Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1993
Deployed and Operational Forces
During the fiscal year the Army had approximately 125,000 soldiers stationed at forward-deployed bases in Europe, Korea, and Panama. On an average day the Army had 20,000 troops deployed to approximately seventy-five nations performing more than a thousand operational missions in FY 1993. These deployments represented a 100 percent increase in operational missions from the previous fiscal year.
Deployed Operational Forces
In FY 1993 the Army continued to demonstrate the nation's commitment to security and peace in Southwest Asia (SWA) through numerous training and operational deployments. At any given time more than 2,300 soldiers were deployed in the SWA area of operations. This did not include operations in Somalia and the influx of troops for large exercise deployments. More than 1,300 soldiers were deployed with Army Forces Central Command (ARCENT) Forward and approximately 1,000 served with the Multinational Force and Observer (MFO) organization. Soldiers and civilian contractors maintained pre-positioned stocks of Army materiel at various locations in the area, and other soldiers participated in training both U.S. and allied forces. In July 1992 the Third Army (one of the ARCENT headquarters) created Joint Task Force-Kuwait (JTF-K) in Doha to provide command and control for battalion task forces that deployed on INTRINSIC ACTION exercises. JTF-K remained active during several INTRINSIC ACTION rotations, but as tensions with Iraq abated the task force inactivated on 20 December 1992.
In FY 1993 the Army continued to support Operation SOUTHERN WATCH, the enforcement of the United Nations (UN) "no-fly" zone in southern Iraq. During the fiscal year the Army stationed a Patriot missile battalion, with its own maintenance and security force, in Saudi Arabia to provide air defense for Joint Task Force-Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA). Air defense artillery (ADA) units that deployed to or served in the region included the 3d Battalion, 43d ADA Regiment (July to November 1992); 1st Battalion, 43d ADA Regiment (November 1992 to March 1993); 2d
Battalion, 7th ADA Regiment (March to August 1993); and 6th Battalion, 43d ADA Regiment (August 1993 to its scheduled departure in December 1993). During a period of heightened tension with Iraq in FY 1992, the Army deployed two additional Patriot batteries. The 1st Battalion, 7th ADA Regiment, deployed Battery B to Bahrain and Battery D to Kuwait in July 1992, and the batteries returned home in December 1992.
In FY 1993 the Army maintained a high training OPTEMPO in the area, conducting three rotations for INTRINSIC ACTION exercises in Kuwait. These exercises featured a heavy battalion task force deploying from either USAREUR or CONUS that relied on the use of pre-positioned equipment. A typical task force would consist of two armor and two mechanized infantry companies, an artillery battery, an engineer company, and attached logistical support. Once the troops deployed, they conducted training exercises that were usually small unit FTXs and live fire exercises (LFX) with Kuwaiti Army units. In addition, Special Operations Forces conducted two iterations of Exercise IRIS GOLD, in which a company from the 5th Special Forces Group deployed and trained Kuwaiti units on individual and small unit collective tasks.
These deployments demonstrated to potential adversaries the Army's capability and the nation's commitment to defend its allies in the region. On at least one training operation during the fiscal year, the scheduled date for an INTRINSIC ACTION exercise was advanced to signal Iraq that violations of the Kuwaiti border would not be tolerated. In mid-January 1993 an Army task force from the 1st Battalion, 9th Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division, deployed to Kuwait after Iraq refused to abandon police posts in the demilitarized zone separating the two nations. JTF-K was reactivated on 15 January 1993 as the command and control headquarters for the battalion task force, as well as for Battery C, 1st Battalion, 7th ADA Regiment, special operations forces, and the personnel permanently assigned to the Army Training and Security-Kuwait (ARTAS-K). Approximately 1,100 soldiers from the 1st Cavalry Division at Fort Hood, Texas, deployed rapidly to Kuwait. The Iraqi Army eventually withdrew from the demilitarized zone.
During FY 1993 the Army continued support of the MFO in the Sinai Desert. Troops from several nations constitute the MFO, an independent peacekeeping mission created as a result of the 1978 Camp David Accords and the 1979 Treaty of Peace between Israel and Egypt. The U. S. Army has contributed forces since 1982, providing soldiers to the MFO staff, as well as logistics support and an infantry battalion. The Army infantry battalion assigned to the MFO serves a six-month rotation. During each rotation American MFO soldiers man observation posts along the southern sector of the Sinai and monitor movements for treaty violations. When not in forward posts, infantry battalion elements train
to maintain proficiency in their individual and small unit skills. Civili an employees and contractors, as well as the 1st U.S. Support Battalion, Sinai, provide logistical support for the MFO. Soldiers assigned to the support battalion rotate on a one-year tour. During the fiscal year units that deployed for MFO tours included the 2d Battalion, 502d Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (August 1992 to January 1993), and the 1st Battalion, 504th Infantry Regiment, 82d Airborne Division (January to July 1993). The 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, arrived for MFO duty in July 1993 and is scheduled to remain until January 1994.
The Army's effort to help the starving people of Somalia was the service's major overseas deployment during the fiscal year and the largest since the Persian Gulf War. Civil unrest, lawlessness among a small percentage of the population, and fighting among the Somali clans prevented farmers from raising their own crops, and hundreds of thousands of refugees, mostly in the countryside, faced starvation and death. The humanitarian effort that involved the deployment of Army ground forces to Somalia began on 16 August 1992 with Operation PROVIDE RELIEF. The operation consisted of a joint task force of approximately six hundred personnel delivering supplies to northern Kenya and southern Somalia. The U.S. military, United Nations, and other relief agencies successfully delivered food and supplies to selected storage facilities in Somalia, but the fighting and criminal activity made it difficult to get food and aid into the hands of those that needed it most. International aid organizations operating in Somalia were frustrated by the local conditions and had to hire armed guards or pay tribute to protect food supplies from rival clansmen who used the food to reward their own followers. Although the UN had some troops in Somalia, they were lightly armed and unable to establish order or maintain control outside of their compound.
The worsening situation in Somalia brought calls for intervention that led to the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) intervening in Somalia to create a secure environment favorable to renewing civilian relief operations. CENTCOM established Joint Task Force Somalia, later called United Task Force Somalia (UNITAF), under Lt. Gen. Robert B. Johnston (USMC) to control the military forces in Somalia. The major Army unit in Somalia was the 10th Mountain Division (Light) from Fort Drum, New York, and its commanding general, Maj. Gen. Steven Lloyd Arnold, served as the commander of Army Forces, Somalia. The Army provided most of UNITAF's logistics support, and Brig. Gen. Billy K. Solomon commanded the Joint Task Force Support Command, whose major units included the 593d Support Group (from Fort Lewis), 36th Engineer Group (Fort Benning), 7th Transportation Group (Fort Eustis), and 62d Medical Group (Fort Lewis). Other Army units included elements from the 5th
Special Forces Group and the 8th Psychological Operations Battalion, which together formed UNITAF's Special Operations Forces Somalia, and the Joint Psychological Operations Task Force.
The 2d Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, deployed to Somalia on 10 December in support of Operation RESTORE HOPE. The operation began on 9 December when U.S. marines from the I Marine Expeditionary Force made a night amphibious landing near the international airport in Mogadishu. After occupying the airport and the terminal buildings, the marines took control of the city's port facilities. Although the airport runways were small, the U.S. Air Force flew supplies, equipment, and additional marines and soldiers into Mogadishu. As the international presence grew, UNITAF began moving into troubled areas outside of Mogadishu. The Army eventually had responsibility for four of nine Humanitarian Relief Zones, centered on the cities of Kismayu, Baledogle, Baidoa, and Marka and covering more than 21,000 square miles. U.S. Military forces (all services) in Somalia reached their peak strength of more than 25,800 on 16 January 1993.
Despite occasional sniper attacks against troops and facilities, UNITAF solicited working agreements among the warring clans and eventually established order within Somalia. General Arnold established a "Four No's" policy-no bandits, no checkpoints (to collect payments from relief convoys), no technicals (Somali vehicles with mounted weapons), and no visible weapons-for territory under his control. Under outside supervision, clans began turning in some of their weapons. When necessary, UNITAF forces engaged Somalis who threatened their security. Through peaceful persuasion and the controlled use of force, UNITAF accomplished its primary mission of restoring sufficient order to allow food convoys to reach relief centers. Army engineer units also constructed roads, bridges, and other infrastructure to help rebuild the country and keep the food convoys moving.
On 4 May 1993, Operation RESTORE HOPE ended when UNITAF, a peace-making organization, was replaced with United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II), charged with a peacekeeping mission. Although most of the Army and Marine units had withdrawn by the end of Operation RESTORE HOPE, approximately 5,000 troops maintained the U.S. presence in Somalia during UNOSOM II in support of U. S. Operation CONTINUE HOPE. A second rotation of units arrived in Somalia from the 10th Mountain Division to organize a quick reaction force (QRF) that could reinforce UN troops in emergencies. An infantry battalion and an aviation task force, with a total of approximately 1,400 soldiers, formed the QRF. The remaining 3,600 U.S. soldiers in Somalia helped provide logistical support to the United Nations forces. Maj. Gen. Thomas Montgomery was the deputy commander of UNOSOM II and commander
of the U.S. Army forces in Somalia. UNOSOM II consisted of four phases: Phase I, the transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II; Phase II, the consolidation of controlled areas and expansion to other areas in central and northern Somalia; Phase III, transferring control back to Somali civilian authority; and Phase IV, redeployment. Increasing violence on the part of clan leaders, notably Mohammed Farah Aideed, endangered the prospects for peace and the establishment of a new government.
In early June 1993 Aideed's forces ambushed UN (Pakistani) peacekeeping troops, killing more than twenty and wounding more than fifty. After these attacks, the UN Security Council passed a resolution calling for the arrest and detention of those responsible. UN forces in Somalia launched a series of raids against Aideed and his supporters, but after they failed to capture him the United Nations issued an arrest warrant for the clan leader. On 12 July U.S. helicopters killed approximately fifty Somalis during an attack on one of Aideed's strongpoints. Civil unrest in Somalia increased as clan mobs rioted and killed four journalists. Hostile Somali activity forced UNOSOM troops to tighten security for the food convoys and their cantonment areas.
In August the Army sent approximately 400 rangers to Mogadishu to reinforce the 10th Mountain Division QRF and help capture Aideed. This deployment followed the 8 August death of four U.S. Soldiers and the wounding of another six on 22 August. Aideed followers in Mogadishu used remotely controlled mines or bombs to destroy the soldiers' vehicles. After arriving in late August, the rangers launched their first raids against hostile Somalis. Both UN forces and Somalis died in the raids involving helicopter gunship strikes and ambushes that continued through September. Although the rangers captured some of his assistants, they were unable to capture Aideed. U.S. forces lost several wounded in these operations, and three soldiers were killed on 25 September when Aideed's troops, equipped with rocket launchers, succeeded in shooting down an Army UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter. By 30 September the U.S. Army had suffered seventy-three casualties in Somalia, including eight hostile and four nonhostile deaths.
Operation PROVIDE PROMISE, the Army's humanitarian assistance and support to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in areas of the former Republic of Yugoslavia, began in July 1992. The Army supported United Nations operations in the new nations of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Macedonia with personnel and equipment. Army personnel served in Joint Task Force PROVIDE PROMISE headquarters in Naples, Italy, and in its forward headquarters in Zagreb, Croatia. The Army also assigned personnel to UN headquarters in Sarajevo and UNPROFOR headquarters in Zagreb. Other Army soldiers in the Balkans included liaison officers to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, also headquartered in Zagreb.
On 2 October 1992, at the request of UN officials, President Bush authorized the deployment of a military hospital to support the 20,000 UN troops conducting peacekeeping operations in the former Yugoslavia. The medical mission was subsequently modified to authorize the provision of medical services to severely wounded Bosnian children. As part of Operation PROVIDE PROMISE, approximately 150 soldiers from the 212th Surgical Hospital (Mobile Army) deployed from USAREUR to Zagreb, Croatia, on 10 November 1992, with approximately 160 more personnel deploying within the next few days. Medical personnel from several USAREUR hospitals and medical units filled out the ranks of the 212th.
The 212th established a hospital using DEPMEDS (Deployable Medical Systems) shelters at Zagreb's Pleso Airport. Medical personnel took advantage of the airport's existing structures, and part of the hospital facility was built under a large hangar. During its six-month tour, the 212th cared for more than 5,000 patients from approximately thirty-five nations, including Russia, Ukraine, and Poland. The 502d Surgical Hospital (Mobile Army) replaced the 212th on 26 April 1993, moving into the 212th's existing DEPMEDS hospital. Again medical personnel from throughout USAREUR were needed to fill out the 502d's ranks for the deployment. The 502d is scheduled to be replaced in October 1993 by the U.S. Air Force 48th Air Transportable Hospital. Most hospital equipment is expected to remain in Zagreb and be transferred from one hospital to another as the various services take turns operating hospitals during this medical support mission.
In February 1993, after fighting in Bosnia cut off large civilian and refugee populations and forced them to take refuge in isolated pockets, the United States participated in humanitarian aid airdrops. The United States helped assemble and package food and medical supplies for airdrops into remote areas that were not accessible to ground transportation and UN-sponsored relief convoys. The Army provided numerous personnel and airdrop equipment from the 5th Quartermaster Detachment, based in Germany, and the 21st Theater Army Area Command, from Vicenza, Italy. Reserve component units later joined the effort and also provided rigger support for parachute units.
In FY 1993 the Army contributed lawyers to an interservice group of military justice and international lawyers drafting rules for a UN-sanctioned international tribunal to prosecute individuals responsible for committing serious violations of international humanitarian law within the territory of the former Yugoslavia. UN Resolution 827 (1993) approved the Statute of the International Tribunal and encouraged states to suggest procedural and evidentiary rules. The rules are expected to promote fair and effective prosecution but not establish precedents that might someday inhibit lawful military operations.
In FY 1993 tensions rose in the Balkans as the former Republic of Yugoslavia broke into autonomous republics. The prospects of a full-scale war over territorial and ethnic differences grew among the new Balkan countries. Macedonia, one of the new republics, faced the possibility of intervention by its neighbors, particularly Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Albania. In response to reports of a Serbian military buildup along their border with Macedonia, the United Nations deployed a United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) consisting of 700 troops contributed by various Nordic countries to monitor the frontier. The Army's involvement on the ground in Macedonia began in July 1993 when a reinforced infantry company from the Berlin Brigade joined UNPROFOR. The majority of the 315 soldiers deployed to Macedonia were members of Company C, 6th Battalion, 502d Infantry Regiment. Like the Scandinavian troops, the Americans manned checkpoints, observed military activities, and reported violations to the United Nations. The requirement for U.S. troops in Macedonia is ongoing, and units are scheduled to rotate the UNPROFOR assignment.
In FY 1993 the Army contributed surplus medical supplies and equipment in support of Operation PROVIDE HOPE, the transfer of humanitarian supplies to former Soviet republics. A program sponsored by the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Humanitarian and Refugee Affairs made the equipment available for this humanitarian aid. The closure of a war-reserve hospital in England and several of the 7th Medical Command's (MEDCOM) hospitals in Germany created the excess medical stocks, and the command undertook a number of Operation PROVIDE HOPE missions during the fiscal year. Transferred equipment included intravenous fluids, surgical instruments, laboratory equipment, sterilizers, X-ray processors, operating room tables, bed frames, mattresses, pillows, blankets, sheets, and gowns. The 7th MEDCOM also deployed teams to help install the equipment and train medical personnel. Between August and November 1992, the command provided equipment to two hospitals in Tbilisi, Republic of Georgia. Again, between February and May 1993, during Operation PROVIDE HOPE II, the Army shipped approximately $13 million in excess medical equipment to Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, and 7th MEDCOM deployed approximately fifty personnel to support the operation. Operation PROVIDE HOPE III deployments began in late September. Fifty more soldiers arrived in Moscow to deliver another donation of medical provisions valued at $28 million. This deployment is scheduled to end by late October.
On 3 July 1993, Haitian leader Lt. Gen. Raoul Cedras, representing the military leaders who in 1991 had deposed Haiti's first democratically elected president, signed the Governor's Island Agreement that set the conditions for returning President Jean-Bertrand Aristide to office by 30
October 1993. The U.S. Atlantic Command formed a Haiti Assistance Group (HAG) the next month to prepare for a possible humanitarian civic assistance mission. The HAG also began designing a professional development program for Haitian forces to teach them about civil rights and help alleviate corruption in the Haitian military.
When the United Nations suspended its embargo against Haiti, it authorized the deployment of an eighteen-member site survey team to visit the country from 7 to 11 September 1993. This team consisted of international police monitors and representatives of the United Nations, the Atlantic Command, and the State Department. The U.S. Army provided eight of the team members and later contributed four members of an interim team that the Haitians requested to keep a UN presence in the country. On 22 September a fifteen-member HAG advance party, consisting of fourteen Army personnel, replaced the interim survey team and prepared for the arrival of the HAG itself. The HAG's main body contained between 500 and 600 personnel from the 2d Battalion of 3d Special Forces Group, TRADOC, and XVIII Airborne Corps and included aviation, communications, logistics, and medical personnel. When the USS Harlan County arrived at Port-au-Prince carrying the main body of the HAG, Haitian protesters and troublemakers did not allow the ship to dock safely. Haitian security and police forces openly supported the armed mob at the port. After Cedras refused to guarantee the safety of the U.S. Military personnel, on 12 October President Clinton ordered the Harlan County to leave Haitian waters. As a result, the United Nations reimposed sanctions against Haiti.
Support to Civilian Authorities
In FY 1993 the Army continued relief operations that began in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew. The few domestic deployments during this fiscal year did not match the scale of the Hurricane Andrew relief. Table 12 shows the most significant Army deployments in support of civilian authorities during FY 1993.
TABLE 12-MAJOR ARMY DEPLOYMENTS IN SUPPORT
AUTHORITIES, FY 1993
Federal Law Enforcement
DOD supported the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) during the Midwest floods with the Army Corps of Engineers and other military assets. Aircraft and soldiers were provided to the National Interagency Fire Center to help fight wildfires raging in southern California. The Army also supported requests from federal law enforcement agencies for assistance during their cordoning of a religious cult stronghold in Waco, Texas.
One of the most effective ongoing means for the Army to provide support for civilian authorities is the Military Assistance to Safety and Traffic (MAST) program. Under MAST, Army air ambulance helicopters transport serious medical emergencies that require rapid air transportation to a medical facility. MAST units provide their assistance to communities lacking services or when they are the only means of evacuation. MAST flying hours are provided from the existing flying hour program on a non-reimbursable basis to its beneficiaries. Twelve Army aeromedical evacuation units provided lifesaving treatment or patient evacuation for civilians in sixteen communities during FY 1993. Army units flew 2,141 flight hours participating in 1,321 MAST missions that transported 1,366 patients.
The Army Shelter for the Homeless Program assists communities and charitable organizations in creating shelters by providing a physical plant and basic incidental services. The program dates back to January 1983, when the White House directed the Secretary of Defense to provide "under utilized" military installation facilities to shelter the nation's homeless. In February 1983 the Army responded by allowing overnight shelters in Army Reserve Centers and extending the program to active Army facilities in August. Congress enacted the statutory authority for the program in 10 U.S.C. 2546 in October 1983. This allowed military installations to provide shelter and incidental services to local relief agencies that administer the program, including religious organizations, volunteer groups, and subcontracted social welfare professionals.
The Army supported seven homeless shelters during the fiscal year: the Carroll House (Forest Glen, Maryland); the Washington House (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania); the Kennedy Shelter (Fort Belvoir, Virginia); Sarah's House (Fort Meade, Maryland); Monmouth House Shelter (Fort Monmouth, New Jersey); Ozanam Shelter (Camp Kilmer, New Jersey); and the St. Martin de Porres Shelter (Seattle, Washington). These shelters provided 510 beds and sheltered more than 6,000 homeless. In addition to the homeless shelters, installations may fund incidental services such as security, utilities, bedding, transportation, renovation and minor repairs, and property liability insurance. The Army also provides bedding to homeless shelters operated by other relief agencies. Army support for the homeless totaled $1.071 million in FY 1993.
In FY 1993 the Army continued counterdrug operations as part of DOD's effort in the National Drug Control Strategy. The Army performed a variety of missions in the war against drugs, supporting five major joint commands, more than forty federal law enforcement agencies, and more than 2,000 local law enforcement agencies throughout the nation. During the fiscal year the Army received approximately $372 million, or 29 percent, of DOD's fiscal year total $1.263 million for counterdrug activities.
Army counterdrug activities aimed to reduce demand, detect and monitor drug traffic, and support state drug plans through the Army National Guard under the provisions of Title 32, U.S. Code, for employing the Army National Guard in support of civilian drug law enforcement agencies (DLEA). The Army's materiel research, development, and acquisition process provided important support to law enforcement agencies in their war against drugs. In FY 1993 the Army helped field the Airborne Reconnaissance Low (ARL) and the Trafficking Emplaced Sensor Operational Network (TESON) to provide critically needed detection and monitoring capabilities in the war against drugs.
During the fiscal year the Army loaned or leased more than $135 million worth of equipment to civilian DLEAs. Types of equipment loaned included rifles (M14s and M16s), shotguns, night vision devices, vehicles, and UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters. Four strategically located regional Army logistics support offices provided logistics support to the DLEAs and reported directly to DOD. The Army supported more than 95 percent of the DLEA training requests during the fiscal year. The Army provided training to law enforcement personnel at various TRADOC schools or through mobile training teams. The Army's military police school taught the most frequently requested courses.
During the fiscal year the steady flow of cocaine from South America into the United States continued to be the primary drug threat to the nation, but a significant increase in heroin production has also been reflected in the U.S. market. The Army assisted in combating the flow of drugs at their source by providing training and equipment to host nations along the source and transit routes to the United States. The Army also contributed personnel to the approximately 1,200 military and civilian personnel in Honduras under the control of the U.S. Southern Command. Most of the military personnel were U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force members of Joint Task Force Bravo (JTF Bravo). The task force supervised American forces deployed to Honduras, coordinated logistics and engineering projects, and assisted the local government with counterdrug operations.
Created in the 1980s, JTF Bravo had been involved with monitoring Communist and rebel activities in Nicaragua and El Salvador, but by FY 1993 it had moved further into its new major role against drug trafficking. JTF Bravo provided the counterdrug forces of Latin American govern-
ments with training in the war against drugs. The task force conducted fifteen missions during FY 1993 in support of the U.S. Customs Service and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Army personnel assisted in training law enforcement agents who conducted the counterdrug raids. The Army's role in the raids was usually limited to transporting agents looking for drug activity. In FY 1993 raids resulted in the capture of four aircraft and $150 million in cocaine. JTF Bravo personnel also supported Navy and Coast Guard operations that attempted to track smugglers off the Honduran coast and ran radar tracking stations that tracked planes that could be involved in the drug trade.
Army aviation continued supporting Operation Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands (OPBAT) during FY 1993. The Royal Bahamian Police Force, the Turks and Caicos Islands Police, and the U.S. Customs Service, Coast Guard, and DEA executed OPBAT missions with transportation assistance from Army UH-60 helicopters.
In FY 1993 Army counterdrug activities also increased within the continental United States as part of DOD's Joint Task Force-6 (JTF-6) deployed along the nation's southwest border in California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Since 1989 JTF-6 has been the DOD headquarters that works with the civilian law enforcement consortium called Operation ALLIANCE, and both organizations operate from Fort Bliss, Texas. JTF-6 is responsible for coordinating the activities of active Army and reserve component units involved in counterdrug operations in the Southwest. The Posse Comitatus Act of 1878 and Title 10 of the U.S. Code prohibit direct active duty military participation in law enforcement. JTF-6 takes action only at the request of civilian agencies. Operation ALLIANCE receives requests for assistance and determines if it is best accomplished using JTF-6 military assets.
Army support in this counterdrug effort involves several types of missions. Much of the area near and along the border is uninhabited and consists of remote terrain where units on field exercises can also perform reconnaissance missions to look for illegal cultivation or evidence of drug traffic. Often battalion-size units are called into an area of known drug activity and the mere presence of a large armed force is enough to disrupt the drug activity. Units are often sited along popular drug trafficking routes, which forces the diversion of the illegal activities to other routes where the criminals can be arrested by civilian law enforcement personnel. Engineering support includes improving border fences and roads. Army personnel also aid with linguistic support and intelligence analysis and provide useful training in military skills to civilian law enforcement officers. Participating units bring specialized equipment such as night vision goggles that can also benefit law enforcement. During the fiscal year the number of counterdrug missions jumped 22 percent from FY 1992. More than 800 missions were conducted in FY 1992 and FY 1993.
Army units that deployed to support JTF-6 activities during FY 1993 included the 3d Battalion, 22d Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division, and the 2d Battalion, 505th Infantry Regiment, 82d Airborne Division.
Across the nation during the fiscal year, approximately 5,000 Army National Guard personnel provided daily counterdrug support in all fifty states, plus Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia. Their missions included supporting inspections of vehicles and containers by the U.S. Customs Service at U.S. points of entry, manning observation and listening posts near international borders or clandestine airstrips, conducting air surveillance of suspected drug activities, marijuana eradication, and supporting DLEA personnel through intelligence, data processing, and training activities.
Army Special Operations Forces
On 3 March 1993, Secretary of Defense Les Aspin formally designated Civil Affairs (CA) and Psychological Operations (PSYOP) forces as Special Operations Forces (SOF). Although this designation had no impact on the Army financially or operationally, it did clarify the legal basis and command authority under which the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) managed these assets. Until the designation of CA and PSYOP forces as SOF, the USSOCOM and the Army shared responsibility for managing them through an intricate and often changing command structure that originated in October 1987 when DOD assigned all Army and Air Force CA and PSYOP forces to USSOCOM but did not designate them as SOF. After 1987 ambiguities and misunderstandings developed because the lines of command and control were uncertain. Although the Army viewed CA and PSYOP forces as SOF, the administrative documentation prepared by DOD and other joint organizations did not. Conflicting guidance and policies often confused and frustrated planners and unit commanders.
When the USSOCOM recommended the designation of CA and PSYOP forces as SOF, the Army concurred, but the Chief, Army Reserve (CAR), did not. Many CA and PSYOP units are part of the Army Reserve, and the CAR argued that the designation was not in the best interest of the Total Army because assignment to USSOCOM would eventually erode their visibility and affect funding. The CAR also pointed out that CA and PSYOP forces supported conventional operations as well as SOF missions. The Army disagreed, after concluding that the SOF designation was the best way to serve CA and PSYOP forces and that it was in the Army's best interest for them to remain under the USSOCOM and its Army component, the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC). Secretary Aspin's designation decision enhanced USSOCOM's ability to
organize, train, equip, and manage the SOF and eliminated legal ambiguities and institutional misunderstandings.
SOF supported Army operations worldwide in FY 1993. During Operation RESTORE HOPE, the effort to bring order and distribute food in Somalia, SOF took part in the hunt for rebel leader Aideed, and civil affairs troops were vital for the U.S. effort to create conditions for long-term stability in Somalia. In another operation, two Army Civic Action Teams (CAT) assisted the U.S. Pacific Command's support for recently established governments on various Pacific islands. The CATs provided expertise on public facility and infrastructure construction, on-the-job training, and limited medical assistance to citizens whose governments are part of the Compact of Free Association. These are new island governments created when the United States relinquished its trusteeship of certain Pacific islands that Japan had occupied during World War II. During the fiscal year civil affairs also played significant roles in Operation PROVIDE COMFORT, the ongoing effort to assist Kurdish refugees in northern Iraq and Turkey, and Operation PROVIDE PROMISE, the effort to provide humanitarian assistance to civilians in the war-ravaged Balkans.
In FY 1993 the Army reviewed CA and PSYOP requirements in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP), 1993-95, and the Army Mobilization and Operations Planning and Execution System (AMOPES). As a result, the Army revised the PSYOP and CA force structure requirements and documentation to align these SOF functions with the service's post-Cold War missions. The U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) also reexamined its force requirements for civil affairs missions in FY 1993. CENTCOM determined that its requirements could be met with regionally oriented CA forces in the active component and by using more civil affairs volunteers from the Army Reserve. SOF planners on the Army Staff pushed to have CA and PSYOP forces included in the Contingency Force Pool along with other high-priority reserve component units. Based on the new JSCP and AMOPES guidance, the Army gave funding priorities to CA and PSYOP units that could support these plans.
Army intelligence activities underwent some significant changes in FY 1993. The consolidation and downsizing efforts resulting from the National Performance Review eliminated many redundant programs and moved the Army closer to a joint integration of intelligence activities.
Several organizational changes took place within the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT) during the fiscal year. In October 1992 the U.S. Army Intelligence Operations Detachment (USAIOD) converted from an ODCSINT field operating agency (FOA) to
a staff support agency (SSA) after a review determined that it was a dysfunctional FOA that performed HQDA staff, staff support, and operational functions. USAIOD's personnel and functions were realigned between ODCSINT and the new USAIOD, with ODCSINT retaining the policy, planning, and programming functions and USAIOD performing functions in support of ODCSINT policy, planning, and programming missions. As an SSA, USAIOD's primary mission is to provide direct management support to ODCSINT by preparing analytical reports, assisting in the formulation of procedures, and providing professional, technical, administrative, or logistical support. USAIOD's former operational functions were transferred to the Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM).
As Army strength continued to decline, the ODCSINT coordinated the reduction of intelligence end strength throughout the Army in FY 1993. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence directed the creation of an Intelligence Integration Initiative to help consolidate the ODCSINT and Headquarters, INSCOM. This merger is expected to save 400 positions and streamline the organization.
In Operation RESTORE HOPE in Somalia, the Army required translators to accompany U.S. Troops and communicate with Somali citizens. Because interpreters worked closely with American units, there was a possibility that some translators would need access to classified documents. In December 1992 ODCSINT and INSCOM helped to assemble and screen Somalis living in the United States who could serve as translators for U.S. Forces deployed to that country. Technically each Somali was employed by BDM, Inc., which was under contract to the Army. Almost two hundred were screened during the fiscal year, and at any one time between seventy and one hundred translators were on duty in Somalia. The program was so successful that the Canadians and Australians requested assistance with translator acquisition.
The Army Language Program Review Committee (ALPRC) returned in February 1993, after a two-year hiatus, under the chairmanship of the Assistant DCSINT. The ALPRC, formed in the late 1980s and headed by the DCSINT, was the outgrowth of a DCSINT and DCSOPS general officer steering committee recommendation to provide a forum for MACOM and ARSTAF components of the Army Language Program. The Director of the Army Language Program, who advised the DCSINT on convening the committee, advised against it in 1991 and 1992. The committee reconvened in 1993 to address problems in the Army Language Program. The ALPRC primarily studied the shortage of linguists in critical languages such as Arabic and the surplus of some European languages. To satisfy potential requirements in Bosnia-Herzegovina, the ODCSINT coordinated the cross-training of 300 Russian, Czech, and Polish linguists in Serbo-Croatian. Additional Army linguists fluent in Macedonian and Albanian
were needed to support deployments to Macedonia under Operation ABLE SENTRY. When the Defense Language Institute could not provide enough linguists, the Army turned to the reserve components to provide many of these skilled personnel. The ODCSINT also helped provide linguists to support Task Force Russia's search for information on American POWs and MIAs and to analyze Iraqi documents captured during Operation DESERT STORM.
In anticipation of possible deployment to the Balkans, the ODCSINT continued developing a policy dealing with low-level source operations (LLSO). The ODCSINT extended authorization to conduct LLSOs to Army elements in EUCOM to support contingencies in non-NATO European nations and in Africa. LLSO authority was reaffirmed for Army elements in SOUTHCOM and CENTCOM theaters, and in August 1993 the Army distributed the final coordinating draft of AR 381-172, Low Level Source Operations, to the field for comments. Reflecting the Army's growing commitment to support operations other than war, the ODCSINT created the Army's first policy on the use of military intelligence and counterintelligence assets to support military operations responding to civil disturbances and natural disasters. The new policy was incorporated in AR 381-20, U.S. Army Counterintelligence Activities, and FM 100-19, Domestic Support Operations. In January 1993 AR 381-12, Subversion and Espionage Directed Against the Army (SAEDA), was published, superseding the 1981 version. Some of the changes included a requirement for commanders to ensure that SAEDA incidents, illegal diversions of technology, and actual or attempted intrusions into automated systems be reported. The ODCSINT also completed a CONUS threat assessment for the Corps of Engineers (COE) that is expected to help the COE incorporate terrorist protection into all of its new construction projects.
In FY 1993 the ODCSINT prepared the land warfare chapter for "Joint Threat Environment Projection" and co-drafted the "Joint Strategic Review Dual-Use Technology Proliferation" paper. The findings from the latter were incorporated into the widely distributed National Military Strategy study. The ODCSINT also provided assessments for the Bottom-Up Review and the threat chapter and the intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) annex in the Army Modernization Plan, which served as the planning document for the service's modernization programs. The IEW annex changed little from previous years and continued to call for critical systems such as the All Source Analysis System, the Guardrail Common Sensor, the Ground Based Common Sensor, the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS), and the Ground Station Module.
In FY 1993 there were important developments in the Army's counterintelligence (CI) investigation of the Clyde Lee Conrad espionage ring.
Army CI agents arrested S. Sgt. Jeffrey S. Rondeau on 22 October 1992 after he confessed that in 1985 he had assisted the ring by reproducing classified documents. S. Sgt. Jeff E. Gregory, an infantryman with the 6th Infantry Division, was arrested in April 1993, also after confessing his involvement. The Army could not prosecute the two soldiers because the statute of limitations had expired under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, but the cases were referred to the Department of Justice for prosecution. Both were awaiting trial in Tampa, Florida, as the fiscal year ended.
During the fiscal year, in support of Presidential Review Directive 29, the ODCSINT helped provide input to a government task force seeking to draft a new executive order for classifying, declassifying, and safeguarding government national security information. These efforts came after some elected officials and interest groups sharply criticized the government's security programs for classifying too much information and not developing better guidelines for downgrading or declassifying documents. In the National Archives there was a declassification backlog of hundreds of millions of pages, and many post-Cold War security reformers called for declassification programs that accept risk management instead of risk avoidance.
In response to requests from the White House and the Senate and House Armed Services Committees during the fiscal year, the ODCSINT initiated an Army-wide search for information concerning domestic surveillance of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders during the 1950s and 1960s. In FY 1993 the ODCSINT also reviewed for public release information relating to the investigation of President Kennedy's death, in compliance with the John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act. The ODCSINT conducted the review during the fiscal year in coordination with the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
In FY 1993 the ODCSINT Intelligence Directorate Reserve Affairs (IDRA) developed a new program to use reserve component military intelligence assets to assist during peacetime contingencies and crises, as well as during war. The new IDRA program utilized the Individual Mobilization Augmentation (IMA) Program to fill nearly 1,500 intelligence positions. Fiscal year 1993 was the first full fiscal year that the IMA programs at ODCSINT, INSCOM, and the Defense Intelligence Agency were all coordinated by the IDRA, making it one of the most active programs in the Army. In FY 1993 the IDRA also initiated the transfer of the Crazy Horse aerial electronic surveillance system, designed to collect communications intelligence, from the active Army to the Army Reserve. The 138th Military Intelligence Company (USAR) is scheduled to receive the Crazy Horse in FY 1995. Finally, the IDRA helped align linguistic ele-
ments of the 300th MI Brigade (Utah ARNG) to support the 701st MI Brigade. This was the first time that a specific reserve component linguist resource was dedicated to fill an echelon-above-corps language shortfall identified by the ODCSINT Language Requirements Study.
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Last updated 30 October 2003