at Bermuda Hundred, the latter part of May, 1864, and brought them around by steamer to White House to operate with the Army of the Potomac, L Battery accompanied Heckman's division. While engaged in this movement Lieut. J. S. Hunt (who had relieved Captain R. V. W. Howard of command of the battery the previous September) fell from the steamer the night of May 28th and was drowned. Lieut. H. B. Beecher then took command of the Battery and retained it until the close of the War. The Battery participated in the fighting at Gaines' Farm June 1st, when an attempt was made to force the passage of the Chickahominy, and two days later fought in the battle of Cold Harbor, where Lieut. S. L. Hubbard (2d Mass. Vols. attached) was wounded and 5 men and 14 horses were killed and wounded.
After serving on picket duty on alternate days from the 5th to the 12th of June, it returned to the Army of the James and was engaged in the siege of Petersburg from June 17th until August 28th, in which Lieutenant Beecher and the Battery were highly distinguished. It was in the trenches from the 22d to the 30th of June, from the 1st to the 11th of August (when it was partially engaged day and night), and again from the 14th to the 27th of the same month-during which operations it suffered some loss in both men and horses. August 28th it crossed the Chickahominy, moved to Hatcher's Run, went immediately on picket duty, and was engaged in the trenches before Richmond until the 5th of the following February, when it was relieved from its position and moved to Signal Hill. When the Twenty-fourth Corps was organized the previous December from troops of the Tenth and Eighteenth Corps, the Battery became part of the artillery brigade of that corps and served with it in the operations around Richmond.
BATTERY M.—The story of M Battery in the Civil War, until after the Battle of Stone River, has already been told in the sketch of H Battery.
Batteries H and M were separated immediately after that battle, M Battery retaining the four 3-in. guns, and at the same time increasing its armament by the addition of two 24-pdr. howitzers. It still remained with Grose's Brigade, which became the Third Brigade of the Second Division of the Twenty-first Corps on the 9th of January, 1863. Moving with its brigade the battery experienced all the discomforts of the Tullahoma campaign; and after that, at the battle of Chickamauga September 19 and 20, 1863, under Lieut. F. D. L. Russell, it fought in a distinguished manner, losing 8 men and 13 horses killed and wounded. When the Fourth Corps was recreated September 28, 1863, the Battery passed into it with Palmer's Division and became part of the Artillery Brigade of the First Division of the Fourth Corps. It remained at Chattanooga until November, and was then sent with the First (Cruft's) Brigade to guard the railroad bridge at Bridgeport, Alabama. By the following March it had become so reduced in horses that it was dismounted (turning in its guns and horses at Blue Springs, Tenn., March 19, 1864) and sent back to Nashville to refit. It there received four 12-pdr. guns March 30th, and the necessary horses in May, and again became a light battery. In June it marched to Decatur; but soon after returning to Nashville by rail, it was assigned to the First Division of the Reserve Artillery of the Army of the Cumberland. In October its enlisted strength was increased by the transfer to it of the privates of F Battery of the regiment.
Half of the battery was attached to Croxton's Brigade of Cavalry in October to operate along the Tennessee River, and was severely engaged near Pulaski October 22d, again on October 29th, when Croxton was driven back by Hood, and at Shoal Creek November 4th. The half batteries were reunited at Columbia the latter part of November. The battery was now attached to the artillery brigade of the Fourth Corps, and in Schofield's operations in that vicinity it was placed in position on several occasions. It was heavily engaged at the battle of Franklin November 30th, losing 9 men and a number of horses.
It fought in the battle of Nashville December 15th and 16th, and after-
wards accompanied the artillery brigade in pursuit of the enemy. It then went into winter quarters at Pulaski, where it remained until the, latter part of January, 1865. Then proceeding to Huntsville it turned in its horses and moved to Bridgeport with its guns, where it took station in Fort Number One as part of the post artillery.
The following June while at Chattanooga it was mounted as a horse battery, but the War was over and it was soon after permanently dismounted.
Almost all of the field officers and captains, and some of the lieutenants were detached from the regiment and given higher commands during the War, E. O. C. Ord, A. P. Howe, Gustavus A. DeRussy and John Gibbon winning fame as commanders of high rank; while Charles H. Morgan, on the general staff of the Second Corps, proved himself to be a man of the most distinguished military attainments combined with indomitable energy. Morgan was promoted major under the Act of 1866, giving an additional major to each regiment.
By the fall of 1865 most of the batteries had been dismounted and the regiment was again performing garrison duty. Headquarters were at Fort M'Henry with batteries at that post, Forts Delaware, Washington, Foote, Monroe, Whipple, and in Washington City.
D Battery had been sent with its corps to Texas, but returned North and took station at Washington in February, 1866. B and K Batteries having made the most brilliant records in the War, were recommended by the colonel of the regiment to be retained as the two light batteries of the regiment. But the captain and one or more lieutenants of K being absent on detached service, this recommendation was not approved at the War Department in regard to that battery, and G, which had been one of the mounted batteries before the War, was retained as a light battery in its stead.
Light Battery B was sent to Leavenworth and G took station at Detroit.
The organization of a light battery under Orders No. 151, Series 1865, was 74 privates, 73 horses, 56 sabres (the drivers not being armed), and 8 revolvers for chiefs of pieces and caissons. One battery of each regiment was to be armed with 4 3-in. rifles and the other with 4 12-pdr. Napoleon guns.
The regiment retained its stations until November, 1872, the batteries occasionally interchanging, and a number of them doing reconstruction duty in North Carolina from 1870-72. G Battery was dismounted in February, 1869, under the order allowing but one light battery to each regiment, and was sent to North Carolina for duty in that section.
Light Battery B was in the field against the Cheyenne Indians in 1867, and in the campaign against the Indians in 187o, and joined at regimental headquarters in 1871.
When the regiment exchanged with the 2d Artillery in the fall of 1872, headquarters were established at the Presidio of San Francisco with batteries at the various posts in the harbor, two at the mouth of the Columbia River, and two at Sitka, Alaska.
The batteries at the mouth of the river and in Alaska were changed every two years, D, E, F, G, H, K and M serving at the mouth of the river
and A, C, D, F, G, L and a detachment of M in Alaska during tour of the regiment on the Pacific Coast. The Modoc War called a number of the batteries into the field a few weeks after their arrival on the Pacific Coast, A, B, E, G, K and M participating in that campaign which proved so disastrous to the regiment and the Army.
B Battery, mounted on the battery horses, acted as cavalry, while A, E, K and M formed part of Green's command on the south side of Tule Lake.
When the movement was made, in the middle of April, 1873, to close in on the Indians occupying the stronghold in the lava beds A Battery used the Coehorn mortars, while E, K and M acted as infantry; and all four were handsomely engaged in the fighting that occurred on April 15th, 16th and 17th, suffering a loss of ten men killed and wounded; and a detachment of M Battery was engaged April 20th, with the loss of one man. On April 26th occurred the unfortunate affair in which, after desperate fighting, Capt. Evan Thomas and Lieuts. Albion Howe, Arthur Cranston and George M. Harris were killed and twenty-one men of the regiment were killed and wounded. B Battery was in reserve in the fight at Sorass Lake May 10th, and turning in its horses the following day went into the lava beds to the stronghold. Then remounting on the 17th, it started with Green's Battalion in pursuit of the fleeing Indians, had a fight with the Cottonwood Band near Fairchild's ranch, and surprised Captain Jack at Willow Creek. The pursuit was continued the following day, during which a number of Indians were captured.
In the campaign of 1876 against the Sioux Indians, Batteries C, F, H and K formed a battalion under Capt. J. B. Campbell of F Battery.
They left their stations in August, 1876, and did not return until the following January. The battalion reported to General Mackenzie at Camp Robinson, encamped at Red Cloud Indian Agency, and was kept under arms when Mackenzie disarmed the Agency Sioux. When Crook organized his Powder River Expedition in November, the Battalion of the Fourth Artillery formed a part of Col. Richard I. Dodge's command; and during the subsequent operations the discomforts of a winter campaign were fully experienced, the thermometer on one occasion falling to forty degrees below zero.
January 10, 1877, General Brooks was retired and Joseph C. Roberts became the colonel of the regiment. He had entered the regiment as a brevet second lieutenant in 1835, and had risen through the various grades without ever having been out of it. General Roberts was retired July 2, 1877, and William H. French became colonel.
The Nez Percés, under Chief Joseph, broke out in hostilities in June, 1877, and the Fourth Artillery was again called on for field service, A, B, C, D, E, G, L and M Batteries going into the field. E Battery was with Howard at the crossing of the Salmon River, where the Indians were driven back after a brisk skirmish on the afternoon of June 28th. A, D, G and M Batteries joined Howard the next day. Following the Indians, the column next struck them at the Clearwater July 11th, and at one o'clock that afternoon Lieut. H. G. Otis of E Battery was at work against them with his howitzer. The fighting was very heavy, and in the spirited countercharge
against the enemy at 3.30 that afternoon A and E Batteries participated, Capt. E. A. Bancroft of A receiving a bullet through the lungs about this time.
A little later in the day Captain M. P. Miller, of E, led a second charge near the centre, which gained the ridge in front. At daylight the following day, in order to get possession of the spring, Captains Miller (Battery E) and Perry (1st Cav.), with Otis' howitzer, supported by Rodney's (D) Battery, were sent to secure it.
That afternoon Miller's battalion of the regiment (A, D, E, G and M batteries) made a handsome charge, which, after stubborn resistance, broke the enemy's lines. In this fight A Battery lost one officer and five men; E Battery, five men, and G Battery one man, killed and wounded. Just as the Indians were crossing the river the following day the troops came up with them, and some firing ensued.
C and L Batteries were sent from San Francisco, and joined Miller's battalion on the 26th of July. Organizing a column, consisting of Batteries A, C, D, E, G, L and M of the 4th Artillery, the 21st Infantry and the 1st Cavalry, Howard pushed on over the "Lolo Trail," constantly pressing the Indians, who were finally captured by General Miles. The battalion was not again engaged after crossing the Clearwater, but September 12th Lieutenant Otis, with his men in charge of the howitzer, was sent forward with Sturgis' command, and was engaged September 13th in the fight at Canyon Creek. In October the battalion came down the Missouri River by steam boat to Omaha, and from there the batteries returned to their stations by rail. B Battery, equipped as cavalry, had proceeded by rail to Winnemucca, and marched from there to Fayette Lake, Idaho, but was recalled to San Francisco on account of the labor riots which occurred that summer. This cause in the east had taken I Battery from Fortress Monroe to assist in their suppression, and it served at Baltimore, Pittsburg and Cumberland during the troubles. In July, 18 4 78, headquarters were sent to Angel Island, and most of the batteries were ordered into the field against the Bannock Indians. A, B, D, E, the greater part of F, G, H, K and M serving in that campaign. B was equipped as cavalry, and D and G mounted at Grande Ronde Valley the latter part of July formed part of Miles' battalion of mounted riflemen. D and G Batteries were engaged against the Piute Indians at Umatilla Agency, July 13th; and July 31st, Private J. H. Fisher, with three other privates of B Battery, had a handsome little fight with a party of Bannock Indians at Perry Munday's Ferry, and succeeded in defending the station and rescuing the mail stage, the driver of which had been badly wounded.
Regimental headquarters returned to the Presidio in March, 1880. General French retired July 1st of that year, and was succeeded by Emory Upton, whose sad death on March 15, 1881, made John M. Brannan colonel of the regiment.
In October, 1881, C, H and L Batteries were sent to Arizona to take part in the "Apache campaign," but were recalled a few weeks after their arrival, as the regiment was ordered east to take the stations of the 1st Artillery on the New England coast. The following extract from a tele-
gram to the Adjutant-General of the Army from the Headquarters of the Division of the Pacific is indicative of the esteem in which the regiment was held:
PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO, November 20th.
To the Adjutant General,
Washington, D. C.
* * * * * * * *
In the absence of the Division Commander I say, what I am sure he would have me say for him upon the departure of this regiment, that it has, while in this Division, added to its already splendid reputation, by soldierly efficiency in the field in four campaigns, by continuous exemplary conduct in garrison, and especially by the conspicuous attainments and affability of its officers.
KELTON, A. A. G.
The record of the regiment in the campaigns against the Indians was an excellent one, and while all did well Captain Marcus P. Miller, of E Battery, made a most distinguished reputation.
The regiment remained on the New England coast, with headquarters at Fort Adams, R. I., until May, 1889, when it was sent to the southern stations with headquarters and four batteries at Atlanta, Georgia; two batteries at Saint Augustine, Florida; two at Barrancas, and one at New Orleans, La. Light Battery B still remains at Fort Adams, and Light Battery F (mounted August 15, 1882), after serving at Fort Snelling, Minn., from the fall of 1882 until May, 1889, is now at Fort Riley, Kansas.
When General Brannan was retired April 19, 1882, Albion P. Howe succeeded to the colonelcy. He was retired June 30, 1882, and Gustavus A. DeRussy was made colonel of the regiment. This officer transferred with General George W. Getty, colonel of the Third Artillery, July 17, 1882. Generals Brannan, DeRussy and Getty never assumed command of the regiment. Getty, commanding the Artillery School at Fortress Monroe, was retired October 2, 1883, and Clermont L. Best, was promoted colonel of the Fourth Artillery. He took command of the regiment and retained it until retired April 25, 1888, when Henry W. Closson was promoted to the colonelcy