Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1994
Management and Planning
After the Persian Gulf War, Congress charged the DOD to determine strategic mobility requirements in response to both the changing world environment and a revision of the national military strategy that calls for fewer forward-deployed forces and more reliance on forces based in the continental United States (CONUS). The congressionally mandated 1992 Mobility Requirements Study concluded that the military can increase its deployability only through investment in sealift, airlift, prepositioning, and transportation infrastructure. The study's major recommendations included buying up to twenty Large Medium-Speed RollOn/Roll-Off (RO/RO) ships, increasing the size of the Ready Reserve Force to include thirty-six RO/RO ships, improving airlift with procurement of the C-17 transport, placing an Army armored brigade afloat, and making numerous improvements in the CONUS strategic infrastructure.
In FY 1994 the Army established an interim Army Pre-positioned Afloat (APA) package to respond to major regional contingencies. The package consisted of an armor brigade set of equipment with doctrinal field artillery, combat engineer, air defense artillery, chemical, signal, logistics, and military intelligence support. Corps-and division-level combat support and combat service support units and 15 days of supply were also pre-positioned. The interim APA package had 12 ships: 7 Ready Reserve Force RO/RO ships with unit equipment; 3 Lighter Aboard Ships with a portion of the contingency corps' supplies; 1 T -class Auxiliary Crane Ship; and 1 Heavy Lift Pre-position Ship for port opening. Two leased container ships were scheduled to be operational in FY 1995 to complete the contingency corps' thirty-day supply package.
The Army also purchased 187 railcars for pre-positioning at key installations for rapid deployment and at select depots for basic load and early ammunition sustainment requirements. Half of the railcars measured 89 feet in length and are designed to hold up to four standard overseas
shipment containers. The other half were extra-wide 68-foot railcars designed to hold oversize equipment or one MIAI Abrams tank. The Army plans to buy a total of 1,630 railcars by FY 2001.
Depot maintenance is important to sustain the force because it is the only source of fully reconditioned and overhauled weapon systems and equipment for replenishment or redistribution to fill the equipment readiness needs of deployable Army units. In FY 1994 Army depot maintenance faced the challenges of providing the needs of a downsized force with reduced funding and a requirement to sustain an adequate organic depot infrastructure to meet wartime needs. The Army's participation in the Joint Cross Service Group for Depot Maintenance (JCSG-DM) helped formulate depot maintenance policies during the analysis process for Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) 1995. The JCSG-DM was one of six Joint Cross Service Groups created by the Deputy Secretary of Defense to work with the military departments and the defense agencies in areas with significant potential for cross-service impacts in BRAC 1995 and to enhance opportunities for consideration of cross-service trade-offs and multiservice use of remaining infrastructure. The JCSG-DM was to determine the common-support depot maintenance functions and to establish guidelines, standards, assumptions, measures of merit, data elements, and milestone schedules for the DOD components to conduct cross-service analyses of those common support functions.
The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) defined core requirements as "the capability maintained within organic defense depots to meet readiness and sustainability requirements of the weapon systems that support the Joint Chiefs of Staff contingency scenario(s). Core depot maintenance will comprise only the minimum facilities, equipment, and skilled personnel necessary to ensure a ready and controlled source of required technical competence." The OSD-approved methodology for determining core requirements resulted in an Army calculation of 14.6 million direct labor hours allocated among sixty-three weapon systems. This core requirement formed the basis for the BRAC 1995 analysis.
The Army participated in a Defense Science Board Depot Maintenance Task Force, composed of both government and industry representatives, which studied how the depot maintenance workload should be allocated among the public and private sectors. The Task Force recommendations included replacing the "60/40" policy and other legislative restrictions with a concept consistent with the core requirements policy; eliminating public-to-private and public-to-public competitions; sizing organic depot maintenance capacity to the core requirements; and assign-
ing selected noncore workload to the private sector, which would support the maintenance of its industrial base capabilities.
In FY 1994 the Army began implementing a conversion from JP-4 aviation fuel to the safer JP-8 fuel in CONUS. All overseas unified commands had previously converted or were in the process of converting to a single fuel suitable for both aviation and ground equipment. The FY 1994 CONUS conversion started on the West Coast in October 1993, followed by the Gulf and East Coast regions in April 1994. Conversions for the remainder of the country were scheduled to continue through FY 1995 and FY 1996.
The Clean Air Act, which followed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory guidance, went into effect on 1 October 1994, and it required 0.05 percent low-sulfur fuel in diesel engines for highway use. The Army wanted to use JP-8 fuel in CONUS to improve deployment readiness. Using JP-8 reduces the filter clogging that combat vehicles experienced in transitions from diesel fuel to JP-8 before overseas deployments or upon arrival overseas. With a sulfur content of 0.3 percent, however, JP-8 fuel did not meet the EPA specification limit.
In FY 1994, at the Army's request, the Defense Fuel Supply Center (DFSC) awarded contracts for provision of nonspecification 0.05 percent low-sulfur JP-8 fuel to major deployment installations. Later-deploying units remained on low-sulfur diesel fuel (LSDF). Since the availability of nonspecification low-sulfur JP-8 fuel presented supply difficulties, the Tank-Automotive Command (TACOM) Mobility Technical Center began testing emissions from standard JP-8 fuel, which was inherently "cleaner" than LSDE. These tests concluded in FY 1994 that standard JP-8 fuel emissions were equal to or less than the emissions standards set by the EPA for LSDE. Based on test results that revealed military specification JP-8 fuel met the standards of the Clean Air Act, the DOD planned to request a blanket EPA exemption to use standard JP-8 fuel instead of LSDF or low-sulfur JP-8 fuel.
During FY 1994 the Army also prepared to adopt a revised bulk petroleum management policy. The new policy resulted from a DOD expansion of the Defense Logistics Agency's (DLA) bulk petroleum responsibilities in 1992. The DOD directed the military services to consolidate their primary bulk petroleum storage but allow them to continue at their option to exercise operational control at their respective installations. Under this policy change the DLA would assume ownership of fuel in Army intermediate jet fuel storage sites in CONUS and selected sites in Korea and Germany, plus USAREUR war reserve stocks. Implementation of policy
changes addressing subsequent consolidation of installation storage systems was scheduled to begin in October 1993. In FY 1994, however, consolidation was officially delayed until October 1997 to allow for development of a new Fuels Automation Management System to replace the current Defense Fuel Automated Management System.
Under the planned management consolidation policy changes, all Army fuel storage facilities that receive fuel through post, camp, and station contracts and serve more than one customer will be capitalized to the DLA. Once the facilities are capitalized, the DLA will assume the funding responsibility for maintenance and repair, military construction for the storage sites, and funding for all associated environmental costs that occur after capitalization. Environmental costs include funding of state and federal operating permits and cleanup of spills and leaks that occur after capitalization.
With the announced delay of capitalization in FY 1994, the Army requested that the DFSC assume the funding responsibility for maintenance and repair, military construction, and environmental permits, as well as other environmental costs for installations that will be capitalized in FY 1997. The DFSC agreed in FY 1994 to begin funding these requirements on 1 October 1995.
In FY 1994 the Army carried out the first operational deployment of Force Provider, a tent-based system that contains all of the materiel necessary to provide high-quality food, billeting, laundry, personal hygiene, and morale, welfare, and recreation to a battalion-size force. The system began development in 1991, after the CSA identified quality of life as a crucial element in improving overall combat readiness. Its modular design allows each module, which supports 550 soldiers, to be joined with other system modules to support a force from battalion to brigade size or larger. It gives the frontline soldier a brief respite from the rigors of the combat theater. In addition to increasing the capability for force projection, it also increases the capability for theater reception and reconstitution missions, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief operations.
The Combat and Materiel Developers' program for Force Provider identified DOD inventory and nondevelopmental items, which were integrated into a field-tested prototype module. Limited procurement of Force Provider began in FY 1993, followed by the completion of an operational test in November 1993. Following the demonstration and evaluation of one module by the XVIII Airborne Corps in November, the corps received the module for training and to enhance its early force-projection capability. This module was deployed in support of Task Force 160 at Guantanamo, Cuba, in FY 1994 to support U.S. personnel in the Caribbean during Haitian refugee interception operations.
Force Provider will be operated by a Quartermaster Type B cadre unit (equivalent to approximately 44 supervisory personnel) augmented by contractor, host-nation, or borrowed military manpower, or a combination thereof. One Force Provider unit can operate up to six modules (a brigadesize force). The 488th Quartermaster Company was activated in FY 1994 at Fort Bragg to operate Force Provider.
In late FY 1992 the Army had initiated the building of twelve interim modules, primarily from existing Army inventory. In FY 1994 six of these modules, comprising Interim Support Package No. 1, were completed and
loaded on the Army pre-position ship Gopher State. Six more modules, making up Interim Support Package No. 2, were completed and placed in storage at Sierra Army Depot. The support equipment necessary to set up Force Provider was assembled and loaded on the Army pre-position ship Cape Wrath. The Army plans to procure up to 36 Force Provider modules, with 24 modules to be stored in U.S. depots and the remaining 12 prepositioned afloat.
Security assistance is an important element in national security. Army security assistance goals vary from region to region. In Asia, the objectives are to expand U.S. influence, increase access to key locations, modernize equipment and force structure, and create a climate of trust and stability. In the Middle East (including Greece), the Army assists friendly states by providing military equipment and training for their own security, preventing coercion of these states, and preserving U.S. access. In Europe, Army security assistance is undergoing a major effort to modernize and standardize equipment and doctrine among North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies. In Latin America (including the Caribbean) and Africa, security assistance helps developing countries to upgrade and professionalize their ground forces and teaches respect for human and civil rights.
In FY 1994 security assistance support in Asia went to Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand through the Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program. Taiwan received DOD approval to purchase the Avenger Pedestal-Mounted Stinger System antiaircraft missile, the Chaparral MIM-72J missile, and the Armored Gun System (AGS). Taiwan took delivery of sixteen of twenty-six OH-58D armed scout helicopters that it had already purchased. Taiwan also signed a commercial contract with the Raytheon Company for the Modified Air Defense System. An amendment to Japan's Black Hawk/Sea Hawk memorandum of understanding authorized production of additional UH-60 helicopters in Japan. Intensive negotiations continued on a possible upgrading of the 105-mm. main tank
gun on the Republic of Korea Indigenous Tank to 120-mm. This tank was developed with U.S. assistance and utilizes substantial M1 and M60 technology. Korea also concluded a coproduction agreement to produce M109A2 self-propelled howitzers. Thailand purchased 125 M60A3TTS tanks and received a waiver of restrictions on the release of AN/AVS-6 third-generation night-vision goggles to support Thailand's fleet of Iroquois and Cobra helicopters.
Security assistance in the Middle East (including Greece) went to Israel, Greece, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, Egypt, Jordan, and the Palestinian National Authority. Israel purchased six MLRS's with a minimal support package for delivery in December 1994. The launchers and some other items were diverted from Army production and depot stock to meet the delivery schedule. Greece purchased 18 MLRS's with support items and services. Nine were from assets initially produced for Saudi Arabia and the other nine were from new production. Deliveries were scheduled for 1995. Lebanon purchased 175 excess M113A2 Armored Personnel Carriers, the first installment toward a fleet of 675. This purchase was the first major one by Lebanon since the security assistance program was reinstated as part of the peace process for that country. The FMS program for the Saudi Ministry of Defense and Aviation was restricted by continuing Saudi cash flow problems during FY 1994. No new weapon systems sales were initiated. The Saudis canceled their MLRS program. The U.S. government found another FMS customer to take over the program with a resultant saving to Saudi Arabia of $50 million. The Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG) FMS program was not restricted by cash flow problems. Delivery of Light Armor Vehicles (LAVs) to the SANG continued on schedule. The SANG received more than 300 LAVs during FY 1994. Significant FMS activities for Kuwait included the Presidential Determination of July 1994 that approved the release of depleted uranium 120-mm. tank ammunition to Kuwait. The approval resulted in an FMS for tank ammunition valued at $25.9 million. The first of 218 MIA2 Abrams tanks destined for Kuwait under the FMS program received an acceptance ceremony at the Lima, Ohio, tank plant in August 1994. The remaining tanks are scheduled for production through December 1995. Bahrain's first Excess Defense Articles (EDA) acquisition under section 516 of the Foreign Assistance Act was approved in April 1994. Six AH-1P Cobra training helicopters were provided as EDA. A Presidential Determination issued in July 1994 authorized the sale of 105-mm. M833 depleted uranium tank ammunition to Bahrain for use with its M60A3 tanks. In April the first U.S.-Qatar Military Consultative Committee was held in Washington, D.C. Qatar purchased only training but established a foundation for future FMS program pur-
chases of weapons and materiel. The UAE continued to request a variety of FMS logistics support and services for two major systems, the HAWK air defense system and the AH-64A Apache attack helicopter. Oman completed its Tube-launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Command-Link Guided (TOW) missile upgrade program. Oman also received computer equipment for a training center and language laboratory. The Oman Royal Guard acquired M16A2 rifles from the Special Defense Acquisition Fund, but the U.S. Army lost a potential $4 million sale of M16A2 rifles when the assets were diverted to Kuwait during Operation VIGILANT WARRIOR. Egypt received its final installment of the AH-64A Apache attack helicopter program with receipt of 24 aircraft and signed a letter of agreement for an additional 12 aircraft to be delivered in 1997. Egypt also purchased 340 M60A3 tanks equipped with thermal sights and 78 M113A2 armored personnel carriers, in addition to quantities of M35A2 trucks, M85 machine guns, M239 grenade launchers, and M815 cannon tubes under the Southern Region Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA). FMS to Jordan included 30 Cobra helicopters, 18 UH-1H helicopters, and various antiaircraft systems. Jordan also negotiated with the United States for the purchase of six Black Hawk helicopters. The exercise of presidential drawdown authority under the FAA provided the Palestinian National Authority with 150 Commercial Utility Cargo Vehicles (CUCVs) and 50 M35A2 trucks.
In Africa, the Department of State provided the DOD with $5.5 million in peacekeeping funds to purchase 28 High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles, 16 five-ton trucks, and other equipment to support peacekeeping units from the Economic Community of West African States Cease-Fire Monitoring Group in Liberia. Materiel was delivered to Liberia in September 1994 for use by units from Ghana and Tanzania. These countries in turn will retain the materiel upon completion of their assignments in Liberia.
Security assistance in Europe went to Germany, Switzerland, France, the UN, and NATO. In August 1994 the Defense Security Assistance Agency gave the Army approval to conclude a memorandum of agreement that permits Germany to acquire and coproduce Air-to-Air Stinger missile subsystem components. The Army also received agreements with Germany and with Switzerland to negotiate the release of the Stinger. France executed an eleven-month lease in December 1993 for seven Ground/Vehicular Laser Locator designators with ground support equipment and a logistics support package for use in operations in Bosnia. The UN leased AN/TPQ-36 and AN/TPQ-37 Firefinder Radars for use in Bosnia by Jordanian forces. Finally, the U.S. Army concluded a coproduction agreement with NATO for the HAWK air defense system European Limited Improvement Program.
In Latin America (including the Caribbean), security assistance went to Argentina, Colombia, Bolivia, Jamaica, Ecuador, Guyana, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Haiti, and the seven Eastern Caribbean island nations of Antigua-Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. As Argentina continued to upgrade its existing military assets in FY 1994, the U.S. Army transferred 10 OV-1D Mohawk aircraft and support equipment to Argentina under the FAA. The Argentine Army also acquired approximately $2 million in spare and repair parts for its fleet of M113 armored personnel carriers. Colombia received $7.7 million in Foreign Military Financing (FMF) grant monies. Bolivia received $2.967 million for use exclusively in the counterdrug war. Jamaica received up to $1.5 million in DOD assistance under FAA presidential drawdown authority. Jamaica received five inflatable boats to assist in securing Kingston Harbor and processing Haitian migrants. Jamaica also received $300,000 in FMF funding, primarily to improve the drug interdiction capabilities of the Jamaican Defense Forces. In February 1994 the U.S. Army completed the transfer of $2 million in disaster relief to Ecuador under FAA presidential drawdown authority. The U.S. Army Security Assistance Command (USASAC) transferred six excess Bailey bridges from U.S. Army assets in Europe, and a three-man mobile training team supervised the installation. Ecuador also received $130,000 in FMF, exclusively to support its counterdrug efforts. Guyana received $180,000 in FMF to assist in the development of a counterdrug capability. The President authorized a $12 million drawdown under the FAA for the Dominican Republic to assist in sealing its border with Haiti. The U.S. Army transferred an estimated $10 million in materiel, including six UH-1 helicopters, fifty CUCVs, radios, and troop support equipment. The Dominican Republic also received $300,000 in FMF grant monies, primarily to support U.S. and UN efforts to topple the former military junta in Haiti. In response to a native uprising in the Chiapas region of Mexico, Army Security Assistance provided the Mexican Army with 55,000 Meals Ready to Eat (MRE), rations to feed national military forces in that region. USASAC also provided Mexico with fifty AN/PVS-7 third-generation ground night-vision goggles. The seven island Eastern Caribbean nations of Antigua-Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, St. Christopher-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines received a total of $390,000 FMF grant monies to encourage the expansion of the seven-nation Regional Security System which, among other things, promotes counterinsurgency and antidrug efforts.
Army Security Assistance training varies from year to year, depending upon the amount of equipment sold under the FMS program. Another variant is the money appropriated for training under the International
Military Education and Training (IMET) Program. In FY 1994 the Army trained 5,825 FMS students, its largest number to date, at a cost of $76 million. The Army deployed ninety-eight new teams from outside CONUS, with a total of 379 personnel, to twenty-five different countries. These teams supported equipment sales, installation, maintenance, and some training. The IMET appropriation for FY 1994 was $21.1 million. Of that amount, 113 countries spent $9 million on Army training. A total of 1,383 IMET international students were trained during this period. The large training load in FMS was due to the sale of the HAWK air defense system to the UAE, AH-60 Apache attack helicopters to Egypt and the UAE, and the M1A1 tank to Saudi Arabia and Egypt.
Army security assistance faced two major challenges in FY 1994. The first was the provision of materiel and training in support of peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. The Army provided peacekeeping and humanitarian assistance either unilaterally or through the UN to twelve countries. This assistance consisted mostly of materiel such as tactical wheeled vehicles, bridges, trailers, radars, armored personnel carriers, helicopters, tanks, radios, support and individual equipment, spare parts, and rations, all valued at a total of approximately $500 million. While some of these costs were reimbursable to the Army, others, such as grants, were not. The Army used its own funds to transport items transferred under grant to their final destination. The other significant challenge was that the number of foreign students from the former Warsaw Pact and Soviet Union attending Army schools continued to increase dramatically. The program expanded from three nations in 1991 to twenty-four countries in 1994. The Army allocated almost 20 percent of the funds appropriated for the International Military Education and Training program to former Soviet republics and countries in Eastern Europe such as Albania, Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Poland, and Estonia. Total Army security assistance sales of equipment, training, and other support services for FY 1994 amounted to $2 billion.
During FY 1994 the U.S. Army participated in the XXI Conference of American Armies (CAA). The Army's participation in the CAA since its formation in 1960 reflects the service's support for US. national interests in the area. The CAA is a biennial forum for Western Hemisphere armies designed to promote cohesion, improve hemispheric security, and strengthen inter-American military-to-military relations. The CAA comprises seven specialized conferences, a Preparatory Conference, and a Commanders' Conference held in a member army's country during a twoyear period. The seven specialized conferences are Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations; Logistics; Training and Military Education; Science, Technology, and Medicine; Communications; Intelligence; and Military Law Symposium.
The Army Staff's participation in the CAA reflects support for U.S. policy and defense interests in the region, including a commitment to fostering democracy, development, and dialogue with our southern neighbors. The U.S. Army also seeks to promote improved cooperative defense within the context of greater respect for democracy and human rights among the militaries in the region, as well as improved civil-military relations. The Chief of Staff, Army, determined that the CAA is a key priority program to support attainment of regional U.S. policies on an army-toarmy basis.
Argentina hosted the XXI CAA during FY 1994. There are sixteen permanent member states of the CAA: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Observer armies and international organizations in good standing are Antigua-Barbuda; Barbados; Costa Rica; Jamaica; Mexico; Trinidad and Tobago; the Inter-American Defense Board; and COPECODECA, the Permanent Council for the Cooperative Defense of Central America, composed of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Haiti and Panama were inactive observers in FY 1994. The XXI CAA specialized conferences conducted in FY 1994 were: IV Civil Affairs, 9-13 May, in Guatemala City, Guatemala; and II Logistics, 31 July-5 August, in Brasilia, Brazil.
The U.S. Army also participated in Defense Analysis Seminar VIII during the fiscal year. The Defense Analysis Seminar began in 1981 and has been held at two-year intervals. It is held at the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses in Seoul and is cosponsored by the Deputy Under Secretary of the Army (Operations Research) (DUSA [OR]) and the President of the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses. The purpose of the seminar is to foster international discussions on analysis pertinent to current Republic of Korea-United States issues. Emphasis is placed on improving analytic methodologies and presenting specific study results. It gives the United States and the Republic of Korea an opportunity to share research, analysis, and techniques of common interest within the defense programs of the countries. Presentations for the Defense Analysis Seminar are competitively selected by the DUSA (OR) and the President of the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses.
The theme of the Defense Analysis Seminar VIII, Designing, Sizing, and Controlling the Force, was most timely. U.S. and Republic of Korea forces were undergoing great changes, with the U.S. force transforming to Force XXI. The scientific and analytical communities never before had the opportunities or challenges presented by this age of shared data, universal databases, real-time reporting, and instantaneous radio communications and intelligence.
Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDTE)
RDTE is critical to the support of Army modernization programs. Table 16 shows budget figures representing the procurement of end items, RDTE, and FY 1994 Total Obligation Authority (TOA) in the FY 1994-1999 Program Objective Memorandum (POM), which was formulated in June 1992; the FY 1994-1995 Budget Estimate Submission (BES), which was prepared in September 1992; and the FY 1994-1995 Presidential Budget (PRESBUD) request, finalized in February 1993:
TABLE 16-PROCUREMENT BUDGET FIGURES (IN THOUSANDS)
|FY 1994-1999 BES||FY 1994-1995 POM||FY 1994-1995 PRESBUD (Request)|
FY 1994 TOA
The Army's Chemical and Biological Defense Technology Program plays a prominent role in research and development. In FY 1994 the Chemical and Biological Defense Technology Program had eight notable accomplishments. First, the program successfully installed and operated a frequency-agile laser in a cooperative international effort with the French government. The laser's capabilities included detection, identification, and mapping of chemical agent vapors, aerosols, and liquids on the ground at distances up to three kilometers. Second, the program demonstrated a pressure swing absorption filtration system that offered the potential to reduce significantly or eliminate the need for NBC filter replacement. Third, the Light Vehicle Obscuration Screening System (LVOSS) moved ahead to the concept demonstration and validation phase. LVOSS, which dispenses smoke to the front and rear of a light vehicle to obscure the vehicle, uses nonfragmenting grenades and environmentally safe materials. LVOSS emphasizes the protection of antiarmor vehicles from visual threats. Fourth, the program demonstrated an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry technique for biomolecule analysis through identification of phospholipids. This technique is applicable to the mass spectrometric detection and identification of biological agents. Fifth, the program completed the purification of the most highly reactive, broad-spectrum organophosphorus anhydrolase yet discovered. The gene coding for the production of the enzyme was successfully cloned into E. coli and demonstrated that 1 gram of the recombinant
cells can degrade 0.8 gram molecules of organophosphorus agent per minute. Sixth, the program demonstrated a previously unknown mechanism for the destruction of the highly toxic nerve agent VX (0-ethyl, S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate). This discovery opened the way for one of the most successful alternatives to the incineration of the U.S. VX stockpile. Seventh, the program devised a special marking round that allowed terrain designation for forward air controllers to coordinate close air support and minimize fratricide during combat operations. Eighth, the program demonstrated a unique fiber optic probe and Raman spectrometer that could be used to identify nonintrusively the contents of vials from obsolete Chemical Agent Identification Sets before demilitarization and disposal.
The Army's Science and Technology Base underwent significant restructuring during the fiscal year after implementing 1991 and 1993 BRAG Commission recommendations. BRAG 1991 recommendations led to the establishment of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). The ARL evolved from the Army Materiel Command's Laboratory Command and elements of the Army Research Institute; Belvoir Research, Development, and Engineering Center; Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics; Tank-Automotive Command; Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center; and the Army Institute for Research in Management Information, Communications, and Computer Sciences. Also as part of BRAC 1991, the Medical Research and Materiel Command reduced the number of medical research laboratories from nine to six. In addition, the Command relocated seven medical programs among existing Army, Navy, and Air Force medical laboratories. BRAC 1993 recommendations disestablished the Belvoir Research, Development, and Engineering Center and closed the Vint Hill Farms Station.
The Army's ballistic missile defense program made moderate progress in FY 1994. In FY 1993 the Army had convened a Senior Review Council (SRC) composed of general officers and civilians representing the Army and the Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The council's mission was to assess and ultimately recommend which two missiles should be incorporated into the Patriot system to provide effective defense against theater ballistic missiles. The council met quarterly for more than a year. Its deliberations were supported by a technical missile review board that analyzed test results and conducted almost one million detailed computer simulations of the performance of the candidate missiles in defeating a wide variety of theater ballistic and cruise missile attacks. The Training and Doctrine Command also conducted a cost and operational analysis, based in part on the same simulations.
Early in 1994 the findings of the SRC were reported to the Army leadership and then to the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD). The OSD
directed a panel of experts drawn from non-Army sources to review the selection process and its results. The panel judged the process and the results appropriate and the OSD accepted these findings. In June 1994 the OSD Defense Resources Board approved the Patriot program at a Defense Acquisition Board meeting.
The Army's weapon systems modernization strategy in FY 1994 continued to be guided by a post-Cold War environment defined by new global challenges and fiscal constraints. The service adhered to a strategy of buying a limited number of new weapons, such as the RAH-66 Comanche armed reconnaissance helicopter and the Advanced Field Artillery System and Future Armored Resupply Vehicle, while extending the lives and improving the capabilities of existing systems. This strategy allowed management of scarce modernization resources by limiting large investment and inserting information technologies, using Horizontal Technology Integration (HTI) and Vertical Technology Integration (VTI), to significantly increase the capabilities and utilization of proven weapons. HTI is the strategy of applying enabling command, control, and communications technologies throughout multiple systems to improve warfighting capabilities. The Army's major HTI effort in FY 1994 involved the application of digital technologies to a heavy task force that was digitally linked to a brigade in the Advanced Warfighting Experiment, DESERT HAMMER VI, at the National Training Center. VTI is the application of an enabling technology within a system to upgrade operational capability, to reduce cost, or to improve its warfighting capability. For example, in FY 1994 the Patriot Advanced Capability III program highlighted an ongoing VTI effort to enhance the operational capabilities of the Patriot air defense artillery missile system with modifications that included an improved missile and radar. Despite the success of these upgrading efforts, the Army recognizes that there is a point beyond which additional technological insertions to existing systems will provide only marginal improvements to capabilities.
FY 1994 proved to be a critical year in the development of the Army's deep attack capability. Deep attack weapon systems provide the Army an advanced, nonnuclear family of long-range field artillery missiles and munitions to attack a varied array of fixed and mobile, hard and soft targets. In FY 1993 the Army's deep attack capability depended on the fielded Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) Block I missile and continued development of the Army variant of the Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile (TSSAM). TSSAM was a joint Army, Navy, and Air Force program. The program objective was to develop a family of affordable, highly survivable, conventional, stealthy cruise missiles that would satisfy triservice requirements to effectively engage a variety of high-value land and sea targets. The Army variant was to carry the BAT brilliant antiarmor
submunition, a dual-sensor (acoustic and infrared) smart submunition, to be launched from the MLRS M270 Launcher. In FY 1994 the Army terminated the TSSAM program after assessing it to be a high risk. In addition to a long history of technical problems, engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) costs doubled, production unit cost projections tripled, and the initial fielding date continually slipped.
When the termination of TSSAM left the Army with no deep attack carrier for the BAT submunition, the Army chose a variant of the ATACMS Block I missile, the Block 11 missile, as the service's new BAT carrier. The Army considered the integration of the BAT into the proven ATACMS system to be the lowest risk approach to provide the service a deep attack capability. ATACMS Block 11 missiles would incorporate thirteen BAT submunitions out to a range of 124 kilometers to attack specific armored, mobile combat vehicles.
The ATACMS Block IIA missile, an extended-range version of the Block II missile, will carry a preplanned improvement BAT submunition out to a range of 248 kilometers. The Army initiated the preplanned improvement BAT program in FY 1994. The Army also stretched the BAT EMD from a 54-month effort to a 79-month effort scheduled for completion in FY 1998 to realign it with the Block 11 ATACMS program.
The Joint Precision Strike Demonstration (JPSD) conducted a surface-to-surface ATACMS weapons demonstration in FY 1994 that furthered the Army's goal of achieving a deep attack capability. Since its organization in 1992, the JPSD's mission has focused on improving the joint force commander's capability to conduct precision strike operations. The goal of the JPSD to develop an adverse weather, day and night, sensor-to-shooter deep fire precision strike capability against high-value mobile targets at extended range continued in FY 1994. JPSD continued conducting demonstrations highlighting technical capabilities and operational concepts to solve precision strike problems.
The 1994 demonstration highlighted the U.S. Army's Extended Range Army Tactical Missile System (ER ATACMS) Block IA and IIA missiles. Block IA missiles are used to attack tactical surface-to-surface missile sites, air defense systems, logistics elements, and command, control, and communications complexes. Block IIA missiles are being developed to attack mobile targets such as surface-to-surface missile launchers in precision strike missions against time-critical deep targets. All ER ATACMS activities throughout the United States were controlled and monitored from JPSD's Integration and Evaluation Center at the U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
Meanwhile, production and development continued on basic ATACMS, with its antipersonnel and antimateriel warhead. ATACMS Block I entered its fourth year of full-rate production with procurement of
255 missiles. The ATACMS Block IA entered its first year of a 36-month EMD. The ATACMS Block IIA is planned to enter EMD during 1998 and begin production in 2002.
Other significant developments in field artillery systems in FY 1994 included the test firings of an MLRS rocket and an ATACMS rocket from the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) and the development of the Sense and Destroy Armor (SADARM) submunition. HIMARS, a development of the MLRS family, mounts a six-rocket MLRS launcher on a medium tactical vehicle five-ton truck and has the same fire control, electronics, and communications systems as the M270 MLRS launcher. It is transportable by C-130 aircraft to areas inaccessible to C-5 and C-141 transports, which carry the M270 launcher. SADARM is a fire-and-forget submunition that is delivered to the target area by 155mm. artillery projectiles or the MLRS and is designed to detect and destroy armored vehicles, primarily self-propelled artillery. SADARM entered EMD in March 1988. In April 1994 performance testing of 155mm. SADARM projectiles exceeded performance requirements and enabled SADARM entry into low-rate production.
The Army received six prototype XM8 Armored Gun System (AGS) vehicles in FY 1994 from a contractor for technical and early user testing. The AGS is viewed as a replacement for the Vietnam-era M551A1 Sheridan armored assault vehicle. The AGS is equipped with a 105-mm. main gun, manned by a crew of three, and designed for rapid strategic and tactical deployment. Its design also permits rapid installation of two additional versions of add-on, modular armor protection that allow deploying units to tailor the AGS to meet expected threats. The AGS base version weighs 19.5 tons. The level-two combat-loaded weight version is just over 23 tons, and the level-three combat-loaded weight version about 25.5 tons. The base level and level-two AGS versions are transportable on C-130 aircraft. The AGS can also be airdropped by parachute. Extensive AGS testing is scheduled to continue through 1997.
The Army started eight Advanced Technology Demonstrations (ATDs) in FY 1994. ATDs facilitate the integration of proposed technologies into a full demonstration or engineering and manufacturing development.
The Composite Armored Vehicle (CAV) ATD (1994-1997) will examine a lighter weight, more survivable ground combat vehicle using advanced composite structural materials and advanced lightweight armor.
CAV ATD plans envision using a 22-ton weight-class platform. The demonstration is intended to emphasize manufacturability, repairability, nondestructive testing, and structural and ballistic integrity.
The Precision Guided Mortar Munition (PGMM) ATD will explore two major enhancements for 120-mm. mortars. The PGMM ATD intends to utilize fire-and-forget smart munitions in 120-mm. mortars and to
extend the mortar's range from approximately seven kilometers to approximately 15 kilometers.
The Enhanced Fiber Optic Guided Missile (EFOGM) ATD is intended to demonstrate improvements in the Fiber Optic Guided Missile System. EFOGM ATD plans anticipate enabling a gunner in defilade to engage and defeat enemy armored combat vehicles, other high-value ground targets, and rotary-wing aircraft that may be masked from line-ofsight weapon systems, day or night, at ranges up to 15 kilometers.
The Objective Individual Combat Weapon ATD will demonstrate technologies for a new small-arms weapon system. The weapon system, a combination rifle and grenade launcher, is intended to yield dramatically improved hit probabilities and terminal effects compared to the existing grenade launcher and M16A2 rifle.
The Hunter Sensor Suite ATD will demonstrate a lightweight, deployable, and durable Hunter platform equipped with an advanced long-range sensor suite for early-entry light forces. The suite will combine a secondgeneration thermal imager, day television, an eyesafe laser rangefinder and automatic target recognition processor, and a communications system for linkage to a command, control, and communications network.
The Generation II Soldier ATD will demonstrate the design utility of a multicomponent integrated soldier system. The system is to be composed of various devices to improve soldier protection, comfort, and situational awareness.
The Total Distribution ATD will demonstrate through integrating technologies the means to improve tracking logistics total asset visibility. Total Distribution ATD plans anticipate examining automated logistics planning tools; computer simulation and modeling techniques; advanced microelectronics; satellite tracking; and communication systems. The ATD is intended to display requirements and locations of logistic assets at strategic, operational, and tactical levels.
The Off Route Smart Mine Clearance ATD will evaluate countermeasure techniques to neutralize side-attack smart mines situated near roads that pose threats to combat and logistics vehicles. The demonstration intends to trigger a premature smart-mine activation by employing a remote controlled vehicle emulating the acoustic and seismic signatures of a combat vehicle.
The Army completed one ATD, AirLand Battle Management (ALBM), during the fiscal year. The ALBM ATD demonstrated that advanced computer planning and battle monitoring decision aids reduced operational and tactical planning times to speed up the decision-making process.
In FY 1994 the Army adopted a new DOD acquisition strategy initiative, the Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD). The ACTD surpasses the ATD in being a more thorough technology demon-
stration and in developing concepts of operation and doctrine to optimize a system's capability. The ACTD enhances the acquisition process by allowing the Army to better evaluate a technology before committing to its acquisition.
The Army approved three ACTDs in FY 1994. The Precision/Rapid Counter-Multiple Rocket Launcher ACTD will examine technologies to defeat North Korean 240-mm. multiple-launch rockets. The Rapid Force Projection Initiative ACTD will demonstrate technologies intended to provide early-entry light forces greater durability in a confrontation with a heavy force. The Joint Countermine ACTD will integrate Army, Navy, and Marine Corps technologies in demonstrating mine-countermine operations. Two Joint Countermine ACTD demonstrations are planned, one focusing on land combat, and one on deep and shallow water mine-countermine operations.
The Army redesignated the Advanced Concepts and Technology (ACT) Program as ACT II during the fiscal year. Formerly the ACT Program provided initial funding for proof-of-principle demonstrations of high-risk and high-payoff technologies proposed by sources outside the Army. Beginning in FY 1994, ACT II began providing direct support to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command's Battle Lab program and Louisiana Maneuvers Task Force. ACT II is intended to help solve Army problems by encouraging the application of emerging technologies that would not ordinarily be supported by the Army because of risk or lack of funding.
In FY 1994 the U.S. Army Communications-Electronics Command (CECOM) let a $72.2 million, 48-month contract to develop the second generation Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) Horizontal Technology Integration program. The Army intends to integrate the second generation FLIR into the M2A2 Bradley Commander's Independent Viewer, the M2A3 Improved Bradley Acquisition Subsystem, the MIA2 Abrams Commander's Independent Thermal Viewer and Gunner's Primary Sight Thermal Imaging System, the M8 Armored Gun System Gunner's Primary Sighting System and Thermal Imaging System, and the LongRange Advanced Scout Surveillance System.
CECOM also let a $20 million contract to develop a system to enable the Army's light forces to detect and locate targets from beyond the effective range of enemy direct-fire weapons. Under the 48-month Hunter Sensor Suite Program, the contractor is to develop a technology demonstration system and integrate it in the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle. The project is part of the Army's rapid force projection program. The sensor system is to include a second generation FLIR sensor, an eyesafe laser range finder, a day TV video camera, acoustic sensors, and advanced processing. The program will be
managed by the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
During FY 1994 the enhanced position location reporting system (EPLRS), a major component of the Army Data Distribution System (ADDS), began low-rate production after the Army completed initial operational testing and evaluation on the system. ADDS provides commanders a tactical data system to support the Army tactical command and control system and other battlefield automated systems. It is intended to provide near real-time data distribution in division and corps areas in an anticipated electronic countermeasures environment. EPLRS is for medium-speed data distribution. The other major component of ADDS is the joint tactical information distribution system (JTIDS) for high-speed data distribution. JTIDS continued engineering development during FY 1994.
Army aviation Longbow Hellfire and laser Hellfire missile development continued in FY 1994. Longbow Hellfire, a fire-and-forget, adverse weather, air-to-ground missile is used primarily to defeat armored vehicles or other mobile targets. It uses a radio-frequency millimeter wave seeker to find and lock on to targets and is an integral part of the AH-64D Longbow Apache and RAH-66 Comanche programs. Twenty-five Longbow Hellfire developmental tests met all major objectives during the fiscal year.
Laser Hellfire is an air-to-ground missile system of the AH-64 Apache, OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, Special Operations helicopters, and the RAH-66 Comanche to defeat armored vehicles and other individual point targets. The missile locks on to reflected laser energy provided by the launching aircraft or other remote designator. The Army awarded a first production contract for the optimized version, Hellfire 11 (AGM-114K), in May 1993, with deliveries scheduled for FY 1995. The improved Hellfire II included hardening of the laser seeker countermeasures, warhead improvements to defeat advanced reactive armor, electronic fuzing, and modifications in length and weight. The Army awarded a second production contract for 3,905 missiles in February 1994.
The Army worked on development of an Advanced Precision Airborne Delivery System (APADS) during FY 1994 to get equipment and supplies to the battlefield when vehicular resupply is unavailable or unfeasible. Traditionally, the Army has relied on standard parachutes to deliver such materiel. The APADS will deliver goods with more accuracy, in less optimal conditions, and from higher altitudes than current delivery systems. APADS will use a packaged, nonrigid wing that extends when pulled from the rear of a C-130, C-141, or C-17 aircraft by a drogue parachute. Once the APADS platform stabilizes itself, it snaps into its gliding wing configuration. From there, the global positioning system (GPS) guidance package directs the cargo to within meters of its target location.
Unlike contemporary parachutes, the APADS glider will perform accurately even in winds up to 20 knots, and depending on the altitude of the C-130, C-141, or C-17, the glider will be able to use a series of turns and maneuvers to deliver its payload up to forty miles from the site and at altitudes of 25,000 feet or more.
The challenges of airdropping humanitarian supplies into BosniaHerzegovina during Operation PROVIDE PROMISE in FY 1994 led the Army to develop a bigger parachute, the G-12D (Modified). This is a modified version of an older parachute, which allows high-velocity parachutes to be dropped at lower velocity. The new modifications were designed by parachute riggers from the Army's 5th Quartermaster Detachment in collaboration with parachute riggers from the German and French armies. The modification met the Air Force's high-altitude and high-velocity requirements and reduced the likelihood of wind blowing the parachutes off target. The previously used parachutes measured 26 feet in diameter and could deliver a 2,200-pound bundle. The G-121)s (Modified) are approximately six times larger and can support four 2,200-pound bundles.
The Army awarded two contracts for two variations of the M16A2 M4 carbine. The value of the contracts, to total 24,000 units, is estimated at $11 million. The M4 carbine will replace selected pistols, submachine guns, and M16 rifles. It provides increased flexibility for those soldiers assigned to crew-served weapons and soldiers who carry or operate large mission-essential equipment. Its compact size also allows users the full use of both hands to accomplish their primary missions. The contract awards include a variation of the M4, the M4A1, which will be fielded to special operations personnel. The M4A1 incorporates an enhanced upper receiver with a "Picatinny rail," which enables users to mount various day and night sighting devices on the weapon to improve overall effectiveness.
Under a January 1994 contract, the Army continued development of the offensive handgun weapon system (OHWS) for the US. Special Operations Command. The complete OHWS includes three components:
a new .45-caliber pistol, a laser aiming module, and a sound and flash suppressor. Production requirements call for 7,500 pistols, 1,950 of which would include the laser aiming module and sound and flash suppressor.
The Army conducted duty performance testing on three new oceangoing tugboats in FY 1994, the first such vessels built for the Army since the 1950s. Two 128-foot tugs were delivered to the Army Reserve's 949th Transportation Company in Baltimore, Maryland, and one was delivered to the 73d Transportation Company at Fort Eustis, Virginia. The tugboats, which cost approximately $15 million each, are among six being built for the service. The Army's last new tug was designed for coastal towing. The new tugs are designed for longer-range towing of large ships and oceangoing barges.
Equipment fielding also continued during the fiscal year. The Army fielded OH-58D Kiowa helicopters to two battalions in the 2d Infantry Division and one in the Mississippi National Guard. The three assault helicopter battalions of the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) received new UH-60L Black Hawk utility helicopters. Initial fielding began for the new TH-67 Creek helicopters. The MIA1 Abrams tank was fielded to selected active component and National Guard units, as well as to prepositioned stocks. The Army fielded the Bradley fighting vehicle to prepositioned stocks afloat and ashore, as well as to battalions of the Mississippi National Guard and the 1st and 2d Infantry Divisions. The Heavy Equipment Transport System was issued to the 1st Cavalry Division, the 24th Infantry Division, two National Guard brigades, Army Reserve transportation companies, and pre-positioned stocks afloat. Initial fielding began of the AN/PSN-11 precision lightweight GPS receiver, known as PLGR. The year also witnessed the fielding of several field artillery systems. The 24th Infantry Division fielded the M109A6 Paladin 155-mm. self-propelled howitzer and the Field Artillery Ammunition Supply Vehicle. Two active component battalions and one National Guard battalion fielded the MLRS. Three battalions in the 25th Infantry Division and a battery in the Southern European Task Force fielded the M119A1 105-mm. towed howitzer. Finally, initial fielding of the Fire Direction Data Manager began.
Return to Table of Contents
Last updated 19 December 2003