Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1985
Mobilizing, Deploying, and Sustaining the Army
The success of the Army in staffing, training, and equipping combat and supporting forces to the high degree of proficiency required to meet the enemy and win must be matched by the Army's ability to mobilize, deploy, and sustain those forces in the field. During the past year gains have been made in each of these areas. Mobilization preparedness has been enhanced through increased reserve component readiness, improvements in the Individual Ready Reserve and the Individual Mobilization Augmentation programs, and a more responsive mobilization training base. Deployment capabilities gained in several areas-the ability of installations within the continental United States to process units for overseas movement, the amount of unit equipment pre-positioned overseas for use by deploying units, and the development of a more effective command and control structure to oversee the timely movement of critical resources. But serious deficiencies remained, especially in the area of strategic lift capability, both sea and air. Sustaining the force in peace and in war is a multifaceted undertaking involving such diverse concerns as providing adequate logistics support for the Army in the field; ensuring the readiness of peacetime forces, both active and reserve; protecting personnel and materiel from terrorist attack; and maintaining high morale within the Army Family of components, units, and people.
Mobilization planning during fiscal year 1985 benefited from the participation of planners at CONUS base commands and installations and the continuation of actions begun in fiscal year 1982 to improve the capabilities of the mobilization training base. These included the purchase of war reserve stocks of individual clothing and equipment, the acquisition of addition-
al major end items for the training base, and new construction starts for facilities to support base expansion upon mobilization. Also, a prototype for the Mobilization Equipment Redistribution System (MOBERS), which will provide the Army with the capability to centrally plan the redistribution of equipment to units engaged in a crisis situation, was developed. It will be used during MOBILIZATION EXERCISE 86.
A major mobilization concern continued to be the availability of trained individuals to meet the needs of Army units, both active and reserve, scheduled for early deployment. The Individual Ready Reserve (IRR), the Individual Mobilization Augmentation (IMA) Program, and the Army Retiree Recall Program are key elements in satisfying this requirement.
The IRR strength continued to show improvement during the year, rising from 276,651 in September 1984 to 301,825 in September 1985. One factor responsible for the good results was the IRR Reenlistment Bonus, which was begun in June 1984. It provides $750 for IRR members having critical skills who reenlist for three years. Beginning in fiscal year 1990, IRR strength should increase significantly due to a recent change in enlistment contracts which extended the military service obligation from six to eight years. Plans moved forward during the year to develop a comprehensive refresher training program for IRR members that is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1988. Additional active duty training tours for members of the IRR are also needed. Current dollar restraints limit such tours to less than 20 percent of the IRR annually.
The IMA Program, which assigns individual members of the Selected Reserve to Modification Table of Organization and Equipment-Modification Table of Distribution and Allowances (MTOE-MTDA) positions in the active Army, as well as to agencies outside the Army such as the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and which are authorized to be filled only in wartime, continued to receive emphasis. The IMA strength increased from just under 11,000 at the beginning of fiscal year 1985 to 11,922 at the close of the fiscal year, as the Army moved forward in its efforts to reach an IMA strength of 27,000 officers and enlisted men by fiscal year 1991.
Plans to utilize retirees under the Retiree Recall Program were strengthened as the Army took advantage of provisions in the Department of Defense Authorization Act of 1984, which broadened the scope of potential recallees to include most retired enlisted members and retired reservists of all ranks as
well as retired regular officers who were already liable. The Army has identified 180,000 jobs that could be filled by retirees, and plans call for the issuance of up to 140,000 "hip pocket" mobilization orders directing retirees to report to various posts here and abroad in event of mobilization. The program is restricted to officers and noncommissioned officers under the age of 60. Participants are contacted annually to update medical and personal data. About 400 volunteer retirees participated in a test (Exercise CERTAIN SAGE) conducted at eight Army posts to evaluate installation-level notification, assignment, employment, and support procedures for bringing retired soldiers into active service during a mobilization.
Fiscal year 1985 was marked by additional progress in correcting deficiencies in CONUS installations' ability to outload early deploying units so that they are able to meet required closure dates at ports of embarkation. These deficiencies, which are especially critical in support of military deployments, include deteriorated rail trackage, inadequate blocking and bracing of materiel stocks, and insufficient loading facilities. A five-year program begun this year earmarks over $44 million for upgrading outloading capabilities of the deficient installations, but over 163 million in additional funds are required through fiscal year 1991 to bring the facilities up to standards.
Another essential aspect in providing for the successful deployment of forces overseas is a comprehensive command and control structure to assure the timely movement of critical resources. In this regard, work continued on modernizing the Worldwide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS), and initiatives were begun to upgrade command and control systems between deployment agencies and to improve the Army WWMCCS, the Defense Satellite Communications Systems (DSCS), and the Tactical Area Communications System (TACS).
Strategic mobility continued to be a primary concern in achieving the deployment capability needed to meet war and contingency plan requirements. Despite notable improvements in the sealift and airlift capabilities provided by the Army's sister services, serious deficiencies remain which are exacerbated by the decline of the U.S. Merchant Marine fleet and its ability to support wartime needs.
An improved strategic airlift capability, which is particularly critical during the early stages of war or crisis, has resulted from increased utilization rates for Military Airlift Command (MAC) aircraft, the C141 stretch program, the C5-A wing modification program, and the procurement of forty additional C5-B and forty-four more KC-10 aircraft. Intra-theater airlift capability will remain inadequate, especially for outsized cargo and will not improve substantially until fielding of the C-17 Airlifter, which is expected to begin in fiscal year 1992.
Sealift capabilities improved through the acquisition by the Navy of eight SL-7 containerships and their conversion to fast sealift ships (FSS) with roll-on/roll-off configurations. The eight FSSs have a cargo capacity of 200,000 square feet each. When all eight vessels are in operation, they will be able to transport a mechanized or armored division to Europe in 5 days and to the Persian Gulf in 14-16 days. In support of the REFORGER exercises, the FSS has successfully transported, for example, 271 tracked and 652 wheeled vehicles and 230 small military containers from Beaumont, Texas, to Amsterdam, the Netherlands. To counter the decline in the capability of the U.S. merchant fleet to meet wartime needs, the Navy increased the size of the Ready Reserve Force from 56 to 71 ships during fiscal year 1985. This program takes militarily-suitable ships being retired and maintains them in five- to ten-day readiness status for support of overseas contingencies.
The movement of materiel from cargo vessels offshore to ground units, part of the logistics-over-the-shore (LOTS) mission, is an Army responsibility. Deficiencies in this area were reduced during fiscal year 1985 by the activation of a second LACY-30 company and the funding for additional landing craft, causeways, and logistics support vessels. These actions are part of a comprehensive modernization of the Army's watercraft fleet. The Army is working very closely with the Navy under a memorandum of agreement (MOA) on strategic mobility to develop a balanced sealift and cargo off load program. The MOA, which was signed by the chiefs of Army and Navy logistics on 9 July 1985, represents a commitment to maintain the momentum generated by previous MOAs.
While working closely with the Air Force and the Navy in seeking solutions to the problem of inadequate strategic mobility, the Army is also seeking to reduce air and sealift requirements through its land- and sea-based prepositioning programs and to increase deployment flexibility with its light forces initiative. During fiscal year 1985 plans were solidified
to place 8,000 tons of combat service support equipment aboard a newly procured Heavy Lift Pre-positioning Ship. This ship will be pre-positioned in the Indian Ocean next year. The equipment will be used to unload early arriving equipment and supplies to support Central Command (CENTCOM) contingency operations in Southwest Asia. Also, progress continued in raising the number of unit sets of equipment prepositioned in Europe under the pre-positioning of materiel configured to unit sets (POMCUS) program from four to six division sets, and in pre-positioning war materiel in the Reichel Logistics Facility in the Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) area of NATO's defense perimeter.
Sustainment of the Army in peacetime and wartime involves a number of diverse considerations. In wartime, tactical water support, petroleum distribution, medical support, preplanned contingency contracting, host nation support, and war reserve stocks are important factors in the ability of the Army to be sustained. In peacetime, the Army also must have the ability to sustain itself in a state of readiness, and in this regard such factors as depot maintenance, spare and repair parts, training materiel and ammunition, educational opportunities, the safety, security, and survivability of non-strategic nuclear weapons, protection against acts of terrorism, and personal safety play a significant role. Also, the Army must show a genuine concern and commitment to the welfare of the soldier and his family if it is to sustain itself as an institution capable of performing its various roles and missions during peace or war.
Tactical water support is essential to support CENTCOM forces operating in arid environments. This support involves water detection, production, treatment and storage, distribution, and cooling. During the past year plans to operationally test a 150,000 gallon a day water purification system on a LASH Barge and mount a system of twice that capacity on a BC 231A Barge moved ahead.
To compensate for the thirty- to forty-year-old bulk petroleum (POL) pipeline distribution equipment in the Army Facilities Distribution System, which is labor intensive and no longer commercially viable, the Army has programmed funds to improve POL off load and inland distribution through use of nondevelopmental pipeline items already "on the shelf." Use of this equipment will increase the rate at which pipeline may
be laid from one to fifteen miles per day. The Army has also begun procurement of 5,000-barrel, collapsible POL storage tanks and is pursuing jointly with the Navy the purchase of an offshore petroleum discharge system for use in LOTS operations. The system was successfully demonstrated in September 1985.
The Army's wartime medical readiness continued to be severely limited due to a shortage of professional medical personnel, particularly in the reserve components, and a shortage of medical equipment. Improvements in the situation were noted as deliveries of equipment for six hospitals purchased in 1983 began and active duty physician strength reached full peacetime authorization. Also, recruiting programs are being modified and developed to target critical shortfalls in professional medical personnel.
Other programs to support wartime forces moved forward during the year. These included industrial preparedness planning; wartime host nation support, with particular emphasis given to the decision of the Federal Government of Germany to activate reserve units to meet U.S. Army wartime needs in such areas as transportation, medical evacuation, POL/ammunition handling, and security; preplanned contingency contracting; war reserve stockage; ammunition war reserve stockage; and alternative energy resources to reduce reliance on Arab and Iranian oil.
Depot maintenance activities are a critical element of peacetime readiness. Progress has been made in recent years to reduce the chronic backlog in maintenance and repair, and the fiscal year 1985 budget provides a balanced depot maintenance program which should serve to reduce the backlog still further.
A host of initiatives were under way to improve repair parts supply at both the retail and wholesale levels. These included continued restructuring of Authorized Stockage Lists (ASL) and the Prescribed Load List (PLL) at division level to provide sufficient parts to support maintenance operations under combat conditions.
Another measure of peacetime readiness is the adequacy of reserve component training and storage facilities to support the critical missions entrusted to the Army National Guard and the Army Reserve under the Total Force policy. In the Army National Guard, for example, the number of facilities has expanded over the past five years to 2,956 armories, 918 surface equipment maintenance shops, 100 aviation support facilities, and 271 training sites. Programs are under way to acquire stor-
age facilities for safeguarding and maintaining the increased level of supplies and equipment required to perform the combat and combat support missions assigned Army National Guard units, new weapons training ranges to upgrade combat readiness, and maintenance facilities to support new combat equipment and weapons systems entering the Guard inventory. In spite of recent improvements, a recent survey revealed that 1,400 armories were inadequate and required replacement or major rehabilitation and expansion.
Fiscal year 1985 saw a continuation of efforts to implement the Long Range Security Program, which was developed to improve security at U.S. Army special weapons storage sites. Construction of hardened facilities for protection of site security forces is about to get under way and installation of the Intrusion Detection System has begun. The Weapons Access Delay System (WADS), a recent initiative to delay intruders from removing weapons at storage sites, is in the construction stage arid should be ready for installation next year.
In response to the increased threat of terrorism, the Army Staff Anti-Terrorist Task Force conducted a major study to determine mission responsibilities and requirements to counteract terrorist threats. Increased funding will be required for the next several years to implement a long-term improvement program for total force protection.
This past year was the second in a five-year program to reduce military and civilian personal injuries by 3 percent each year. The program affirms the Army's commitment to promoting personal safety, which preserves fighting strength, is an indication of superior training and leadership, and demonstrates the Army's concern for its military and civilian members. Figures for fiscal year 1984 show that the Army exceeded the 3 percent reduction goal on the military side, registering a 4 percent reduction, but fell 1 percent short of meeting the goal in the civilian sector. Actions taken during fiscal year 1985 to ensure that the annual 3 percent goal is met include improvements in the materiel acquisition process, greater stress on safety in the Army school system, and dealing with high injury situations involving tracked and wheeled vehicles. Also, with the cooperation of the National Safety Council, the Army is conducting a study to examine the extent and character of accidents involving Army family members and developing countermeasures to reduce or eliminate problem areas.
Increased funding to support noncommissioned officer education in fiscal year 1985 represented the continued commit-
ment to obtaining and retaining well educated leaders in the noncommissioned and warrant officer levels, a significant element in peacetime sustainment and readiness. The centerpiece of this effort is the Service Members Opportunity Colleges Associate Degree (SOCAD) Program, which offers instruction in fifteen technical occupational areas and one general area which are related to NCO and warrant officer occupational specialties. The program is voluntary, conducted during off-duty hours, and participants receive tuition assistance from the Army. Another program, the Basic Skills Education Program, provides education in basic academic skills to soldiers prior to or during SOCAD courses.
Sustainment of the Army in peacetime has been nurtured during the past year by a continued emphasis on the Army Family, which was the Army theme in 1984. This involved support of programs and activities which promote all three facets of the Army Family: the Family of Components, the Family of Units, and the Family of People.
The Family of Components encompasses the roles and relationships among the active Army, Army National Guard, Army Reserve, civilian employees, and retirees. The Family of Units addresses the relationship of soldiers with their units and the ties of units to other organizational elements. The Family of People is concerned with the individual's sense of responsibility and the Army's concern for its members and their families.
Specific developments in furthering the growth and well-being of Army components and Army units are covered elsewhere in this report. Some of the major actions promoting people in the Army which are not covered elsewhere are noted below.
There was no letup during the year in the efforts of the Army staff and the major commands in seeking resolution of the sixty-seven issues outlined in the Family Action Plan put forth in 1984. During the year a new regulation was published to ease the stress of relocation and to provide soldiers and families with information, advice, and support to help newcomers make a good adjustment to new environments. Family housing policies were changed to make relocation easier and to open facilities to junior enlisted soldiers in pay grade E-4 and below. Employment policies have been revised to make job hunting easier for family members on and off post. Volunteer family support groups were formed at small unit level; adjustment programs for bicultural families were established; and comprehensive programs for prevention, education, and coun-
seling for drug and alcohol abuse have been developed and are being implemented.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USAGE) executed for the Army and the Air Force the most massive construction program since the Korean War. The Army's portion of the program directly supported both the Army Family Action Plan and troop quality of life issues. Continued emphasis on new hard stands increased the soldier's ability to care for new equipment. A boom in construction and improvements in family quarters and barracks provided a dramatic boost in the morale of both families and soldiers. Large-scale modernization programs at both Tripler and Madigan hospitals were also morale boosters. The huge Air Force program, primarily executed by Corps contracting efforts, was a further direct contribution to the nation's tactical and strategic defense vitality.
Return to Table of Contents
Last updated 4 March 2004