Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1994


Reserve Forces

Force Structure

Maintaining the Army's role as a strategic force supporting U.S. foreign policy requires the full integration of the active Army, National Guard, and Army Reserve. As needed, the Guard and Reserve supply highly trained units and individual soldiers to support operations. The Guard and Reserve provide capabilities not needed on active duty during peacetime, at significant savings. It is crucial that the Army have ready access to those units and individuals when the nation calls. To meet the needs of the nation, the Army is forging a new balance among active, Guard, and Reserve forces. At the start of a contingency mission, active units will form the bulk of a force, while high-priority Guard and Reserve units will provide capabilities not found in the active force. As the operation continues, a larger proportion of forces will come from the reserve components, which will support deploying forces, backfill active units and augment the mobilization base, reinforce sustained operations, and, if needed, expand the Army to meet a resurgent global threat.

To achieve this new balance, on 10 December 1993, the Secretary of Defense announced a major restructuring plan for the Army's reserve components. An Army Off-Site Agreement was worked out by senior leaders of the active Army, the Army National Guard (ARNG), the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR), and the associations representing each component's members. This was the first time that the three components have worked together on a major restructuring initiative. The agreement refocused the reserve components' missions. In addition to its traditional state and civil mission, the Guard generally would be oriented toward combat functions, and the Reserve would be generally oriented toward combat service support functions.

According to the agreement, a total of 127,300 positions will be eliminated from the reserve components by FY 1999. ARNG end strength will be reduced to 367,000 by FY 1999, and USAR end strength will be reduced to 208,000 by the end of FY 1998. The Guard will continue to provide the


main combat reserve forces of the U.S. Army, with combat service and combat service support units divided among the Guard and the Army Reserve. Under the terms of the agreement, most Army Reserve aviation assets will be transferred to the Army National Guard. To implement the provisions of the agreement, the ARNG is reducing the size of its present aviation force by 40 percent. After the full implementation, which will involve the transfer of seven utility helicopter battalions and seven medical companies (air ambulance) from the USAR, the ARNG aviation force will meet the 40 percent reduction. Some Guard combat support and combat service support units also will transfer to the Army Reserve. Overall the USAR will gain 128 units containing 11,062 authorizations from the Guard, and the Guard will gain 44 units containing 14,049 authorizations from USAR.

Restructuring and realignment will not be enough, however. Like the active component, the reserve components will have to improve in capability, even as they decline in size. To improve unit and individual skills, the Army will associate fifteen enhanced brigades from the Guard with active Army combat units for training. The ARNG's enhanced brigades will be the Army's principal reserve component ground combat maneuver force. Enhanced brigades are expected to reinforce, augment, and backfill active component units as required by the theater commander to which they are assigned. The brigades are configured as seven heavy brigades, seven light brigades, and one armored cavalry regiment. The term "enhanced" refers to increased resource and manning priorities. The Army will ensure that these units receive sufficient resources to enable them to begin deployment to a crisis within ninety days from mobilization. In doing so, the Army will work to ensure that these brigades are logistically supported, command and control compatible, and doctrinally employable by any US. division or corps. The remainder of the Guard's strategic reserve combat forces, eight divisions, two brigades, and one infantry scout group, will be fully structured but will not be fully equipped or staffed.

Over half the Army force structure is in the reserve components, including forces in each of the strategic force packages. The Army National Guard's authorized strength of 410,000 in FY 1994 was down 12,725 positions from FY 1993. In FY 1994 the Reserve had an authorized strength of 260,000 positions in the Selected Reserve, 412,235 members in the Individual Ready Reserve, and an additional 557,247 members in the Retired Reserve.

In July 1994 the Army Reserve announced the results of a concept study of the command and control reorganization of the USAR force structure through the creation of Regional Support Commands (RSCs). The study's authors proposed to reduce the TDA command and control structure in the face of continuing Selected Reserve reductions; provide for better management, efficiency, and value within the remaining com-


mand and control structure; and provide for easier access to Reserve units and individuals in case of local or regional emergencies. The U.S. Army Reserve Command (USARC) initiated the study in 1994 to compensate for the cuts imposed by the Off- Site Agreement. The intent was to reduce the TDA overhead in order to field as many deployable forces as possible. The assessment of the USAR command and control structure recommended inactivating the twenty CONUS Army Reserve Commands (ARCOMs) and activating ten RSCs and three Regional Support Groups (RSGs). The restructuring would entail assigning the RSGs to the three RSCs that had the largest numbers of troops or were largest geographically, expanding missions at the command level to support readiness and management, streamlining premobilization functions, reducing the U.S. Army Reserve Command's span of control from forty-seven direct-reporting units to thirty-one, and aligning the RSCs to the ten standard federal regions. The mission of the RSCs would be to exercise command and control of all assigned units and to provide full service support to all USAR units within their region, reducing the administrative workload for deployable commanders and allowing them to concentrate on wartime missions. The mission would improve unit readiness by concentrating a higher percentage of full-time support soldiers in fewer headquarters. The RSC regional alignment with other federal agencies would improve the ability of the Reserve to provide military support to civilian authorities. The new structure would also provide federal planning assets to Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) planners and managers at the regional level by establishing State Emergency Preparedness Liaison Offices and Regional Emergency Preparedness Liaison Offices at each RSC. An implementation decision on the concept is expected in early 1995, with a restructuring completion date of September 1996.

By the close of 1994 the USAR included over forty-seven major USAR commands and two direct supporting units. There were 21 ARCOMs, 7 divisions (Institutional Training), 5 divisions (Exercise), 1 corps support command, 3 theater army area commands, 3 engineer commands, 1 military police command, 2 transportation commands, 1 signal command, 1 infantry brigade, and 1 medical command. In addition, 56 units, with 8,400 force structure spaces, were inactivated. A total of 2,400 spaces were activated, with 700 spaces represented by conversions, updates, and reorganizations. These actions affected combat, combat support, and combat service support units. 

Strength and Personnel Management

The FY 1994 end strength objective for the ARNG was a Selected Reserve strength of 410,000, consisting of 46,849 commissioned and war-


rant officers and 363,151 enlisted personnel. The fiscal year ended with ARNG strength at 396,928, 96.8 percent of the objective and reflecting a decline of 12,991 from opening strength. Total strength included 45,538 officers and 351,390 enlisted personnel.

The Select-Train-Promote-Assign test program moved forward during the fiscal year with a recommendation to the director of the Army National Guard for nationwide adoption. Promotion policies will be changed to allow a state-by-state transition from the grade vacancy selection process now used. Full implementation is planned for January 1996. The program will provide to soldiers selected for promotion and leadership assignments the Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES) course required for promotion. This approach, already implemented in the enlisted leader development program, is bringing the total number of noncommissioned officers trained much closer to the total number promoted.

In consonance with a change in Army policy, which recognized that readiness is enhanced by eliminating unnecessary barriers to service, the ARNG moved to open all TDA positions to women in FY 1994. FY 1995 will see an additional six to eight thousand positions opened to women in the ARNG as a result of the new policy that opened 91 percent of the Army's career fields to women.

Training and Readiness

FORSCOM had established the Contingency Force Pool (CFP), the power projection force ready to deploy to regional crisis spots around the world, in FY 1992. The purpose of the CFP is to provide a pool of high­priority units to support eight and two-thirds Army divisions in the event of a national emergency. CFP is composed of units from the USAR, the ARNG, and the active Army. In FY 1994 there were 478 USAR units and 368 ARNG units in the CFP

ARNG units in the CFP expanded in FY 1994. Two categories of CFP forces emerged. CFP units already designated to support first-deploying active Army divisions became CFP I units. The expansion created CFP II units. These units were designated to support later-deploying active divisions. CFP I units were broken down into four support packages, numbered 1-4, each package earmarked for a particular division. CFP II units were broken down in support packages 5-7, with each package generally earmarked for a specific division. This expansion increased the number of ARNG CFP units from 171 to 368. At its peak there were 59,000 ARNG soldiers in CFP units during FY 1994. ARNG units placed in the CFP received additional resources to ensure that readiness standards were met. ARNG deployability was at 95 percent in October 1993. The composition


of the CFP continued to change during FY 1994, while readiness remained high. There was some degradation in readiness indicators as new units were added to the CFP Deployability of the CFP declined to 89 percent by the end of FY 1994. Until changes were implemented in October 1994, deployability of ARNG CFP units was consistently greater than that of both the active component and the USAR.

The Army Reserve used a concept of tiered readiness to set priorities for and manage the provision of resources to USAR units, especially those in the CFP. Based on the deployment dates required to support regional operations plans, the Army Reserve classified its units into four tiers, with a priority for funding, equipment, training, and recruiting in descending order from Tier 1 through Tier 4. Tier 1 included CFP units in support packages 1 through 4, CONUS-based support units, and units with an arrival date of less than 15 days after being alerted. Tier 2 included CFP units in support packages 5 through 7, units with a latest arrival date of more than 14 days but less than 31 days after being alerted, and divisions (Exercise). Tier 3 included U.S. Army Reserve Forces Schools, Regional Training Sites, Area Maintenance Support Activities, Equipment Concentration Sites, and the remaining units in the DA Master Priority sequence. Tier 4 included inactivating units. As a result of tiered readiness, the early-deploying units received a greater share of training money and resources. By the end of FY 1994, the 209 USAR CFP units in Tier 1 were authorized to receive 100 percent of their requirements in force structure program money, while the 269 CFP units in Tier 2 were authorized to receive 72 percent.

By October 1994 the CFP gave the Army the capability of worldwide deployment of up to 2 corps headquarters and 8 2/3 active component divisions from CONUS bases, a force that included approximately 540 Army Reserve units, or 38 percent of the units in the CFP Of these 540 units, USAR controlled 475 and the U.S. Special Operations Command controlled 65.

To improve readiness of the reserve components in the CFP, FORSCOM had implemented the Bold Shift program in 1992. In FY 1994 Bold Shift involved units from every major USAR command. The program grouped activities to enhance readiness into seven major programs: reorganizations and realignments; operational readiness evaluation (ORE); soldier training; unit training; leader training and development; training involvement of the wartime chain of command; and full-time support. Excepting full-time support, the ORE existed as the second most important element for improving readiness. The ORE assessed training and readiness in two phases. During phase one evaluators determined the units' compliance with existing

policy and guidance in such areas as personnel qualification, supply management, maintenance, and security. In


phase two the unit demonstrated its premobilization and predeployment readiness through the performance of individual and collective tasks during realistic and intense training experiences. The ORES were administered by evaluation teams sent from one of the CONUS armies composed of officers and noncommissioned officers from the active Army, ARNG, and USAR.

In training the USAR had three significant initiatives under way in FY 1994: the testing of the Institutional Training Division concept and the activation of 9 institutional training divisions; the activation of 5 exercise divisions; and the assumption of command and control of 4 installations from FORSCOM to support training operations. These training resources support individual and collective training during both the premobilization and postmobilization phases of military operations in peace, crisis, or war.

In FY 1994 one of the goals of the Total Army Training Strategy (TATS) focused on giving the reserve components the same attention as the active component in training quality and control. In collective training, for example, the Army recognized the need for greater standardization in unit lane training and command and staff simulation exercises, especially for combat support and combat service support organizations. The ultimate goal of TATS was to create a system that trained all soldiers (active and reserve components) to the same standard and basically in the same tasks, and to do so with fewer resources. The resulting concept plans became the genesis for the USAR Institutional Training and Exercise divisions in 1994.

An Institutional Training Division would consolidate the U.S. Army Reserve Forces Schools, the Regional Training Sites-Maintenance, and the U.S. Army Reserve Forces Schools-Intelligence to provide individual training within one organization. This training would include initial entry training, military occupational specialty qualification, professional development, and refresher training. In FY 1994 TDAs for nine institutional training divisions were authorized, with an effective date of 1 October 1994, reducing USAR initial-entry training and Reception Battalion personnel authorizations and U.S. Army Reserve Forces Schools authorizations from 43,500 to 27,500, thus saving about 16,000 authorizations. A two-year test of the division is scheduled to begin in FY 1995.

The Exercise Division reorganization process began in October 1993. Plans called for augmenting the size of each of the 5 existing exercise divisions from 5,177 to 12,761 to promote combat support and combat service support training. Also, 6 regional training brigades were created and manned by active component soldiers to support combat training. The Exercise Division consolidated and reorganized the existing 2 maneuver area commands, 9 maneuver training commands, 3 training divisions, and


the existing battle projection centers into 5 exercise divisions to provide the capability for conducting command post exercises, lane training, and other training activities. The exercise division reorganization process was scheduled for implementation on 1 October 1994, to be followed by a two­year transition period.

Finally, the fixed-site training capabilities for improving reserve component combat readiness increased in December 1993 when the Secretary of the Army transferred control of four FORSCOM installations to the USAR. The installations were Forts Pickett, Virginia; McCoy, Wisconsin; and Hunter Liggett and Camp Parks, both in California. Funding control was scheduled for transfer in stages by FY 1996.

The Army completed the interim stage of the Army Pre-positioned Afloat (APA) program in July 1994. The APA program had an armored brigade/armored cavalry regiment (minus the air cavalry squadron), with organic combat support and combat service support elements afloat. The APA program also consisted of port opening units with corps and theater combat service support capability. Future APA projects will further increase the combat support and combat service support capability. Army reservists with the Third U.S. Army assisted in developing the APA program and providing warfighter overwatch for it. The 143d Transportation Command is responsible for the development of the APA ship battle­books, which provide the warfighter with information on vessel characteristics, deck diagrams, stow locations, and equipment listings. Reservists will assist in the deployment, employment, and redeployment of the APA program in a major regional conflict. Reserve Theater Army Area Commands will have overall supervision of ship off-load and equipment maintenance after the APA assets arrive at theater base reception points. The final APA package, in FY 1998, will include seven unit sets of equipment for reserve component units to use. Reservists can be expected to play a significant role in APA exercises both within and outside CONUS.

The ARNG faced considerable training challenges and changes in FY 1994. The ARNG participated fully in the development and implementation of the Total Army School System (TASS). As the new fiscal year began, so did the test and evaluation of the prototype TASS region. The primary benefit will be a reduction of training redundancies due to the regionalization of training institutions. In addition, the Training and Doctrine Command will act as the executive agent for school accreditation, ensuring training to one standard.

The pilot Officer Candidate School program conducted in 1993 for the ARNG was continued in 1994, with all states conducting portions of the program's training at consolidated sites. This concept builds upon the considerable resources already dedicated to the Reserve Officer Training


Corps advanced camp mission, the mandatory six-week training camp required for cadet commissioning, and results in standardized training at reduced cost.

FY 1994 was also a year of progressive change for ARNG enlisted leader development. First, enlisted ARNG soldiers benefited from improvements made at the U.S. Army Sergeants Major Academy. The academy updated the programs of instruction for both the basic and advanced noncommissioned officer courses. Phase I of these courses became the promotion standard in FY 1994. Second, the Guard initiated action to treat military technicians in the same manner as traditional M-day soldiers.

Plans were also completed for the implementation of the "Select, Train, Promote, and Assign" policy for the ARNG during the fiscal year. In the future, only soldiers on a promotion list for current or projected vacancies will be trained. Future NCOES requirements will be identified from promotion lists. This system will establish viable priorities for training and will ensure that funding supports actual training requirements.

The ARNG continued to expand the use of simulations, simulators, and advanced training devices and technologies to improve readiness in 1994. GUARDFIST I, a precision tank gunnery trainer, is being acquired solely for reserve component use. This strap-on training device allows units to train in their armories without ranges or targetry. Once the devices are fielded, organic unit personnel will be used to conduct unit training. GUARDFIST II, an artillery trainer, is being developed in response to reserve component training challenges. GUARDFIST II has two trainer configurations: a one-to-one version used to instruct one individual at a time and a one-to-thirty version used for group instruction.

The TATS incorporates the use of simulations and simulators and is the basis for the simulation fielding plan to support the five reserve component division Battle Projection Centers (BPCs). The fielding of JANUS, the Army's battle-focused trainer, and Brigade/Battalion Battle Simulation (BBS) to the BPCs in FY 1994 greatly augmented the reserve components' ability to maintain the combat readiness of their units. Fielding includes transit cases for each system, providing a dual capability for units to train at either home station or the BPC. The Brigade Command Battle Staff Training (BCBST) team trains ARNG ground combat maneuver brigades in battle staff tasks using BBS to drive command post exercises. BCBST also uses JANUS to support seminar training in preparation for each command post exercise. Fourteen BCBST seminars were conducted in FY 1994. Two reserve component division­level Battle Command Training Program (BCTP) seminars were conducted in FY 1994. The 49th Armored Division and 29th Infantry Division (Light) commanders and their staffs participated in five-day seminars at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. The 218th Infantry Brigade


(Mechanized) (South Carolina ARNG) participated with the active components during a divisional BCTP Warfighter Exercise. The 42d (Light), 34th (Light), and 40th (Mechanized) Infantry Divisions conducted division-level BCTP Warfighter Exercises during the year.

A combination of existing Army technologies and development efforts were being explored in FY 1994 for possible use by the ARNG. The design parameters for these efforts included timeliness, availability, and affordability; minimization of operating personnel overhead; extended distribution of training opportunities; and realistic programs for battle or combat training centers. One such program, Simulation in Training for Advanced Readiness (SIMITAR), is a congressionally mandated ARNG and Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) advanced simulation program. It was established in 1992 to apply advanced technology to increase training levels of ARNG Roundout and Roundup Brigades by 200 to 300 percent. SIMITAR was subsequently adopted as an advanced technology demonstration under Department of Defense Science and Technology Thrust No. 6 (Synthetic Environments). The overarching intent of SIMITAR is to leverage selected development of more objective measures of performance and effectiveness; opportunities for battalion and brigade command and staff battlefield synchronization skills; low­cost simulators and simulations to enhance small-unit collective training; opportunities to exercise collective and individual combat service support skills; and technologies and programs for local individual functional training for key personnel. The 48th Infantry Brigade (Mechanized), Georgia ARNG, and the 116th Armored Brigade, Idaho ARNG and Oregon ARNG, are the two experimental brigades. The 155th Armored Brigade, Mississippi ARNG, and 218th Infantry Brigade (Mechanized), South Carolina ARNG, are the two comparison brigades. All four are scheduled for future National Training Center rotations.

FY 1994 SIMITAR accomplishments included modifying JANUS to add to the capability for conducting distributed exercises and increasing the degree of Combat Support and Combat Service Support interaction; modifying armories, installing phone wire, selecting hardware, and purchasing and delivering commercial off-the-shelf computer systems for JANUS; developing the first two battalion scenarios to be used in JANUS and SIMNET through the ARPA Reconfigurable Simulator Initiative; beginning development of a brigade scenario for Simulation Brigade Armor Training; funding early fielding of GUARDFIST I to the test brigade; and developing the ARPA Reconfigurable Simulator Initiative to give each brigade M1, M2, and scout vehicle crew simulators.

There were minor fluctuations in overall unit resources and training levels in the ARNG between the October 1993 and October 1994 Unit Status Reports (USRs). These fluctuations were attributable to seasonal


trends and implementation of the revised Army Regulation 220-1, Unit Status Reporting, which incorporated FY 1993 National Defense Authorization Act Title XI mandates of developing one Army standard for deployment, readiness, and quality. The first USRs, based on the revised AR 220-1, reflected a minor overall degradation of 2 percent in January and again in April. Between the April and October USRs, over­all status remained unchanged. During the year equipment on hand declined by 1 percent and personnel by 6 percent. Personnel trends were the result of Title XI mandates. The new reporting has provided better accountability of nondeployable categories. The October 1994 USRs reported 50,633 nondeployable soldiers, both temporary and permanent, in the ARNG.

Between the October 1993 and October 1994 USRs, overall readiness declined by 3 percent in the 186 ARNG CFP support package 1-4 units, which are the highest priority units in the ARNG. This was due to a 2 percent decline in equipment and a 4 percent decline in personnel. During this time, however, equipment serviceability increased by 3 percent. At the same time the 196 CFP support package 5-7 units, the combat support and combat service support units that support the three and one-third division Early Reinforcing Force, declined in overall unit status by 2 percent. This decline was attributable to a 5 percent decrease in personnel. There was a 2 percent increase in equipment on hand and a 1 percent increase in training.

The ARNG Roundout/Roundup Brigades increased by 8 percent in overall unit resources and training levels between the October 1993 and October 1994 USRs. There was a 6 percent increase in equipment on hand, 5 percent in equipment serviceability, and 6 percent in personnel. Training declined by 2 percent. Increases in equipment serviceability were also driven by the Army regulation change. Equipment serviceability is now based on all on-hand equipment versus wartime requirements.

Reserve components must receive equipment upgrades, system modernization, and product improvements to be effective on the battlefield. In FY 1994, due to fiscal constraints, the reserve components experienced training equipment shortages in a variety of weapons and vehicles. In the ARNG, Bradley fighting vehicles and armor and field artillery trainers highlighted training equipment shortages. In the USAR howitzers, machine guns, pistols, tanks, personnel carriers, trucks, and tractors stood out as the most prominent equipment shortages.


USAR and ARNG soldiers participated in a number of liaison and contingency operations overseas during FY 1994. The ARNG and the


Program. ARNG members provided traveling contact teams, seminar participants, and adjutant general/state governor visits to Central and Eastern European countries, as well as hosting numerous familiarization tours to the partner states in the United States. Under this program approximately 150 ARNG soldiers deployed overseas to various countries, including Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

The USAR participated in the Joint Military-to-Military Contact program by sending members and chiefs of military liaison teams to Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Poland, and other former Soviet Bloc countries during the year. Army reservists also were part of overseas traveling contact teams, sharing their expertise in medicine, engineering, reserve force structure, and civil affairs, with an emphasis on refugee operations, emergency planning, and disaster relief. More than 6,000 Army reservists participated in humanitarian assistance and host­nation support missions under the Military-to-Military Contact program. This program and the overseas deployment training program enabled Army reservists to participate in operations in Eastern Europe and Central and South America. Numerous medical readiness training exercises and host-nation support operations were conducted in Central and South America. The largest host-nation support operation was FUERTES CAMINOS, which included road repair and expansion, water well drilling, airport runway repair, and road and bridge construction.

In FY 1994 the ARNG deployed military police platoons to Panama and Honduras to augment existing forces. Nearly 350 medical personnel deployed to the U.S. Southern Command and the U.S. Atlantic Command to provide medical and dental care and preventive medicine education to local populations. Approximately 6,200 ARNG soldiers deployed overseas to conduct humanitarian and civic activities and host­nation missions. ARNG mobile training teams deployed to Somalia to train coalition forces on the M60 tank and AH-15 helicopter and to shrink-wrap U.S. aircraft for redeployment. Although no ARNG forces were deployed to Haiti for Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY because of the averted invasion, the ARNG activated three military police companies to provide backfill units at three Army installations that deployed to Haiti. Also, Camp Santiago, Puerto Rico, an ARNG installation, was used by FORSCOM, the Special Operations Command, and the Atlantic Command as the training site to prepare Caribbean coalition forces and the multinational peacekeeping forces for Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY.


The ARNG and USAR prepared to participate in the United Nations Multinational Force and Observers Sinai mission during the year. A three­component composite ARNG battalion was constituted at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, and began to train. The battalion had 110 active Army, 401 National Guard, and 38 Army Reserve soldiers. These soldiers are scheduled to deploy for a six-month mission in FY 1995.

The Army Reserve provided support for Operation PROVIDE PROMISE with three rotations of parachute riggers that prepared supplies for Bosnian airdrop. Fifteen Army Reserve soldiers assisted UN teams in monitoring Iraqi compliance with UN sanctions. Army Reserve civil affairs, civil engineer, and medical services personnel provided support for Operation UPHOLD DEMOCRACY and Operation SUPPORT DEMOCRACY, the U.S. and allied sea enforcement of UN sanctions against Haiti. Nineteen of the paratroopers who took part in the recalled parachute assault on Haiti were not members of the 82d Airborne Division but Army reservists from the 450th Civil Affairs Battalion (Airborne). An Army Reserve postal unit went to Somalia within a few weeks of the U.S. deployment there, as did civil affairs specialists, who met with Somali clan leaders.

During the fiscal year Army National Guard units participated in more than 721 mobilization exercises conducted by State Area Command Headquarters. Forty-nine units participated in a Headquarters, Department of the Army (HQDA), exercise, OPTIMAL Focus 94, designed to evaluate a unit's ability to conduct home station mobilization tasks. Nineteen units participated in CALL FORWARD 94, an HQDA mobilization station exercise at Fort Lewis, Washington.

Finally, as America's Europe-based military units were drawing down and returning to the United States in FY 1994, the reserve components played a significant role. More than 5,000 USAR soldiers and more than 3,300 National Guardsmen took part in programs to handle the repair and shipment of equipment from Europe back to the United States.

Reserve Component Support to Civil Authorities

Soldiers from the reserve components were actively involved in responding to hundreds of natural disasters and emergency missions in FY 1994. More than 27,801 soldiers of the Army and Air National Guard answered the call to 402 emergency missions in forty-eight states and territories during the year. The USAR, meanwhile, cooperated with the active Army and the ARNG in combating western wildfires during the year.

The California National Guard activated and deployed more than 2,600 Army and Air National Guard soldiers on state active duty during the emergency following the Northridge earthquake. The earthquake,


which struck on 17 January, measured 6.7 on the Richter Scale. Thousands of aftershocks followed the original earthquake, many of them exceeding 5.0. Sixty-one people died and more than 18,000 were injured. More than 21,000 houses and apartments were rendered uninhabitable. Numerous water systems and other utilities failed, and many key roads were damaged. During the peak of the response, the Guard provided logistics support to disaster relief centers, command and control expertise for the governor's office, area damage assessment, liaison to key state agencies, transportation for military and law enforcement personnel and equipment, use of armories as temporary shelters, linguist support, potable water, and soldiers to reestablish public order.

Heavy snowstorms and subfreezing temperatures throughout the eastern United States in January brought repeated calls for National Guard help. Guard soldiers from thirteen states were called out to assist in everything from snow removal, to evacuation of residents in danger, to assisting the American Red Cross. The troops hauled water to residents and facilities left waterless due to frozen pipes and wells, opened armories as emergency shelters for the homeless, cleared roads of snow and debris, and evacuated elderly residents or those without power. In some cases Guard members also used primary and backup power generators to pump water to residents without power.

Kentucky had the biggest National Guard call-up, with 1,143 members providing emergency snow support. Other states whose Guard units supported emergency operations were Alabama, Arizona, Indiana, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

In July 1994 Tropical Storm Alberto stalled over central Alabama, Georgia, and the Florida panhandle, bringing severe flooding that caused 33 deaths and forcing approximately 40,000 people to evacuate their homes. Two hundred thousand people lost potable water service. More than 4,600 National Guard soldiers were used by state governors to support evacuations, purify and distribute water, transport relief supplies, and control traffic.

In the summer of 1994 the active Army, National Guard, and Army Reserve were all involved in supporting the National Inter-Agency Fire Center, a joint operation of the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, in fighting wildfires in the western United States. In addition to several active Army units from the Sixth U.S. Army, the 571st Medical Company and the 158th Aviation Battalion of the Army Reserve supported fire fighting in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. The National Guard supported state fire fighting operations in those states and in Arizona, California, and Utah, with more than 4,200 soldiers engaged in these operations.


Operation GUARDCARE is a National Guard pilot program authorized by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1993 to provide health care to underserved populations in the United States. Originally conducted in state active duty status, the program was authorized in federal status in the FY 1994 National Defense Authorization Act. Under the 1994 guidance, thirteen states (Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Mississippi, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, and Tennessee) have executed missions. Operation GUARDCARE benefits both soldiers and the civilian communities they assist. Soldiers get training in military specialties and deployment; communities receive medical screening and limited care for medically underserved citizens. For example, in five weekend exercises, the Michigan National Guard saw almost 2,500 patients and administered more than 5,600 immunizations. In Missouri, the 135th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital conducted a two-week operation in the town of Van Buren, seeing more than 2,500 patients. The Tennessee National Guard screened more than 1,400 patients in six exercises. In Denver, the 147th Combat Support Hospital of the Colorado Army National Guard saw 814 patients and gave 623 immunizations in a two­week exercise.

The reserve components are playing a greater role in civil-military outreach programs, many of them drug-demand reduction programs, such as Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) and Drug Education for Youth, aimed at youth at risk. The ARNG Drug Demand Reduction Program reached more than 5,096,610 young people throughout the nation in FY 1994. Since its inception, the National Guard's DARE program has evolved into 5,492 programs nationwide that National Guard members support as mentors, tutors, and role models. Each of these activities is a result of a community-based needs assessment. Major Army Reserve commands incorporated the drug-demand reduction message into events sponsored by their family support coordinators. One command developed the week-long Camp Wildcat devoted to educating and building the self-esteem of the children of Army Reserve soldiers. Corporate sponsorship is planned to cover most of the costs for camps in FY 1995. Other commands are planning similar camps of their own.

During FY 1994 the National Guard conducted 6,709 operations and spent more than 1.2 million man-days in support of local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies responsible for counterdrug activities. This support was provided over and above normal training requirements by individual National Guard members. The number of man-days was down from FY 1993 due to significant FY 1994 funding reductions levied on the National Guard Counterdrug Support Program.

While not considered to be a measure of effectiveness, National Guard-assisted drug seizures have increased dramatically over the years.


Although funding reductions had an adverse impact on total man-day levels in FY 1994, the National Guard's efforts continued to increase the capabilities of drug enforcement agencies; and assisted seizures increased in the categories of cash confiscated, cocaine seized, vehicles seized, weapons seized, and resulting arrests, while they declined in the categories of marijuana plants and processed marijuana seized. The estimated street value of drugs seized was $98 billion. Data for FY 1994 assisted seizures is listed in Table 12.


Cash confiscated


Marijuana plants seized


Processed marijuana seized (pounds)


Cocaine seized (pounds)


Heroin seized (pounds)


Opium seized (pounds)


Hashish seized (pounds)


Vehicles seized


Weapons seized


Arrests resulting


Under provisions of Section 112, Title 32, United States Code, the Secretary of Defense is authorized to grant funds to state governors for counterdrug use by state law enforcement agencies. For FY 1994 the Secretary granted more than $169 million to Guard units in fifty states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia to provide that support.

The FY 1994 National Defense Appropriations Act designated $5 million for establishment of a transcription and translation system to support the Drug Enforcement Administration. The National Guard was designated as the action agency for this initiative and responded by establishing a linguistics support center and providing the required linguists. Approximately seventy National Guard linguists supported this project during the year. The Army took measures to procure specialized transcription and translation equipment that will be delivered to the National Guard to support this mission during FY 1995 and beyond.

The states perform counterdrug missions that support the President's Drug Control Strategy and best meet state priorities of the governor and the adjutant general. Table 13 lists the sixteen missions approved for FY 1994.



1. Surface Reconnaissance
2. Surface Surveillance
3. Surface Transportation
4. Aerial Reconnaissance
5. Aerial Surveillance
6. Aerial Transportation Support
7. Ground Radar Support
8. Cargo Inspection
9. Training Program
10. Aerial Photo Reconnaissance
11. Coordination, Liaison, and Management
12. Greenhouse/Drug Laboratory Detection
13. Film Processing
14. Administration, Information, Automated Data Processing, Logistics, and Maintenance Support
15. Engineer Support
16. Aerial Interdiction

During FY 1994 twenty-four states conducted more than 1,200 aerial counterdrug reconnaissance and interdiction missions. The ARNG conducted many of these missions at night, utilizing the capabilities of a specially designed OH-58A+ scout helicopter. That aircraft, an improved OH-58A, was modified with an engine upgrade, a thermal imagery system, a communications package for law enforcement, and enhanced navigational equipment. The ARNG Reconnaissance and Interdiction Detachment distribution plan calls for 76 OH-58A+ aircraft to be located in 31 states and the Western Army Aviation Training Site. By the end of FY 1994, 24 states had their allocation of OH-58A+ aircraft. The final 7 states on the distribution plan are scheduled to receive aircraft and personnel during FY 1995.

Equipment and Maintenance

The Army National Guard continued to take advantage of the down­sizing of the active component to receive through transfer much-needed equipment, from radios to tanks. The redistribution and fielding of High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWVs) provided an opportunity to upgrade fleet CFP units and fill nearly half of CFP II units. The fielding of new Heavy Equipment Transporters (HETs) began during FY 1994. Twenty-five systems were fielded in FY 1994, and 179 will be fielded during FY 1995. The new HET is rated at 70 tons and can transport MIA1 tanks. Fielding of the Palletized Loading System (PLS)


also began in FY 1994 and will increase artillery and supply units' ability to move greater amounts of ammunition and supplies.

The ARNG continued to modernize its equipment inventory. The number of cargo helicopters increased with the addition of twenty-three CH-47D helicopters. ARNG units added nine OH-58C helicopters while turning in older model OH-6A observation helicopters. Fifteen Kiowa Warrior, OH-58D, helicopters were received in FY 1994. The utility helicopter fleet was modernized with twenty-one UH-60A Black Hawk helicopters. The Army National Guard combat force increased its capabilities with thirty-five MIA1 Abrams tanks. The armored personnel carrier fleet was significantly modernized with more than one hundred M113A3 carriers, in addition to seventy-two M2/3 Bradley fighting vehicles. Significant quantities of night vision goggles and secure speech equipment were also received.

The ARNG continued undergoing several major equipment conversions to maintain compatibility with the active component that will carry into the next century. In FY 1994, M60A3 tanks were converted to Mls, M113 armored personnel carriers were converted to Bradley fighting vehicles, and units converted from the VRC-12/46 series radios to the new single channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS). The .45­caliber pistol was converted to the new 9-mm. Beretta and M16A1 rifles were converted to M16A2s. Also, two ARNG field artillery battalions converted from M 110 howitzers to the Multiple Launch Rocket System.

The ARNG continued supporting the upgrade of equipment during the fiscal year. The Guard funded the modification of 305 Ml 13A2 personnel carriers to the M113A3 version to provide an armored personnel carrier capable of operating on the battlefield with the Abrams main battle tank. This program will continue throughout FY 1995 and beyond as funding allows. Guard funding also included modifying the Fire Support Team Vehicle with an automatic turret-positioning system to give the system greater battlefield durability. The Guard funded a 2.5-ton truck extended service program, which furnishes new clean-burning engines and new automatic transmissions with transfer cases and central tire inflation systems, to improve the service life of the aging cargo truck fleet through the year 2000. An initiative to extend service life to the bulldozer fleet gathered support within the Guard. All D7F bulldozers will be placed in an enhancement program, making the "F" model 90 percent compatible with the newer "G" model. The latest initiative is the extended service program of 5-ton cargo trucks. This will offer the same enhancements as the 2.5-ton extended service program, with greater hauling capabilities.

The $113.6 million FY 1994 ARNG Depot Level Maintenance Repair and Return Program yielded $71.9 million for overall repair and contractor logistics support of rotary-and fixed-wing aircraft. The $41.7 million


ground vehicle program returned inoperable, high-cost vehicles to the Guard inventory, offering calibration support for all specialized items of equipment for which the Army has no organic repair capability. More than 8,000 pieces of equipment were returned to operation at a cost of $33 million. Two-thirds of the work was done at Tooele Army Depot; the remainder of the equipment was repaired at U.S. Marine Corps logistics bases under a pilot program.

Unfunded depot maintenance requirements have an impact on Army Reserve equipment. Repair requirements and maintenance costs increase if the equipment is not repaired in a timely manner. Without upgrades, the equipment breaks down more and becomes less reliable as it gets older. Because of funding constraints, emphasis is placed on the "first to fight, first to be equipped" policy.

The Army National Guard's unfunded depot maintenance requirements grew from $36 million in FY 1993 to $82.5 million in FY 1994. These unfunded requirements, affecting both equipment and programs, include the extended service program for 5-ton and 10-ton trucks; the "Inspect and Replace Only as Necessary" program for the M1 family of vehicles; maintenance of the M113 family of vehicles, including the Ml 13A1 conversion to the MI 13A3; transfer of active component HAWK (Homing All-the-Way Killer) air defense missile equipment; repair of communications and electronics equipment; and overhaul of UH-60, AH-64, CH-47, and CH-58 aircraft. The effect of the climbing trend of unfunded depot maintenance requirements will have an adverse effect on equipment readiness.

The Army Reserve's unfunded depot maintenance requirements rose dramatically from $1.3 million in FY 1993 to $52.3 million in FY 1994. This affects the repair and return program, construction and engineer equipment, communications and electronics equipment, and watercraft vehicles. Increases in unfunded requirements in the Army Reserve were due to a mission transfer from the active Army to the Army Reserve (Army watercraft dry-docking mission) and costs associated with the servicewide medium tactical truck upgrade initiative. The increases in unfunded depot maintenance requirements were due to programmed maintenance scheduling of the Army Reserve's equipment and vehicles.

Emphasis continued to be placed upon improving the overall readiness of Guard first-to-fight, high priority, Project Standard Bearer units. The Guard's Logistics Directorate allotted $1.2 million from the secondary stock fund to reduce mission-essential Equipment Requirements Code shortages in all CFP I and II units.

Army Reserve modernization centers around "core competencies" pertaining to combat support and combat service support missions. In FY 1994 two large tugboats were placed in service, with two additional tug-


boats scheduled for service in FY 1995. These 128-foot craft are oceango­ing vessels. Initial quantities of HETs, capable of carrying the 70-ton M1 Abrams tank, and the PLS were received during the year. Both systems provide significant productivity advances. In addition, SINCGARS equip­ment provided early deploying Army Reserve units with fully modern FM radio communications capabilities. This SINCGARS equipment raised to 50 percent the proportion of Army Reserve units with modern radios in 1994. The Army Reserve also had the following major equipment conver­sions: the M1 13A3 program converted 87 M113A2 armored personnel car­riers to the latest MI 13A3 configuration, and the CH-47D program con­verted ten CH-47B helicopters to the latest CH-47D configuration.

The percentage of major equipment on hand rose for the reserve components in FY 1994. The ARNG had 98 percent of major equipment on hand, compared with 90 percent in FY 1993. The USAR had 88 percent of major equipment on hand in FY 1994, compared with 84 percent the previous fiscal year. During FY 1994, however, the reserve components experienced some major equipment shortages. (See Table 14.)


Army National Guard

5-ton tractor and cargo vehicles

10-ton Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks (HEMTTs)

M113A3 armored personnel carriers

Nuclear-Biological-Chemical equipment

CH-47D helicopters

UH-60A helicopters

OH-58D helicopters

Night vision goggles

Combat support and combat service support equipment

Controlled cryptographic items and communications security equipment

Army Reserve

C-12 aircraft

1.25-ton utility vehicles (HMMWVs)

2.5- and 5-ton cargo vehicles

Radio and telephone equipment

Night vision goggles

Nuclear-Biological-Chemical equipment

10-ton trucks (HEMTTs)

Obsolete and incompatible equipment is maintained within the reserve component inventory. Modification and conversion programs


within the Total Force continue to minimize the negative effect of such equipment on readiness. The ability of the reserve components to effectively reinforce the active Army upon mobilization will be directly proportional to the efforts made to continue to modernize weapons systems and equipment assigned to the reserve components. The following obsolete and incompatible equipment was in reserve component inventories for FY 1994. (See Table 15.)


Army National Guard
M113A1 and M113A2 armored personnel carriers

VRC-12 series radios

Obsolete gasoline-powered tactical trucks and generators

D7 bulldozers

Army Reserve

VRC-12 series radios

Gasoline-powered generators

Older series 2.5- and 5-ton tactical trucks

Older series 10-ton tractors

ARNG combat units have tanks that move at different speeds, use different ammunition, and have different communications capabilities. The same applies to armored personnel carriers and other families of equipment. Tactical wheeled vehicle fleets range from gasoline-powered vehicles more than twenty-five years old to the latest diesel-powered vehicles. Tactical FM radios in different units include both single-frequency broad­cast models and the latest frequency-hopping, secure voice SINCGARS radios.

The USAR, which provides combat support and combat service support units and equipment to the Army, has the same problem with tactical wheeled vehicles and tactical FM radios as the Army National Guard. In addition, both the M16A 1 and M16A2 rifles still remained in the Army Reserve in FY 1994. These rifles use two different sizes of ammunition, and their parts are not fully compatible.


Go to:

Previous Chapter

Next Chapter

Return to Table of Contents

Search CMH Online
Return to CMH Online
Last updated 19 December 2003