Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1994



During FY 1994 the strength of the active Army decreased by about 40,000 personnel, from approximately 569,000 at the start of the year to approximately 529,000 by the end of the year. Representation of minority groups increased slightly during the year. By the end of the fiscal year, African Americans composed 27.3 percent of the force; Hispanics 5.2 percent; Native Americans .5 percent; Asians and Pacific Islanders 1.7 percent; and other minorities 3.3 percent of the force. Also, 13 percent of the active force during this period were women.

The strength of the Army National Guard (ARNG) decreased by about 13,000 personnel, from approximately 410,000 at the start of the fiscal year to approximately 397,000 at its end. Minority strength constituted 25.1 percent of the ARNG. There were 2,930 African-American officers, composing 6.4 percent of total officer strength, and 59,613 African-­American enlisted personnel, accounting for 17 percent of total enlisted strength. Total African-American strength was 62,543, or 15.8 percent of the ARNG, a decline of 1,836 persons from FY 1993. Women represented 8.0 percent of the ARNG, or a total of 32,290 positions, composing 7.9 percent of officer strength at 3,683 positions and 8.0 percent of enlisted strength at 28,607 positions.

The end strength of the U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) in FY 1994 was approximately 260,000 Selected Reserve personnel and 412,000 Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) personnel. There were a total of 149,035 African-American personnel; 34,010 Hispanics; 3,582 Native Americans; 9,086 Asian and Pacific Islanders; and 40,700 other minorities. Women, representing 18.1 percent, filled 121,770 positions.

Enlisted Personnel

The active Army exceeded its recruiting goal for FY 1994 (See Table 2). The objective was 68,000 accessions. Actual accessions numbered 68,758, or 101.1 percent of the Army's goal. Key statistics are as follows:



Non-prior-service male
Non-prior-service female
Objective %
High school graduate
Mental category I-IIIA
Mental category IV
< 2.0

The USAR also exceeded its overall recruiting goal for FY 1994. Compared with an objective of 46,500 accessions, actual accessions numbered 47,142, or 102.0 percent of the USAR goal. Of these accessions, more than 6,500 soldiers transferred from the active Army. See Table 3 for key statistics.


Percentage (%)
Non-prior-service male
Non-prior-service female
Objective %
High school graduate
Mental category I-IIIA
Mental category IV
< 2.0

Note: Category I includes recruits that score in the top 7 percent in the Armed Forces Qualifications Test (AFQT). Category II consists of those in the 65th through 92nd percentile, and category IIIA are those from the 50th through the 64th percentile. Category IV is the bottom 10-30 percent. The lowest 10 percent, Category V, are barred from service.

The ARNG did not achieve its recruiting goal for FY 1994 (see Table 4). Its total objective was 69,710 accessions, and it obtained 61,268, or 87.9 percent of the goal. Non-prior-service accessions of 22,526 were 81.7 percent of the goal, while prior-service accessions of 38,742 were 91.8 percent of the ARNG objective. Accession quality was maintained within established goals with the exception of high school graduates, who were at 84.5 percent instead of 94 percent of accessions. Approximately 54 percent of the Guard's non-prior-service recruits scored in the top AFQT categories; 100 percent of the Guard's non-prior-service recruits


had a high school education (84.5 percent with high school diplomas and 15.5 percent with Graduate Equivalency Degrees).


Percentage (%)
Non-prior-service male
Non-prior-service female
Objective %
High school graduate
Mental category I-IIIA
Mental category IV
< 2.0

Army reenlistment and reserve component transition programs were very successful in achieving FY 1994 objectives. Part of this success is attributable to the restoration of retention advertising. Suspended in FY 1991, retention advertising was reinstated in response to a dip in reenlistments. An emphasis on command involvement, coupled with a stabilized environment, also improved retention. The initial-term retention rate for the active Army reached a high of 49 percent for FY 1994 as compared with 31 percent in FY 1992 and 46 percent in FY 1993. Retention in all categories (Initial, Mid-Career, Career) of the active Army totaled 69,682 for FY 1994. Key retention statistics for FY 1994 are shown in Table 5.


  Objective Achieved Percentage (%)
Reserve Component Transition

The enlisted drawdown program in FY 1994 met DOD and congressional guidance to maximize voluntary separations and minimize involuntary separation programs. A total of 10,753 enlisted personnel left the active Army through the various voluntary drawdown programs. Losses from the Voluntary Early Transition (VET) program numbered 940. Losses from the Voluntary Separation Incentive Program (VSIP) num­bered 6,489. Finally, losses from early retirement numbered 3,324. There


were no losses from the involuntary drawdown programs such as Selective Early Retirement Boards (SERBS) or Reductions in Force (RIFs).

The ARNG achieved its goal to reduce the combined officer and enlisted attrition rate by 3.0 percent. FY 1994 enlisted losses of 73,141 represented an 18.4 percent attrition rate. The attrition management plan developed for state strength managers was intended to decrease losses from causes other than expiration of term of service (ETS) and also to focus on soldiers approaching ETS. During the fiscal year, scheduled force structure reductions created a climate of uncertainty and fueled the perception that career opportunities would be limited.

In FY 1994 the Army developed a concept for a new Enlisted Assignment Plan to conform better to the Army's transition to a power—projection force. The Chief of Staff, Army (CSA), approved the concept, which is intended to satisfy the need for personnel readiness, ensure the introduction of soldiers into the Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) force, and enhance the professional developments of the noncommissioned officer (NCO) corps. The plan calls for soldiers to move after serving three years in continental United States (CONUS) TDA assignments, which are primarily nondeployable assignments. There would be no time limit on serving in Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE) assignments in deployable tactical units.

In the past, enlisted soldiers have moved mainly to support the over­seas Army. When troops returned to CONUS, others from CONUS went overseas to take their places. This constant rotation benefited soldiers by expanding their knowledge about the Army. By FY 1994, however, the Army's transition to a post-Cold War power projection force from a forward-deployed force left only about 35 percent of the Army stationed overseas. Without overseas rotations forcing soldiers out of their positions, CONUS tours could stretch to more than five years, leaving soldiers too long in nontactical environments and causing NCOs to stagnate and lose their edge.

The three-year TDA tour plan would not apply to all military occupational specialties (MOS's). Some MOS's with a high TDA population would be exempt. The plan, the Enlisted Assignment Pattern Vision of the Future, remained a concept in FY 1994 with no implementation date selected.

The Army continued to restructure its MOS's during the fiscal year. In an effort to improve the readiness of its engineering soldiers, the U.S. Army Engineering School at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, merged three MOS's into one. The Materials Quality Specialist MOS 51 G, the Technical Drafting Specialist MOS 81B, and the Construction Surveyor MOS 82B were merged into a new Technical Engineering Specialist MOS 51T. Each of the three MOS courses had required twelve or more weeks of training.


Following the merger, training in all three areas was streamlined to nineteen weeks for new soldiers.

Plans were also under way to restructure several Signal MOS's. First, the U.S. Army Signal School at Fort Gordon, Georgia, planned to merge two MOS's into one. The Information Systems Operator MOS 74D and the Software Analyst MOS 74F would be merged into a new Information Systems Operator Analyst MOS 7413. This reclassification is scheduled for implementation in FY 1995.

In addition, the Signal Corps and the Ordnance Corps cooperated in the realignment of their career management fields (CMFs) during FY 1994. In FY 1991 the Commanding General, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), directed that the U.S. Army Combined Arms Support Command (CASCOM) assume responsibility as the proponent for all electronic maintenance. The Ordnance Corps was designated the branch proponent for all electronic maintenance. The commanders of TRADOC and CASCOM also determined that the Signal Corps would retain all operator—maintainer positions related to Signal Corps systems. The Signal Corps and Ordnance Corps were directed to develop training strategies and realign their CMFs concurrently to support the changes necessary to execute the transfer. Phase one of this transfer was completed in June 1994 with the transfer of CMF 29 (Signal Maintenance) MOS's associated with Signal Corps systems operator-maintainer functions to CMF 31 (Signal Operations).

Officer Personnel

Officer end strength for FY 1994 was 84,807 compared to a target goal of 84,614. There were 72,048 commissioned officers and 12,759 warrant officers against targets of 72,028 and 12,586, respectively. Table 6 lists officer end strength by grade for FY 1994.


GEN 12
LTG 36
MG 114
BG 164
COL 3,763
LTC 9,152
MAJ 14,446
CAPT 26,256
1ST LT 8,895
2D LT 9,210
CW05 298
CW04 1,612
CW03 3,256
CW02 5,376
WO 2,217
Total 84,807

Table 7 summarizes FY 1994 commissioned officer accessions by source and category:



  Army Competitive Category Army Medical Department Judge Advocate Chaplain
US. Military Academy (1,032 Total)





Reserve Officer Training Corps (2,958 Total)





Officer Candidate School (527 Total)





Army Medical Procurement Program (1,100 Total)





Other (209 Total)





(5,826 Grand Total)

Note: The Army competitive category includes the 16 basic branches of combat, support, and service support arms.

The Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Cadet Command did not achieve its recruiting mission for FY 1994. Its total objective was 4,500, and it recruited 3,924. Of 41,423 students enrolled in the program during the fiscal year, the command commissioned 3,926 second lieutenants. Approximately 16 percent of these commissioned officers were women.

The headquarters for all Army ROTC activities was the U.S. Army ROTC Cadet Command, Fort Monroe, Virginia. The command consisted of three regions and 16 brigades in FY 1994. First Region, at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, included six brigades and was responsible for schools along the east coast and Puerto Rico. Second Region, based at Fort Knox, Kentucky, consisted of five brigades that oversaw programs in the central United States. These programs included those of the inactivated former Third Region. Fourth Region, situated at Fort Lewis, Washington, was made up of five brigades covering the western states, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Guam.

Senior ROTC programs existed at military, state, and private schools in all fifty states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Senior ROTC unit strength in FY 1994 consisted of 274 host units and 75 extension centers, for a total of 349 units. Sixteen units closed and one opened in FY 1994. The Army based the decision to close units on projections of a smaller Army and a shrinking national defense budget. Units were selected for inactivation on several bases, including enrollment levels and


the academic degrees of the officers commissioned into the Army. The units closed were at Georgia Southwestern College; Lynchburg College; Manfield University of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania State University at Delaware; Pennsylvania State University at Mont Alto; the State University of New York at Albany; the State University of New York at Cortland; Cumberland College; Indiana University Southeast; Kentucky State University; California State University at Chico; California State University at San Bernadino; Eastern Montana College; and Northeastern State University of Oklahoma.

Recruiting efforts in FY 1994 continued to be hampered by significant reductions in personnel assigned to administer ROTC programs. Personnel turnover posed a widespread problem for the Cadet Command. The turnover resulted from drawdown policies that permitted personnel departures under various programs (Voluntary Separation Incentive, Selective Early Retirement Boards, and Selective Separation Bonus) faster than arrivals in the command.

The Cadet Command revised several of its policies during the fiscal year. The Command formulated a new plan, "Scholarship Tiering," for allocating scholarship money. Under the plan, more scholarships would be available in an ROTC program operating with reduced funding. Implementation of the tiering program is scheduled for FY 1995. Cadet Command also received congressional authorization to increase its monthly scholarship subsistence from $100 to $150, beginning in August 1995. Finally, HQDA published an interim change to Army Regulation 145-1, Senior ROTC Program: Organization, Administration, and Training, that implemented DOD policy.

The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) continued expanding in FY 1994. Initially, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff obtained approval from the Secretary of Defense in May 1992 to expand the JROTC program in the nation's schools. The intent was to reach out to America's "at risk" youth, principally in inner city and rural communities, to reduce school dropouts, gang violence, and related problems. Congress approved an increase in the number of local programs, defined in law the purpose of the JROTC, to "instill in students in United States secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, and personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment." Congress also provided for extraordinary financial assistance for schools in economically and educationally deprived areas. As part of JROTC expansion and in collaboration with the other services and the Department of Education, the Army is also assisting local communities to establish "career academies." Incorporated into each academy are citizenship training, leadership development, and life-coping skills from JROTC. During FY 1994, 30 academies (20 of them Army-sponsored) were developed,


with another 10 under consideration. The goals of these academies are to improve the in-school performance of at-risk students in their academic standing, attendance, and disciplinary records; to increase the graduation rate of academy students in comparison with other students in the same high school; to improve the overall quality of the workforce in the community in which the academy is located; and to support the long-term economic needs of the nation through effective investment of DOD human capital and other resources.

Among the most significant personnel management initiatives in FY 1994, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (DCSPER) identified the need for a review of existing personnel management and professional development policies for officers to develop the officer corps appropriately to meet challenges it would face in the twenty-first century. In response to Force XXI, the initiative to redesign the Army through digitization, the DCSPER directed that a precursor study be made to identify topics that included officer career patterns, officer promotion rates and timelines, officer military and civilian schooling requirements, joint duty requirements, officer evaluation report modifications, and command selection policies and tour lengths, for an Officer Personnel Management System XXI study group. The precursor study is scheduled to begin in the summer of 1995.

In FY 1994 ODCSPER initiated Phase I of the Warrant Officer Leader Development Action Plan (WOLDAP). The WOLDAP included thirteen-points developed by the Army Staff, TRADOC, and warrant officer personnel proponents to implement the Warrant Officer Management Act passed by Congress in 1991. The WOLDAP included a strategy to improve training, personnel management, and the total leader development process for the Army's warrant officers. The CSA approved implementation of the WOLDAP in 1992. Full implementation of the WOLDAP drove a requirement to restructure the Army's warrant officer force from three levels to four levels (W2-W5), with a feasible career progression path. An ODCSPER decision provided guidance to implement the restructuring in two phases. All TOE, modified TOE (MTOE), and active component TDA documents were to be recoded in Phase I. Reserve component TDA, and any revisions to Phase I Standards of Grade that were needed to meet the Warrant Officer Average Grade Distribution Matrix, established by the ODCSPER, were to be recoded in Phase II.

ODCSPER initiated Phase I of the WOLDAP documentation during FY 1994. In November 1993 the US. Total Army Personnel Command (PERSCOM) published the notification of future change detailing the WOLDAP Phase I structure changes. The U.S. Army Force Integration Support Agency (USAFISA) applied the Phase I structure changes to TOE documents in April, during the Consolidated TOE Update. From July to


September, USAFISA and the major commands applied the Phase I structure changes to MTOE and applicable TDA documents. Department of the Army Circular 611-94-1, Implementation of Changes to the Military Occupation Classification and Structure, 26 August 1994, contained instructions for implementing the structure changes.

Implementation of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act (DOPMA) continued on schedule in FY 1994. Table 8 summarizes promotion rates with respect to DOPMA standards for Basic Branch selection.


Selection Rate %
DOPMA Standard %
Years in Service
Standard for Years in Service
COL 50.38 50 22.8 22+/-1
LTC 70.47 70 16.8 16+/-1
MAJ 85.44 80 11.5 10+/-1
CPT 90.80 95 4.0 3.5+/-1

The officer drawdown program in FY 1994 met DOD and congressional guidance to maximize voluntary separations and minimize involuntary separation programs. A total of 3,801 officers left the Army through voluntary and involuntary separation programs. The Voluntary Early Release/Retirement Program (VERRP) included colonels and lieutenant colonels with time-in-grade waivers, lieutenants separating with two years' active duty for assignment to reserve component units, and warrant officer MOS's that had a surplus of personnel. This program accounted for 611 officer losses. The VSIP targeted captains in the RIF zone; captains passed over one time for promotion to major; and chief warrant officers in grades two and three who were in MOS's that contained a surplus of personnel and who were not eligible for the VERRP Officer losses in this program numbered 1,374. The Early Retirement Program targeted majors who were passed over for promotion twice; warrant officers in MOS's with a surplus of personnel; majors who were not yet being considered for promotion to lieutenant colonel; and captains and warrant officers who were passed over one time for promotion. There were 673 officer reductions through this program. A Lieutenant Retention Board that considered officers for promotion to captain accounted for an additional 450 officer reductions. Finally, 693 officer losses came from SERBS. A RIF had been scheduled for February 1994 to consider captains in the 1985 year group but was canceled due to sufficient VSIP volunteers.

Total officer strength in the Army National Guard at the end of FY 1994 was 45,538-1,311 below the program objective. That strength rep-


resented a 1,118 decrease from FY 1993. Attrition for the year was 10.4 percent, which compared favorably with the FY 1993 attrition of 11.2 per­cent. Table 9 summarizes Army National Guard commissioning sources for lieutenants in FY 1994:




Reserve Officer Training Corps


Officer Candidate School (State)


Officer Candidate School (Federal)


Direct Appointment




An increase in the percentage of warrant officers was due to force structure changes. In FY 1994 there were 10,169 authorized warrant officer positions, compared with 9,853 in FY 1993. Warrant officer accessions of 9,011 in FY 1994, however, remained below desired levels.

Civilian Workforce

Continuing its contraction, the Army's civilian workforce shrank by 15,800 during FY 1994, to 341,177. Most of the reductions were achieved through normal attrition coupled with hiring controls and through use of voluntary early retirement authority and civilian pay incentives to retire. Although there was no Army hiring freeze, budget levels were again instrumental in reaching strength goals. The civilian workforce includes all U.S. and foreign national civilian employees of the Army in both military and civil functions. The strength of personnel paid from appropriated funds declined from 323,566 to 306,480 during the fiscal year. Within this category, civilian strength in military functions decreased from 294,217 at the beginning of the fiscal year to 279,526 at its end. There were 2,259 voluntary early retirements in FY 1994. Recipients of the VSIP numbered 4,361. There were 859 RIF separations.

Special Topics

Recognizing that readiness is enhanced by eliminating unnecessary barriers to service, the Army expanded opportunities for women in FY 1994. Representation of women in the active Army grew from 12.5 percent at the start of the fiscal year to 13 percent by its end. Women com-


posed 14.4 percent of commissioned officers, 4.4 percent of warrant officers, and 13.1 percent of enlisted personnel. In the reserve components, women constituted almost 8 percent of the National Guard and over 21 percent of the Army Reserve. By the end of FY 1994, 91 percent of the Army's career fields and 67 percent of Army positions were open to women. In addition, 87 percent of the Army's enlisted specialties, 97 percent of warrant officer specialties, and 97 percent of officer specialties were open to women.

The role of women in the Army expanded significantly in FY 1994 due to a change in DOD policy. There are no statutory restrictions on the utilization of women in combat. This policy changes whenever new assignment rules and definitions of direct ground combat are developed. In FY 1993 the Secretary of Defense directed the services to open more specialties and assignment opportunities to women. Women were permitted to compete for combat aviation assignments. The Army responded by opening positions in attack and scout helicopter units. More than 9,000 previously closed positions opened to women. Special Operations Forces (SOF) aircraft and some air cavalry units remained closed until they could be evaluated under the new assignment policy.

In January 1994 the Secretary of Defense announced the new assignment rule and definition of direct ground combat. The rule states that service members are eligible to be assigned to all positions for which they are qualified, except that women shall be excluded from assignment to units below brigade level that have a primary mission of engaging in direct combat on the ground. This definition excludes women from engaging an enemy on the ground with individual or crew-served weapons while being exposed to hostile fire and to a high probability of direct physical contact with the hostile force's personnel. Direct ground combat takes place well forward on the battlefield while combat units are locating and closing with enemy forces to defeat them by fire, maneuver, or shock effect. The Army applied the new policy and immediately recommended to the Secretary of Defense the opening of positions in eight units. In accordance with the guidance of the Secretary of Defense, between January and May 1994 the Army evaluated other units, positions, and specialties closed to women and submitted to the Secretary of Defense final recommendations to open 32,699 additional positions.

In July 1994 the Secretary of Defense approved the Army recommendations. Effective 1 October 1994, female soldiers could be assigned to maneuver brigade headquarters, division military police companies, chemical reconnaissance and smoke platoons, mechanized smoke platoons, engineer bridge companies, military intelligence collection and jamming companies, forward-support teams of forward-support battalions, 1st Battalion, 3d Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard), 3rd Infantry       


Regiment (The Old Guard) headquarters, armored cavalry regimental headquarters, 160th Aviation Group headquarters, Special Forces Group headquarters, divisional air defense artillery headquarters, regimental aviation squadrons of armored cavalry regiments, air cavalry troops of division cavalry squadrons, enlisted MOS 12C Engineer Bridge Crewmember, enlisted MOS 12Z Combat Engineer Senior Sergeant, and enlisted MOS 82C Field Artillery Surveyor.

During FY 1994 the Army also began implementing a new policy of integrating male and female soldiers during basic training. Following a three-month test in FY 1993 of mixed company training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, the Army implemented gender-integrated training in FY 1994 at two posts where the majority of female recruits go for basic training. A company at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, began integrated training in September, to be followed by ten more companies at Fort Jackson in October and November 1994.

The Army continued measures to prevent and eradicate sexual harassment and racial and ethnic discrimination during the fiscal year. The Army recognizes that sexual harassment negatively affects unit cohesion and individual well-being, and Army leaders remained committed to eradicating it. The Army implemented changes to its equal opportunity program to resolve complaints faster, document both formal and informal complaints, improve complaint channels, define the duties of the equal opportunity adviser, provide feedback to the complainant, and institute an appeals process.

In September 1993 the Office of the DCSPER published Change 4 to Army Regulation 600-20, Army Command Policy, which overhauled the complaint process, established equal opportunity (EO) hotlines at all installations, and mandated EO training throughout all phases of professional military education and twice yearly in units. The complaint process reporting procedures were further standardized through the adoption of a new complaint form and timelines to pace actions toward the resolution of complaints. In November the CSA reinstated sixteen officer EO positions, which had been eliminated earlier, to bolster support of noncommissioned officers and EO advisers working in the field. In January 1994 the Army introduced a standardized reproducible complaint form and established timelines to resolve complaints. That same month, the Secretary of the Army and the CSA demonstrated their commitment to equal opportunity in a joint policy statement. In April ODCSPER began requiring EO advisers to make follow-up assessments of the handling of EO complaints. The advisers were to examine resolution strategies and the effects of a command's action or inaction in the wake of all formal complaints. In July, the Secretary of the Army and the CSA demonstrated their continuing commitment to preventing and eradicating sexual harassment in a joint policy


statement. Mandatory unit training on the new complaint process occurred in the spring and summer of 1994.

For FY 1994 both racial and ethnic discrimination complaints and sexual harassment complaints were down from FY 1993 levels. There were 691 racial and ethnic discrimination complaints in FY 1994, compared with 943 in FY 1993. Of these complaints, 165, or 23.9 percent, were substantiated in FY 1994, in contrast with 181, or 19.2 percent, in FY 1993. There were also 512 sexual harassment complaints in FY 1994, 137 less than in FY 1993. Of these complaints 146, or 28.5 percent, were substantiated in FY 1994, a decrease from 262, or 40.4 percent, in FY 1993. The average female population in the Army in FY 1994 was 70,100, down 1,400 from FY 1993. The average active Army strength was 553,000 in FY 1994, compared with 587,000 in FY 1993.

In addition to the above racial and ethnic discrimination complaints, the Office of The Judge Advocate General (OTJAG) conducted jury trials in eight discrimination cases Army-wide in FY 1994. While the Army won the majority of these, one loss stands out. In Johnson v. West, a Washington, D.C., District Court case alleging sex discrimination and retaliation in the Corps of Engineers (COE), the jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff with an award of $3 million, the highest jury award ever against a government agency for discrimination. While the district court reduced the award to the statutory limitation of $300,000 under the Civil Rights Act of 1991, the court granted substantial equitable relief in addition to the compensatory damages.

In FY 1994 the Army implemented a new homosexual conduct policy. The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness approved the new policy for the Army in February 1994, and it was implemented in March. The Army Homosexual Conduct Policy implements section 654 of Title 10, U.S. Code, and reflects the finding of Congress that "the presence in the Armed Forces of persons who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual acts would create an unacceptable risk to the standards of morale, to order and discipline and unit cohesion that are the essence of military capability." Congress stated that the suitability of persons to serve in the Army is based on their conduct. Homosexual conduct will be grounds for separation from the Army. Homosexual conduct is defined in three terms. First, a homosexual act means any bodily contact, actively undertaken or passively permitted, between members of the same sex for the purpose of satisfying sexual desires and any bodily contact (for example, hand-holding or kissing, in most circumstances) that a reasonable person would understand to demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in such an act. Second, an admission that a member is a homosexual, or bisexual, or words to that effect, means language or behavior that a reasonable person would believe  


intends to communicate that a person engages in or intends to engage in homosexual acts. Under the new policy, such an individual has the opportunity to rebut the presumption of homosexual acts by demonstrating that he or she does not engage or intend to engage in homosexual acts. Third, a homosexual marriage or attempted marriage occurs when a service member has married or attempted to marry a person known to be of the same biological gender (as evidenced by the external anatomy of the persons involved).

Applicants for enlistment, appointment, or induction into the Army under the new policy will not be asked or required to reveal if they are heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual, although homosexual conduct may be a basis for rejection for enlistment, appointment, or induction. Army Regulation 601-210, Regular Army and Army Reserve Enlistment Program, governs the Army accession policy. Sexual orientation will not be a bar to service unless manifested by homosexual conduct. The Army will discharge personnel who demonstrate a propensity or intent to engage in homosexual conduct. Investigations or inquiries will not be initiated solely to determine sexual orientation. There must be credible information that a basis for disciplinary action or discharge exists. Army Regulation 195-2, Criminal Investigating Activities, provides guidance on the investigation of sexual misconduct. All new officers and enlisted personnel of the active Army and reserve components receive briefings upon entry and periodically thereafter with a detailed explanation of regulations governing sexual conduct by members of the armed forces. Finally, all personnel involved with the implementation and administration of this policy will be trained to the extent that allows for consistent Army-wide policy application.

Litigation involving the old policy banning homosexuals from the military continued throughout FY 1994. The year also saw the first legal challenge against the new DOD policy known as "Don't ask, don't tell, and don't pursue." In Cammermeyer v. Perry (9th Circuit Court of Appeals), Col. Margarethe Cammermeyer, former chief nurse of the Washington State National Guard, admitted on a security application and to a Defense Investigative Service agent that she was a lesbian. An administrative board recommended withdrawal of her federal recognition, and Colonel Cammermeyer was separated from the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve. She filed suit in June 1992, claiming the homosexual exclusion policy deprived her of equal protection and violated her rights to privacy and free speech. On 1 June 1994, the court granted Colonel Cammermeyer's summary judgment motion on equal protection grounds and ordered her reinstatement in the National Guard. Declaring the former DOD homosexual policy unconstitutional, the court ruled that the sole motivation for the exclusion of acknowledged homosexuals was preju-


dice. The government sought a stay of Colonel Cammermeyer's reinstatement in the district court and 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. Both were denied, and she was reinstated. The government's appeal of the case before the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals was stayed while the parties attempted to negotiate a settlement consistent with the decision in Meinhold v. Secretary of the Navy. The Meinhold case involved the dismissal from the service and subsequent reinstatement of a Navy petty officer who publicly admitted being a homosexual.

During FY 1994 the Army continued to treat alcohol and drug abuse. The Army Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Program (ADAPCP) treated 11,500 soldiers for substance abuse, provided 4,119 soldiers with formal educational treatment services, and furnished more than 16,000 soldiers with general prevention and education services. ADAPCP continued using tests as an effective deterrent to drug use, increasing the rate to 1.84 tests per soldier. The 1,130,849 tests conducted during the year yielded a positive test rate of .8 percent, which was down from 1.01 percent in FY 1993—a significant reduction from 10.24 percent in FY 1983.

The Army undertook several measures to reduce the demand for drugs by youths in FY 1994. The ADAPCP Adolescent Substance Abuse Counseling Service (ASACS) contract continued to provide counseling in Europe and the Pacific to Army and other DOD adolescents. The ASACS program, which provides services comparable to those available in CONUS, counseled 1,063 adolescents during the fiscal year and taught 1,648 substance abuse prevention classes with a total attendance of 54,977.

The U.S. Army Drug and Alcohol Operations Agency (USADAOA) served as the Army's lead agency in establishing a DOD drug demand reduction program for adolescents. USADAOA took the lead for the Army after Section 1045 of the 1993 National Defense Authorization Act directed the Secretary of Defense to establish drug demand reduction programs to assist civilian communities in their efforts to reduce the demand for drugs by youth. USADAOA chose three community outreach pilot programs at Fort Campbell, Kentucky; Fort Meade, Maryland; and Fort Sam Houston, Texas, respectively, to demonstrate the Army's ongoing efforts. In collaboration with Children's Television Workshop, USADAOA developed an award-winning video, "Brainstorm: The Truth About Your Brain on Drugs." The video is part of an integrated curriculum package. USADAOA distributed 30,000 packages nationwide to reach 1.5 million youths between the ages of eight and twelve.

Finally, as part of its comprehensive strategic plan for drug demand reduction, USADAOA signed a memorandum of understanding with the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and   


Human Services, the federal lead agency for substance abuse prevention. This agreement allowed for effective collaboration in the areas of communications, training, program evaluation, and community partnerships.

The Army's weight program continued to help soldiers keep fit in FY 1994. All soldiers, regardless of rank, are weighed at six-month intervals to demonstrate that they are below tabled height-weight limits (divided by gender and into four age categories). Soldiers exceeding these screening weight standards are assessed at the company level for body fat by an Army-developed circumference method. If a soldier exceeds fat standards prescribed by gender and age, the unit commander must enter the individual in the Army Weight Control Program. The commander is required to provide motivational programs to the soldier, including nutrition education sessions and exercise programs. As an additional incentive to achieve the standards, the soldier's records are flagged to prevent reenlistment, assignment to command positions, favorable actions such as awards, and transfer to any professional schooling beyond initial entry training. A soldier who fails to make satisfactory progress toward weight or fat loss can be discharged from the Army under a separation action for failure to meet the weight control standards.

DOD accession standards are used to eliminate individuals for unsuitability on the basis of physical fitness and military appearance. Although body fat is a poor correlate of physical performance, it is used as a surrogate measure of physical fitness. Lean body mass, or body composition, is critical in successfully performing the jobs that require cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength and endurance. According to the US. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, excess body fat can detrimentally affect a soldier's performance. Too much body fat can affect aerobic activities such as running. Retention standards are based on medical research indicating that there is a relationship between percent of body fat and the incidence of health problems such as high blood pressure, cancer, and diabetes. The Army body fat standards provide only a fairly small margin of health safety below the maximum thresholds. Soldiers are also required to maintain a base level of physical fitness regardless of duty assignment. In addition, commanders are required to make every effort to design and tailor programs according to what their soldiers may be expected to do in combat, thus making conditioning for combat readiness the focus of all Army physical fitness programs.

In FY 1994, 2.4 percent of Army enlisted personnel and 0.5 percent of officers were enrolled in the Weight Control Program. Table 10 lists the numbers and percentages of active component enlisted personnel separated due to the Weight Control Program.



  Force Size % Separations %











Out of a total enlisted force of 511,031 personnel, there were 2,436 sepa­rations. The proportion of the enlisted force separated was .48 percent, which included .43 percent of the men and .05 percent of the women.


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