For a number of reasons, it has seemed inappropriate to provide this volume with a full scholarly apparatus. Security conditions necessarily make the book's coverage of certain aspects of the Military Intelligence story a good deal less than definitive. Moreover, the book does not purport to be a completely original piece of research, since its first portion is based substantially upon material contained in two large previous studies: Bruce W Bidwell's eight-part survey of the history of the Military Intelligence Division, Department of the Army, prepared for the U.S. Army Center of Military History in the 1950s, and a thirty-volume history of the Army Counter Intelligence Corps which the U.S. Army Intelligence Center compiled in 1959-1960. Initially, both works were fully classified, but now they have been largely declassified. Finally, the latter part of the book draws from a variety of Army files which still remain classified and, in some cases, compartmented-, these files will not be accessible to researchers for the foreseeable future. As a result, we decided to provide footnotes only to cite direct quotations, provide additional commentary, and reference open-source publications applying to the subject. For the same reason, this bibliography lists only published, open-source material.
Bidwell, Bruce W. History of the Military Intelligence Division, Department of the General Staff, 1775-1941. Frederick, Md.: University Presses of America, 1986.
Clark, Ronald William. The Man Who Broke PURPLE: A Life of the World's Greatest Cryptographer, Colonel William E Friedman. Boston: Little Brown, 1977.
Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War. Ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Cline, Marjorie W et al. Scholar's Guide to Intelligence Literature. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1983.
Cohen, Eliot A., and Gooch, John. Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War. New York: The Free Press, 1990.
Constantanides, George C. Intelligence and Espionage: An Analytical Bibliography. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1983.
Creveld, Martin Van. Command in War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Crouch, Tom D. The Eagle Aloft: Two Centuries of the Balloon in America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institute Press, 1983.
Dunes, Allen. The Craft of Intelligence. New York: Harper and Row, 1963.
Finnegan, John P The Military Intelligence Story: A Photo History. Fort Belvoir, Va.: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1994.
______. Military Intelligence: A Picture History. 2d ed. Fort Belvoir, Va.: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1992.
Hewes, James. From Root to MacNamara: Army Organization and Administration, 1900-1963. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1975.
Ind, Allison. A Short History of Espionage: From the Trojan Horse to Cuba. New York: McKay, 1963.
Infield, Glenn B. Unarmed and Unafraid: The First Complete History of Men, Missions, Training, and Techniques of Aerial Reconnaissance. New York: MacMillan, 1970.
Gordon, Col. Don E. Electronic Warfare: Element of Strategy and Multiplier of Combat Power. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981.
Jefferys-Jones, Rhodri. American Espionage: From Secret Service to CIA. New York: Free Press, 1977.______. The CIA and American Democracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
Jensen, Joan M. Military Surveillance of Civilians in America. Morristown, N.J.: General Learning Press, 1975.
Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The History of Secret Writing. New York: MacMillan, 1967.
Kent, Sherman. Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1947.
Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment Before the Two Wars. Ed. Ernest May. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984.
Levite, Ariel. Intelligence and Strategic Surprises. New York: Columbia University Press, 1987.
Lanning, Michael Lee. Senseless Secrets: The Failures of U.S. Military Intelligence from George Washington to the Present. New York: Carol Publishing Group, 1996.
Laquer, Walter. A World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence. New York: Basic Books, 1985.
Lowenthal, Mark M. U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy. New York: Praeger, 1984.
Military Intelligence: Its Heroes and Legends, comp. Diane Hamm. Arlington, Va.: U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1987.
Nelson, Maj. Gen. Otto L. National Security and the General Staff. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1946.
O'Toole, G. J. A. The Encyclopedia of American Intelligence and Espionage: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
Paddock, Alfred H., Jr. U.S. Army Special Warfare: Its Origins. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1982.
Petersen, Neal H. American Intelligence, 1775-1990: A Bibliographical Guide. Claremont, Calif.: Regina Books, 1992.
Powe, Marc B. and Wilson, Edward E. The Evolution of American Military Intelligence. Fort Huachuca, Ariz.: U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School, 1973.
______."The History of American Military Intelligence--A Review of Selected Literature." Military Affairs 39 (1975): 142-45.
Powers, Richard G. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: Free Press, 1987.
Robertson, K. G., ed. British and American Approaches to Intelligence. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987.
Rowan, Richard W., and Dendofer, Robert G. Secret Service: 33 Centuries of Espionage. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1967.
Sayle, Edward F. "Historical Underpinnings of the U.S. Intelligence Community." Reprinted from International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 1 (1986).
Stevens, Philip H. Search Out the Land: A History of American Military Scouts. Chicago: Rand McNally, 1969.
Smith, Myron J., Jr. The Secret Wars: A Guide to Sources in English. 3 vols. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 1980.
Strong, Maj. Gen. Sir Kenneth. Men of Intelligence. London: Cassell, 1970.
Vagts, Alfred. The Military Attache. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Volkman, Ernest. Warriors of the Night: Spies, Soldiers, and American Intelligence. New York: William Morrow, 1985.
Weinert, Richard P. A History of Army Aviation, 1950-1962; Phase I: 1950-1954, Fort Monroe, Va.: U.S. Continental Army Command, 1971.
West, Nigel. The Sigint Secrets: The Signals Intelligence War, 1900 to Today. New York: Morrow, 1988.
Military Intelligence, 1775-1885
Alexander, General E. Porter. Military Memoirs of a Confederate. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1962.
Bakeless, John. Turncoats, Traitors, and Heroes. Philadelphia:J. B. Lippincott Co., 1960.
______. Spies of the Confederacy. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1970.
Baker, L. C. History of the United States Secret Service. Philadelphia: L. C. Baker, 1867.
Bates, David Homer. Lincoln in the Telegraph Office: Recollections of the United States Military Telegraph Corps in the Civil War. New York: The Century Co., 1907.
Brown, J. Willard. The Signal Corps, U.S.A. in the War of the Rebellion. New York: Arno Press, 1974.
Bryan, George S. The Spy in America. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1943.
Byrne, Robert. "Combat Intelligence: The Key to Victory at Gettysburg." Military Intelligence (1976): 5-9.
The Civil War: Spies, Scouts, and Raiders. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1985.
Fishel, Edwin C. "The Mythology of Civil War Intelligence." Civil War History 10 (1964): 344-67.
______. "Pinkerton and McClellan: Who Deceived Whom?" Civil War History 24 (1988): 115-42.
Flexner, James T. The Traitor and the Spy, Benedict Arnold and John Andre. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1953.
Ford, Corey A Peculiar Service. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1965.
Goetzmann, William H. Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-1863. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.
Kane, Harnett T. Spies for the Blue and Grey. Garden City, N.Y.: Hanover House, 1954.
McDonald, Archie P, ed. Make Me a Map of the Valley: The Civil War Journal of Stonewall Jackson's Topographer. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1973.
Martin, Steven J. "Custer Didn't Listen." Military Intelligence 15 (1989), 15-20.
Miller, Francis T. Photographic History of The Civil War (New York: Review of Reviews, 1912.
Pinkerton, Allan. The Spy of the Rebellion: Being a True History of the Spy System of the United States Army During the Late Rebellion. New York: G. W Carleton and Co., 1883.
Schmidt, C. T. "G2, Army of the Potomac." Military Review 28 (1948): 45-56.
Sparks, David S. "General Patrick's Progress: Intelligence and Security in the Army of the Potomac." Civil War History 10 (1964): 371-84.
Stern, Philip. Secret Missions of the Civil War. Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1959.
Swan, Guy C. III et al. "Scott's Engineers." Military Review (1983): 61-68.
Tidwell, William A. et al. Come Retribution: The Confederate Secret Service and the Assassination of Lincoln. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1988.
Van Doren, Carl. Secret History of the American Revolution. New York: Viking Press, 1941.
Military Intelligence, 1885-1941
Bethel, Elizabeth. "The Military Information Division: Origin of the Intelligence Division." Military Affairs 11 (1947): 17-24.
Bisher, Jamie. "A Travelling Salesman Fills a Crucial Gap." Military Intelligence 15 (1989): 36-37.
Butler, Howard K. Army Air Corps Airplanes and Observation, 1935-1941. St. Louis: U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command, 1990.
Coll, Blanche D., Keith, Jean E. and Rosenthal, Herbert. The Corps of Engineers: Troops and Equipment. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1958.
Cutter, C. S. "Intelligence Service in the World War." Infantry Journal 20 (1922): 376-83.
Churchill, Marlborough. "The Military Intelligence Division, General Staff." Journal of the United States Artillery 52 (1920): 293-315.
Fergusson, Thomas G. British Military Intelligence, 1870-1914: The Development of a Modern Intelligence Organization. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1984.
Finnegan, John P. Against the Specter of a Dragon: The Campaign for American Military Preparedness, 1914-1917. Westport, Corm.: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Gilbert, James L. "U.S. Army COMSEC in World War I." Military intelligence 14 (1988): 22-25.
Goddard, George W. Overview: A Lifelong Adventure in Aerial Photography. Garden City, NJ.: Doubleday, 1969.
Hitt, Parker. Manual for the Solution of Military Ciphers. Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: Press of the Army Service Schools, 1916.
Hubbard, Samuel T. Memoirs of a Staff Officer, 1917-1919. Tuckahoe, N.Y.: Cardinal Associates, Inc., 1959.
Johnson, Thomas M. Without Censor. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1928.
Linn, Brian McAllister. The U.S. Army and Counterinsurgency in the Philippine War, 1899-1902. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.
Morgan, William A. "Invasion on the Ether: Radio Intelligence at the Battle of St. Mihiel, September 1918." Military Affairs 51 (1987): 57-61.
Parish, John C. "Intelligence Work at First Army Headquarters." Historical Outlook 11 (1920): 213-17.
Parson, William Barclay. The American Engineers in France. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1920.
Powe, Mark B. "American Military Intelligence Comes of Age: A Sketch of a Man and His Times." Military Review 55 (1975): 17-30.
______. The Emergence of the War Department Intelligence Agency, 1885-1918. Manhattan, Kans.: MA/AH Publishing, 1974.
Powell, E. Alexander. The Army Behind the Army. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1919.
Scott, Paul R. "The Birth of the 2s: Combat Intelligence in the American Expeditionary Force." Military Intelligence 6 (1980): 25-26.
Schwein, Edwin E. Combat Intelligence: Its Acquisition and Transmission. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1936.
Sweeney, Walter C. Military Intelligence: A New Weapon in War. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1924.
Terrett, Dulany. The Signal Corps: The Emergency. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1956.
Thomas, Shipley. S2 in Action. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co., 1940.
Trueblood, Edward A. Observations of an American Soldier During His Service with the AEF in France in the Flash Ranging Service. Sacramento, Calif.: News Publishing, 1919.
U.S. Army War College, Historical Section. The United States Army in the World War, 1917-1919. 14 parts. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1931.
Van Deman, Ralph H. The Final Memoranda: Major General Ralph H. Van Deman, USA Ret., 1865-1952: Father of U.S. Military Intelligence. Ed. Ralph E. Weber. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1988.
Wagner, Arthur L. The Service of Security and Information. Kansas City: Hudson Kimberley Publishing Co., 1893.
War Department. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. Final Report of the Radio Intelligence Section, General Staff, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1935.
______. Report of Code Compilation Section, General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces, December 1917-November 1918. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1935.
Yardley Herbert O. The American Black Chamber. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1931.
World War II Military Intelligence
Alsop, Stewart, and Braden, Thomas. Sub Rosa.- The OSS and American Espionage. New York: Reynaldo Hancock, 1946.
Ambrose, Stephen E. "Eisenhower, the Intelligence Community and the D-Day Invasion." Wisconsin Magazine of History 64 (1981): 261-77.
Blumenson, Martin. "Will 'Ultra' Rewrite History?" Army 28 (1978): 42-49.
Chandler, Stedman, and Robb, Robert W Front-Line Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: Infantry Journal Press, 1946.
Clayton, Aileen. The Enemy is Listening. New York: Ballantine Books, 1980.
Cline, Ray S. The CIA Under Reagan, Bush, and Casey. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Press, 1981.
Cochran, Alexander S., Jr. "'Magic,' 'Ultra,' and the Second World War: Literature, Sources, and Outlook." Military Affairs 46 (1982): 88-92.
______. "Protecting the Ultimate Advantage." Military History 1 (1985): 42-49.
Conn, Stetson. Historical Work in the United States Army, 1862-1954. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1980.
Davis, Franklin M., Jr. "The Army's Technical Detectives." Military Review 28 (1948): 12-18.
Deutsch, Harold C. "Generals and the Use of Intelligence." Intelligence and National Security 3 (1988): 194-260.
______. "The Historical Impact of Revealing the Ultra Secret." Parameters 7 (1977): 16-32.
______. "The Influence of Ultra on World War IL" Parameters 8 (1978): 2-15.
Drea, Edward J. "Ultra Intelligence and General Douglas MacArthur's Leap to Hollandia, January-April 1944." Intelligence and National Security 5 (1990): 323-49.
Edwards, Duval A. Spy Catchers of the U.S. Army-In the War with Japan. Gig Harbor, Washington: Red Apple Publishing, 1994.
Felix, Christopher (James McCarger). A Short Course in the Secret War. New York: Dell Publishing, 1988.
Ford, Corey Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little Brown, 1970.
Futrell, Robert F. Command of Observation Aviation: A Study in Control of Tactical Airpower. USAF Historical Studies No. 24. Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air University, 1956.
Gilbert, James L., and Finnegan, John P, eds. U.S. Army Signals Intelligence in World War II: A Documentary History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1993.
Harrington, Joseph D. Yankee Samurai: The Secret Role of Nisei in America's Pacific Victory. Detroit: Pettigrew Enterprises, 1979.
Hinsley, E H. et al. British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations. 3 vols. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1979-1986.
Hobar, Basil J. "The Ardennes 1944: Intelligence Failure or Deception Success?" Military Intelligence 10 (1984): 8-16.
Holmes, Jasper W. Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1979.
Homer, D. M. High Command: Australia and Allied Strategy, 1939-1945. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1982.
Hughes, Les. "The Alamo Scouts." Trading Post 45 (1986): 216.
Ind, Allison. Allied Intelligence Bureau: Our Secret Weapon in the War Against Japan. New York: McKay, 1958.
Johnson, Thomas M. "Search for the Stolen SIGABA." Army 12 (1962): 50-55.
Kahn, David. "World War II History: The Biggest Hole." Military Affairs 39 (1975): 74-76.
Kirkpatrick, Lyman B., Jr. The Real CIA. New York: MacMillan, 1968.
Koch, Oscar W. G2: Intelligence for Patton. Philadelphia: Whitmore, 1971.
Lewin, Ronald. The Other Ultra. London: Hutchison, 1982.
Mashbir, Sidney F. I Was an American Spy. New York: Vantage, 1953.
Mosser, Richard B. "Colonel Attended Crypto School at Vint Hill Farms." INSCOM Journal 15 (1992): 4-9.
Owens, William A. Eye-Deep in Hell: A Memoir of the Liberation of the Philippines, 1944-1945. Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1990.
Parrish, Thomas. The Ultra Americans: The U.S. Role in Breaking the Nazi Codes. New York: Stein and Day, 1986.
Pash, Boris. The Alsos Mission. New York: Award House, 1969.
Powys-Lybbe, Ursula. The Eyes of Intelligence. London: William Kimber and Co., Ltd., 1983.
Price, Alfred. The History of U.S. Electronic Warfare, vol. 1. Westford, Mass.: Association of Old Crows, 1984.
Putney, Diane, ed. Ultra and the Army Air Forces in World War II. An Interview with Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Louis E Powell. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Air Force History, 1987.
Rosengarten, Adolph G., Jr. "With ULTRA from Omaha Beach to Weimar, Germany-A Personal View." Military Affairs 42 (1978): 127-32.
Russell, Francis. The Secret War. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1981.
Sayer, Ian, and Boding, Douglas. America's Secret Army: The Untold Story of the Counter Intelligence Corps. London: Grafton Books, 1989.
Schiffman, Maurice K. "Technical Intelligence in the Pacific in World War IL" Military Review 31 (1952): 42-48.
Schwarzwalder, John. We Caught Spies. New York: Duel, Sloan, and Pierce, 1946.
Smith, Bradley. The Shadow Warriors: OSS and the Origins of the CIA. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Smith, Constance Babbington. Air Spy: The Story of Photo Intelligence in World War II. New York: Harper, 1957.
Smith, R. Harris. OSS, The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972.
Spector, Ronald H., ed. Listening to the Enemy. Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1988.
Spiller, Roger J. "Assessing Ultra." Military Review 49 (1979): 13-23.
Stanley, Col. Roy M., II. World War II Photo Reconnaissance and Photo
Interpretation Operations of the Allied and Axis Nations. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1981.
Strong, Maj. Gen. Sir Kenneth. Intelligence at the Top: Recollections of an Intelligence Officer. New York: Doubleday 1969.
Syrett, David. "The Secret Wars and the Historians." Armed Forces and Society 9 (1983): 293-328.
Thompson, G. R., and Harris, Dixie R. The Signal Corps: The Outcome. United States Army in World War II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1966.
Thorpe, Brig. Gen. Elliott R. East Wind, Rain: The Intimate Account of an Intelligence Officer in the Pacific. Boston: Gambit, 1969.
Troy Thomas F. Donovan and the CIA: A History of the Establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1984.
U.S. Far East Command. General Headquarters. A Brief History of the G2 Section, GHQ, SWPA, and Affiliated Units. 10 vols. Far East Command, 1948.
U.S. Forces, European Theater. Report of the General Board: Study No. 12, The Military Intelligence Service in the European Theater of Operations. U.S. Forces, European Theater, 1946.
______. Report of the General Board: Study No. 13, Organization and Operation of the Counter Intelligence Corps in the European Theater of Operations. U.S. Forces, European Theater, 1946.
______. Report of the General Board: Study No. 14, Organization and Operation of the Theater Intelligence Service, European Theater of Operations. U.S. Forces, European Theater, 1946.
______. Report of the General Board: Study No. 19, The Utilization of Tactical Air Force Reconnaissance Units of the Army Air Forces to Secure Information for Ground Forces in the European Theater. U.S. Forces, European Theater, 1946.
______. Report of the General Board: Study No. 20, Liaison Aircraft with Ground Forces Units. U.S. Forces, European Theater, 1946.
Williams, Robert W "Moving Information: The Third Imperative." Army 25 (1975): 17-21.
Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1962.
Military Intelligence Since World War II
Allen, Thomas B., and Polgar, Norman. Merchants of Treason: America's Secrets for Sale. New York: Delacorte Press, 1982.
Andrade, Dale. Ashes to Ashes: The Phoenix Program and the Vietnam War. Lexington, Ky: D. C. Heath, 1990.
Appleman, Roy H. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu. United States Army in the Korean War. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1961.
Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America's Most Secret Agency. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1982.
Bergen, John D. Military Communications: A Test for Technology. United States Army in Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1987.
Blair, Clay. The Forgotten War: America in Korea. New York: Times Books, 1988.
Clarke, Jeffrey J. Advice and Support: The Final Years. United States Army in Vietnam. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1988.
Cookridge, E. H. Gehlen: Spy of the Century. New York: Random House, 1971.
Corson, William R. The Armies of Ignorance. New York: Dial Press, 1977.
Cubbage, T. L., II. "Westmoreland vs. CBS: Was Intelligence Corrupted by Policy Demands?" Intelligence and National Security 3 (1988): 118-80.
Dabringhaus, Erhard. Maus Barbie: The Shocking Story of How the U.S. Used this War Criminal as an Intelligence Agent. Washington, D.C.: Acropolis Books, 1984.
Davidson, Philip B., and Glass, Robert R. Intelligence is for Commanders. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing, 1948.
DeForest, Orrin, and Chanoff, David. Slow Burn: The Rise and Bitter Fall of American Intelligence in Vietnam. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1990.
Emerson, Steven. Secret Warriors: Inside the Covert Military Operations of the Reagan Era. New York: Putnam, 1988.
England, James W. Long-Range Patrol Operations: Reconnaissance, Combat, and Special Operations. Boulder, Colo.: Paladin Press, 1987.
Fehrenbach, T. R. This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. New York: MacMillan, 1963.
Futrell, Robert E The United States Air Force in Southeast Asia: The Advisory Years to 1965. Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1981.
Gordon, Don. "CEWI Battalion: Intelligence and Electronic Warfare on the Battlefield." Military Intelligence 5 (1979): 22-28.
______. Electronic Warfare: Element of Strategy and Multiplier of Combat Power. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981.
Harmon, Col. William E. "Some Personal Observations on the CEWI Concept." Military Intelligence (1983 ): 4-6.
Hastings, Max. The Korean War. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1987.
Herrington, Stuart A. Silence Was a Weapon: The Vietnam War in the Villages. Novato: Presidio Press, 1982.
Heymont, Irving. Combat Intelligence in Modern Warfare. Harrisburg: Stackpole, 1960.
Hopple, Gerald W., and Watson, Bruce W , eds. The Military Intelligence Community. Westview Special Studies on Military Affairs. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1984.
Howard, William L. "The Army's Stepchild--Technical Intelligence." Military Intelligence 15 (1989): 29-32.
James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur, vol. 3, Triumph and Disaster, 1945-1964. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1985.
Jones, Bruce E. War Without Windows: A True Account of a Young Army Officer Trapped in an Intelligence Cover-Up. New York: Vanguard Press, 1987.
Kennedy, Col. William Vet al. Intelligence Warfare: Today's Advanced Technology Conflict. New York: Crescent Books, 1983.
Kirkpatrick, Lyman. The U.S. Intelligence Community: Foreign Policy and Domestic Activities. New York: Hill and Wang, 1973.
Lung, Col. Hoang Ngoc. Intelligence. Indochina Monographs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1982.
Marshall, S. L. A. The River and the Gauntlet: Defeat of the Eighth Army by the Chinese Communist Forces, November 1950, in the Battle of the Chongchon River, Korea. New York: Morrow, 1953.
McCauley, Nathan E. "The Military Intelligence Profession in the U.S. Army" Military Intelligence 13 (1987): 14-17, 37.
McChristian, Joseph A. The Role of Military Intelligence, 1965-1967. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1974.
McQueen, Lt. Col. Arthur D. "The Lion Goes to War." Military Intelligence (1977): 28-36.
Paddock, Alfred H. U.S. Army Special Warfare: Its Origins. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1982.
Palmer, General Bruce, Jr. The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam. New York: Simon and Shuster, 1984.
Prados, John. The Soviet Estimate: U.S. Intelligence Analysis and Soviet Military Strength. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986.______. The Hidden History of the Vietnam War. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995.
Pyle, Christopher H. Military Surveillance of Civilian Politics, 1967-1970. New York: Garland Publishers, 1986.
Ransom, Harry Howe. The Intelligence Establishment. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1970.
Richelson, Jeffrey. The U.S. Intelligence Community. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1985.
Ridgway, Matthew B. Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway, as told to Harold H. Martin. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.
Ryan, Allan R., Jr. Klaus Barbie and the United States Government: The Report, with Documentary Appendix, to the Attorney General of The United States. Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1984.
Saunders, Bruce. "The U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School." Military Intelligence 10 (1984): 61.
Schemmer, Benjamin E "Former DIA Director Urges That Four-Star Should Head All Military Intelligence." Armed Forces Journal International (1988): 24.
Sheehan, Neil. A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann and America in Vietnam. New York: Random House, 1988.
Singlaub, John K., with Malcolm McConnell. Hazardous Duty: An American Soldier in the Twentieth Century. New York: Summit Books, 1991.
Stewart, Col. John E et al. "Grenada." 7 parts. Military Intelligence 11 (1985): 7-24.
Toffler, Alvin and Heidi. War and Anti-War. Boston: Little Brown, 1994.
Tolson, John J. Airmobility, 1961-1971. Vietnam Studies. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1973.
Townsend, Elias C. Risks: The Key to Combat Intelligence. Harrisburg: Military Service Publishing Co., 1955.
Watson, Bruce W et al., eds. United States Intelligence: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Press, 1990.
Willoughby, Maj. Gen. Charles A., and Chamberlain, John. MacArthur, 1941-1951. New York: McGraw Hill, 1954.
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