Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1983
Since the end of the draft ten years ago, Army active strength stabilized at about 780,000, the authorized strength for FY 83. Throughout the year, the Army pursued management and strength policies, initiated in previous years, geared to recruiting quality youth into demanding career fields and retaining the best soldiers in the arduous combat arms and "high tech" skills. These policies enabled the Army to maintain improved standards for enlistment and reenlistment, assign reenlistment MOS objectives and reduce the loss rate of first-term soldiers from the combat arms. Ready availability of day-to-day strength information greatly enhanced the Army's personnel management capabilities and contributed to its achievement of a strength of 779,643 by the end of FY 83.
During the fiscal year, Active Army strength averaged 100.8 percent of authorization, with an average overmanning of 1,200 for the year. Active Army strength, as of 30 September 1983, is noted in Table 1.
TABLE 1 - ACTIVE ARMY STRENGTH, 30 SEPTEMBER 1983
|Authorized Strength||Actual Strength|
|United States Military Academy||4,575||4,605|
In procuring personnel during FY 83, the Army emphasized the quality of its recruits, with the objective of achieving an Army of Excellence. The Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel (DCSPER) further defined the Army's recruitment goals.
The Army believes with absolute conviction that quality soldiers are the bedrock of a powerful Army . . . . We equate quality to mentally, physically, and morally competent young men and women who are capable of executing the tactics and doctrine of the airland battle with modernized equipment. It is no longer enough to recruit simply the appropriate numbers of young men and women ....
Accordingly, Army recruiters considered the full spectrum of a volunteer's capabilities through the individual's moral background, mental aptitude, and medical status, as ascertained via a new physical examination-the Military Entrance Physical Strength Capacity Test. The test determined actual physical strength to ensure that potential soldiers, whether male or female, were not placed in skill areas where requirements exceeded their individual capabilities. In gauging a volunteer's mental capacities, the Army used two key measures: possession of a high school diploma and test results achieved on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB).
Surveys by the Army Research Institute (ARI) showed that nearly three out of four male high school graduates, in contrast to about one in two nongraduates, stayed to the end of their enlistments; recruits who achieved higher scores on the Armed Forces Qualification Test ([AFQT] derived from the ASVAB) reached training proficiency more quickly, retained their skills more effectively, and contributed more to the overall cohesion of their units. Hence the Army looked for recruits with these attributes.
The search paid off in terms of the quality of enlistment personnel for FY 83 was the best recruiting year since the inception of the All-Volunteer Army. New enlistees with a high school diploma reached 88 percent, a two percent increase over the previous year. New recruits falling in the test categories I-IIIA's (the upper half) comprised 61.4 percent of all Nonprior Service (NPS) enlistments, an 8.4 percent improvement over the previous year, and test category IV's fell to 12 percent, a decrease of 7.2 percent.
The Active Army met its 1983 recruiting goals, accessioning a total of 145,337, 100.6 percent of its total programmed objective of 144,500. (See Table 2.) NPS accessions reached 132,731, 100.3 percent of the goal, while prior service (PS) accessions totaled 12,606, 104.2 percent of the goal.
Whereas general economic and social conditions played a significant part in the notable improvements in recruiting, a number of other factors also contributed including the Army College Fund (ultra-VEAP [Veterans Educational Assistance Program]), the Enlistment Bonus, and the two-year Enlistment Option programs. The Army made ultra-VEAP available on a nationwide basis in fiscal year 1982. Combined with the Enlistment Bonus program, the College Fund program enabled the Army to raise significantly the number of new enlistees with high school diplomas, who fell into test category I-IIIA, from 38,700 in 1981 to 67,900 in 1983, an increase of 75.5 percent. The Enlistment Bonus program is also credited with providing a sufficient
number of soldiers with at least the minimum capacity to perform in technologically sophisticated jobs. Together these programs enabled the combat arms to meet their fiscal year objectives in terms of the quality and quantity of recruits. Projected quality targets in communications, intelligence, and maintenance, however, were not met.
TABLE 2 - 1983 RECRUITING ACCOMPLISHMENTS,
Quality and quantity were stressed in reenlistments as well. To reenlist sufficient numbers of soldiers, while achieving and maintaining the right grade and skill balance, the Army continued an effective Selective Reenlistment Bonus (SRB) program. The abundance of personnel in the reenlistment pool permitted the Army to improve the quality of the force through increasing rigid reenlistment criteria. In revising reenlistment criteria the Army relied on the correlation among overall performance/ potential, and ASVAB scores at the time of initial entry and the incidents of disciplinary actions. Specifically, the Army increased the AFQT requirement by approximately six percent for first-term individuals to ensure that those retained were capable of serving in the more technical Army of the future. The Army exempted soldiers who attained grade E-5 on their initial term of service from the AFQT requirements for they were mostly serving in a critically short skill or had already demonstrated outstanding performance and potential. Soldiers currently being punished administratively under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) were declared ineligible to reenlist. The field commander, however, had authority to waive this restriction. While some of these disciplinary actions were not critical in nature, they did relate to overall performance and future leadership potential.
During FY 83, the Army proposed new legislation concerning reenlistments. The Army wished to amend Titles 10 and 14, United States Code (USC), relating to periods of original enlistments and reenlistments in Regular components of the Armed
Forces, by authorizing the respective service secretaries the flexibility to determine the periods of enlistment and reenlistment. The Army's proposal would permit each service secretary to enlist or to reenlist persons in the Regular Component under his jurisdiction (not necessarily in whole year increments) for periods of at least two but not more than six years.
Previously Title 10, United States Code, Section 505 listed terms of enlistment and reenlistment in whole year increments from at least two but not more than six years. The new legislation complements the regimental system the Army desired to implement. Congress incorporated the proposal in the DOD Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1984 (Public Law [PL] 98-94), which the President signed on 24 September 1983.
Successful reenlistment of high-quality soldiers depends on a strong retention effort, an adequate reenlistment bonus program, increased in-service educational and self-improvement opportunities, and other key factors such as a competitive total compensation package. Active Army reenlistment achievements for FY 83 are noted in Table 3.
TABLE 3 - ACTIVE ARMY REENLISTMENT ACHIEVEMENTS,
Fiscal Year 1983
Since 1981 over-all forecasted three-year attrition rates have decreased significantly due largely to the improved quality of accessions. Within the education group AFQT categories relate to attrition. During the initial six months of enlistment, attrition rates for AFQT 1-111As tend to be lower than that of IIIBs or IVs. The cost comparison between AFQT categories I-IIIA high school diploma graduates and nongraduates over a three-year period shows that nongraduates become more expensive at about the eighteen months point of service because of their higher attrition rates. Attrition rates also indicate that the rate for males is lower than that for females because many of the female recruits were nonhigh school diploma graduates.
It is important for the Army not only to retain top performers but also to place them in skills the Army needs filled. A longstanding force alignment problem has been the MOS imbalance among combat arms Career Management Forces (CMFs), military intelligence, and communications specialties. To align the
force properly, the Army instituted in FY 83 Force Alignment Plan (FAP I), which continued a reclassification effort to reduce or eliminate CMF shortages and cut back the overstrength skills areas. The Army targeted just under 5,000 volunteers to transfer to shortage fields and planned to notify 15,000 soldiers in twelve overstrength career fields of the benefits of reclassification, both to the Army and to the soldier.
Through these efforts, the Army succeeded in placing many top performers in the critical skills, but increasing NCO requirements continued to produce personnel shortages. For example, the combat arms ranks E5 through E9 increased by 2,965, thus closing one gap between authorizations and NCOs on-hand. NCO requirements, however, grew by 2,896 slots, thereby producing a shortage of 2,075. In the critical skills area of Electronic/ Warfare Intelligence, NCOs increased by 1,151, but a shortage of 1,053 personnel still existed because requirements increased by 764. In other skill areas, the Army was able to reduce shortages by 3,764. Nevertheless, the Army experienced an overall E5-E9 manning shortfall of about 5,400 personnel in FY 83, despite a 7,571 increase in the overall number of NCOs. By the end of FY 83, Active Army enlisted personnel reached 669,364.
Another way of keeping quality men in the needed skills was to control and track migration of soldiers from one specialty to another. To do this the Army used an automated system called The Skill Alignment Module, which ensured that specialty changes were based on priority needs of the Army. The Army contemplated expanding the system to include formal training in conjunction with job reclassification and control of additional skill identifiers. Timely adjustment of specialty imbalances by this automated system would enable the Army to meet force modernization needs and enhance stability.
To adjust for personnel shortages in FY 83, the Army converted 1,000 military positions to civilian positions, thus reducing "Borrowed Manpower" and enabling soldiers to concentrate on military duties. The Army planned to convert an additional 1,967 military positions in FY 84 and 1,707 positions in FY 85.
In FY 82, the Army officer program, like the enlisted program, again achieved notable success. During the year, officer strength of the Active Army increased from 103,463 to 105,674 fewer than 300 short of the authorized strength of 105,971. Table 4 breaks down officer end strength by grade.
TABLE 4 - ACTIVE ARMY OFFICER GRADE DISTRIBUTION
30 September 1983
Most of the increase occurred among career content officers (over four years of service), reflecting continuing improvement in retention.
In FY 83, the Army Chief of Staff approved the Total Army Officer Accession Plan (TAOAP), which included policies for accessioning officers for the Active Army, the Army National Guard, and the Army Reserve. The plan is to be prepared annually. The Active Army accessioned 10,567 officers out of 11,030 programmed for FY 83. Of the total accessions 5,286 came from the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), 882 from the United States Military Academy, 859 from Officer Candidate School (OCS), 1,674 warrants, and 1,905 accessions from other sources. As indicated in Table 5, shortages occurred mainly in the Basic Branch, Medical Corps, Dental Corps, and Medical Specialty Corps.
To offset the shortages of pretrained personnel, which would certainly occur upon mobilization, the Army continued to implement the Retiree Preassignment and Recall Program begun in August 1981. The program aimed to provide mobilization manpower, facilitate the deployment of active personnel as retirees become job proficient, and contribute to the efficient operation of installations and activities during the early days of a mobilization. As of 30 September 1983, 126,000 retirees had been issued so-called "hip pocket" orders that directed them to report to specified installations throughout the country in the event of a mobilization.
TABLE 5 - ACTIVE ARMY OFFICER ACCESSION
|FY 1983 (Programmed)|| FY
During FY 83 the Army made several changes in the Retiree Preassignment and Recall Program in order to increase retiree availability in the event of mobilization:
1. To facilitate the expansion of the training base and
subsequent training of mobilization volunteers and inductees, the Army
identified position as suitable for retiree to fill in Army Reserve training
divisions and brigades.
2. Congress approved, as part of the DOD Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1984, a provision to recall retired reservists on the same basis as Regular Army retirees. Both categories of retirees could be recalled during mobilization by the Secretary of the Army.
3. The policy which allowed recall only upon declaration of full mobilization, was changed to allow consideration of recalling retirees for a partial mobilization.
In FY 83 the Individual Mobilization Augmentees (IMAs) program continued to grow. At first participants of this program had been predominantly field grade and senior enlisted personnel in policy and planning positions. However, fiscal year 1983 saw an influx of more junior grade enlisted personnel who served in the operations positions. Army Regulation 140-145, which deals with the Individual Mobilization Augmentation Program, was published on 15 July 1983 and became effective one month later. As part of the program, the Army began testing the Battle-roster concept for IMA aviators at Fort Lewis, Washington. Each aviator was offered 26 to 60 days of training in 40 funded positions.
The Army plans to access nearly 10,500 officers in 1985 through ROTC, the program that produces most Army officers,
and one that continued to expand in FY 83. As indicated in Table 6, most categories of the program achieved remarkable progress. Total enrollment and enrollment in the advanced course increased by more than 1,000 students and scholarship applicants increased from 12,775 in FY 82 to 16,400 in FY 83.
TABLE 6 - RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS ENROLLMENT
Fiscal Year 1983
|FY 1982||FY 1983|
|Advance Course Enrollment||17,686||19,676|
|Scholarship in Force||7,535||8,500|
|Basic Camp Reported||4,055||4,601|
|Advanced Camp Reported||8,157||9,806|
During FY 83 the academic discipline goals for officer accessions in 1985 were sent to the Professor of Military Science (PMS) at each institution as a specific mission based on the Army's needs and the school's ability to produce officer candidates with those disciplines. The plan allocated the following academic mixture: business, 30 percent; engineering, 20 percent; science, 20 percent; social science, 20 percent; and other, 10 percent. These academic discipline goals were an initial assessment by specialty code proponents and will undoubtedly change as the Army develops and refines its requirements.
ROTC scholarships have always been attractive to individuals with the academic skills needed by the Army. In FY 83, the Army allocated ROTC scholarships on the basis of future Army requirements in the following priority: engineering, 30 percent; science, 25 percent; business, 20 percent; social science, 10 percent; and 15 percent, other (includes humanities, law, medical, and nursing discipline). Engineering and science received greater shares of the scholarships as they represent ROTCs historically lowest production areas.
With the advent of the academic discipline mixture mission, during FY 83 the ROTC program improved not only qualitatively but also quantitatively in support of Total Army officer requirements. In addition, the Officer Selection Battery (OSB) was
finalized for implementation in FY 84. The OSB will provide a screening instrument to identify and eliminate individuals with low potential for successful service as United States Army officers. The Military Qualification Standards I (MQS-I) system also reached fruition during FY 83. The MQS-I rates military skills and professional knowledge of subject areas and provides a standardized program of training within the ROTC. Through the MQS-I testing, the Army identified potentially low-level academic achievement ROTC cadets during the year. To correct the situation, the Army initiated a plan to define problem areas and formulated policies to establish an acceptable level of reading, math, and English expression skills for all ROTC participants.
Despite success with accessions, the Army again experienced chronic shortages of field grade officers assigned to basic branches in the grades of major and lieutenant colonel. Table 7 depicts the authorization for the officers, the demand on the inventory, which is the sum of authorizations, the transient, holdees, and student (THS) account, and the inventory at the end of FY 83.
TABLE 7 - ARMY OFFICER AUTHORIZATION, FISCAL YEAR 1983
(Auth + THS)
|Inventory||Delta (+ -)|
Although the Army, through upward grade substitution of company grade officers on-hand, narrowed the gap between aggregate demands and inventory, a shortage of 1,448 field grade officers remained at the end of FY 83.
Looking toward the future, the Army continued developing the officer objective force based on a 1989 officer personnel force of 108,894. Particular emphasis was given to officer objectives for the Basic Branch and such specialty branches as JAG (Judge Advocate General), Chaplain's Corps, and health-related fields.
After two years of experience under the current Defense Officer Personnel Management Act (DOPMA), the Army and other services determined that changes were necessary to provide better management for the Officer Corps and to eliminate unintended inequities created by the original law and the Technical Corrections Act. Hence, in fiscal year 1983, the services worked closely with the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to complete proposed draft legislation to amend DOPMA.
The services proposed legislation titled Omnibus Officer Personnel Amendments Acts of 1984 which contained several key elements. The legislation would increase the Army's maximum number of majors now that increased strength and better retention has occurred. It would award constructive credit to additional members of the judge Advocate General's Corps, officers in the health professions, and certain officers who received a Regular appointment directly from civilian status. Promotion changes included new rules for defining the promotion zone, guidelines for determining the eligibility of officers scheduled for separation, greater authority for the service secretaries in promotion delay cases, and the creation of special selection board procedures for warrant officers. The services would also obtain more flexibility in the involuntary separation of Regular officers for cause and the appointment of Regular officers from the reserve components. The OSD forwarded the proposed legislation to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in December 1983. Congressional action on the package is expected in 1984.
Women in the Army
In FY 83, the number of women, unlike that of men, in the Active Army continued to grow slowly pending an Army-wide review of policies and programs on the use of women in the Army. The review began in 1981, and the Army concluded it during this fiscal year.
The Army authorizes women to serve in 93 percent of all officer, warrant officer, and enlisted specialties. Consistent with the Combat Exclusion Policy of 1977, it does not assign women to battalion and smaller size units of infantry, armor, cannon field artillery, combat engineer, low-altitude air defense artillery, and certain helicopter units.
Concerns that the Combat Exclusion Policy failed to identify adequately all positions in the Army with the greatest probability of participation in direct combat and the need to match the Army's desire to balance combat readiness with individual opportunity for career advancement for all soldiers led to a comprehensive study of all policies and programs relating to women in the Army. This study was conducted by the Women in the Army Policy Review Group from May 1981 to November 1982.
On 12 November 1982, the Army released the study titled "Women in the Army Policy Review." The review provided a plan for determining the probability of participation of direct combat for every position in the Army (active and reserve components). The method for determining the likelihood of combat involvement was the Direct Combat Probability Coding (DCPC) system.
The DCPC system consists of seven codes, PI through P7, with P1 representing the highest probability of engaging in direct combat and P7 the lowest. The Army applied one of these codes to each line of all 2,008 TOES in the Army. When coding each position the Army considered four criteria-unit mission, MOS duties, doctrine, and location on the battlefield. For example, soldiers serving in P 1 positions are required to be routinely located forward of the brigade rear boundary. Doctrinal proponents, who have responsibility for each TOE, provided the necessary data to HQDA, where the coding was actually applied.
The DCPC policy, which replaces the Combat Exclusion Policy of 1977, is a dynamic process requiring that position coding be updated at least once annually to accommodate the Army's needs. Current ratios of women in the Army present both opportunities and challenges not experienced before. An important task of the Army's leadership is to ensure that women serving in today's Army are provided maximum opportunity for personal and professional development and the attainment of their full potential.
During January 1983, the Army implemented the DCPC and closed positions with the highest probability of routine participation in direct combat (code Pl) to women. It also distributed a list of units closed to women, including twenty-three additional MOSs, and forecasting a projected increase in women in the Army.
For several months, field implementation of DCPC created challenges for Army leadership, including inconsistencies in the application of DCPC. In certain cases, units and MOSS were being improperly closed; in others, women were being removed from units contrary to policy; and some women were forbidden to participate in training exercises. On 15 April 1983, DCSPER directed that the list of closed units be suspended and that a validation of DCPC coding be conducted.
Doctrinal proponents re-analyzed each position in the Army and presented the recoded data results at HQDA validation meetings. HQDA once again automated and analyzed the revalidated DCPC data and completed the analysis in September 1983. The Secretary of the Army approved the results one month later.
Meanwhile, the Army transmitted to the field detailed guidance pertaining to women effected by MOS openings and closings. Additionally, Department of the Army briefing teams visited installations worldwide to counsel individually the female soldiers in the affected MOSS. Detailed guidance will be forthcoming to the field concerning the career transition of women affected by closed units.
DCPC validation, however, reopened thirteen of the original twenty-three closed MOSS to women; closed one additional MOS
(MLRS/Lance/FDS [Field Driving Station]), and left officer specialties unaffected; it also replaced for assignment of women an additional 779 units in the Army, which were closed by the initial coding. Soldiers who took action to move from one of the thirteen MOSs formerly closed have been provided the opportunity to return to those MOSs, if they choose. If authorization and continuation rates stay the same, growth for the women in the Army (active and reserve components) could increase from the current strength of 139,000 to approximately 158,000 by 1987.
In summary, the DCPC policy recognizes the fluid and lethal nature of the modern battlefield. All soldiers could be exposed to some degree of combat throughout the entire theater of operations. Present Army policy restricts women only from positions on the battlefield forward of the brigade rear boundary, where the most frequent and violent combat would occur. Over the next several years, the gradual transition of women out of closed MOSs and units will help reduce personnel turbulence and will ensure that unit readiness is not adversely affected.
Despite the important changes brought about by the review of women's role in the Army, the number of female personnel serving in the Total Army actually increased from 144,000 in FY 82 to 170,485 this year. Most of the growth occurred in the Army Reserve and in the Individual Ready Reserve, which together contained nearly 73,000 female personnel, an increase of 29,000 over the previous year. The number of female personnel serving in the Army National Guard also grew slightly from 20,000 in FY 82 to 22,017 this year and in the active forces from 75,000 to 75,522. In the Active Army, female officer strength surpassed its projected goal of 9,300 by 190, though female enlisted strength fell short of the projected goal of 66,300 by 268.
Equal Opportunity and Military Representation
In FY 83 the Army continued to promote Equal Opportunity (EO) programs to assist commanders and managers to create a discrimination free environment, one that is conducive to accomplishing the Army's mission. The Army also took steps to facilitate the execution of these programs.
In December 1982 the Army established the Affirmative Action Officer (AAO) of the Civilian Personnel Directorate. The office is responsible for developing policies, plans, and procedures for implementing the Army's Affirmative Action program in accordance with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) directives and guidance. The new office
incorporates affirmative action functions that had previously been the responsibility of several other office headquarters. The Army has made substantial progress in employing minorities, women, handicapped individuals, and disabled veterans. Minorities represented 22.4 percent of the Army's civilian workforce, women 40 percent, handicapped 7 percent, and disabled veterans 6.7 percent. Steady progress has been made at lower and mid-level grades, although at higher grade level much remains to be done. The Army representation, for example, at GS/GM 1315 for minorities is 7.3 percent and for women is 6 percent. Program emphasis in the AAO will concentrate on increasing minority representation at the higher grade levels.
In order to give the Army noncommissioned officer leaders who will be influential, informed advocates for equal opportunity on the basis of their earlier training and experience, the Chief of Staff on 28 July 1983, approved a series of measures designed to bring about major changes in the way equal opportunity noncommissioned officers (EO NCOs) are selected and used. For example, the minimum rank for EO NCO was raised from Sergeant (E-5) to Sergeant First Class (E-7). Candidates are no longer (only) limited to volunteers (although the Army still encourages volunteers). Candidates for EO duty will, as before, undergo sixteen weeks of intensive training at the Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute (DEOMI) at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida. As a result of these changes, the overall effort will attain a measure of legitimacy never before achieved.
In late 1982, responding to a need for training tailored for EO managers at the executive level, the Army DEOMI developed a short staff course to complement the regular course in order to train officers and senior NCO who are slated for assignments to corps (or equivalent) and higher levels. The result was a three week course, inaugurated in the fall of 1983, offered as many as six times annually with ten students in each session. Not only does this expand DEOMI's overall student capacity, but also it provides, for the first time, a course focusing precisely and economically on the skills) and knowledge required for EO management at higher levels.
Training EO managers reflects the ever increasing representation of minorities in the Active Army. As of 30 September 1983, minorities made up 36.2 percent of active duty personnel. Blacks, in particular, made up 8.9 percent of the commissioned officers, 6.0 percent of the warrant officers, and 31.3 percent of the enlisted force.
Table 8 shows the minority representation in the Active Army as of 30 September 1983.
TABLE 8 - MINORITY REPRESENTATION-ACTIVE ARMY
|White, not of Hispanic Origin||84.1||87.3||60.5||63.8|
|Black, not Hispanic Origin||8.9||6.0||31.3||28.2|
|American Indian/ Alaskan Native||0.2||0.3||0.3||0.3|
NOTE: This is minority representation data only. Data may be different from racial data because white and black information excludes all Hispanics (some are black race).
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Because alcohol and drug abuse impairs combat readiness it is a command problem. The Army maintains the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Program (ADAPCP), which provides prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation services. The program helps eliminate drug pushers, identifies and treats abusers, and separates from the Army those who cannot be rehabilitated.
The program noticeably expanded in FY 83: 1,994 military and civilian personnel staffed 11 residential treatment facilities, 13 major command alcohol and drug control offices, 3 urine testing laboratories, 2 alcohol and drug educational centers, 192 community counseling centers and the DCSPER policy office and field operating agency (FOA). The number of soldiers enrolled in the program doubled from 25,030 in FY 81 to 51,858 in FY 83. A more stringent testing program and the inclusion of reserve component personnel on active duty for training tended to inflate the numbers. Those enrolled for alcohol abuse equaled 26,908, and those for drug abuse reached 24,945. Close to three-fourths of the offenders completed treatment and were returned to active duty.
In FY 83 the Army twice revised AR 600-85, governing the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Program. The first revision, published on 11 February 1983, brought evidence obtained from mandatory urinalysis tests in disciplinary proceedings and for administrative actions into conformity with Military Rules of Evidence. The second revision, published on 28 June 1983, brought personnel administration and policy regarding alcohol and drug abusers in conformance with other regulations and Army policy in terms of retention criteria. In particular, the change established policy that second time offenders in grades E 1 through E5 and first time offenders in grades E6 through E9 must be separated from the service.
Discipline, Laze Enforcement, and Military Justice
The indiscipline indicators for FY 83 show a decrease in every crime rate in the Army. (See Table 9.) The rates per 1,000 for violent and property crimes have decreased for the third straight year, while absent without leave (AWOL) and desertion rates per 1,000 are the lowest they have been since the Army began recording AWOL data regularly in 1952. Drug offenses, which are broken down into two major categories: marijuana use/possession and all other drug offenses, also were down. The rate per 1,000 for marijuana use/possession has declined for the second straight year; the other drug offenses category decreased after having increased in fiscal year 1982. Better quality men and women entering the Army and command emphasis on crime prevention probably contributed to the lower rates.
The number of court-martial cases also decreased from 9,910 in FY 82 to 7,280 in FY 83. Court-martial statistics for FY 83 are noted in Table 10. Commanders imposed nonjudicial punishment under Article 15, UCMJ, in 132,045 cases compared to 140,191 cases in fiscal year 1982.
During FY 83 the Army made significant progress towards improving the Military Justice Regulation, the Manual for Courts-martial, and the UCMJ. Additionally, the Army completed a major study of the effectiveness of the military justice system under combat conditions.
A revised Army Regulation 27-10, Military justice, became effective 1 November 1982. The revision changed the filing procedures for nonjudicial punishment records and provided for summarized proceedings under Article 15 of the UCMJ in certain cases of minor misconduct. Extensive work was also completed on the first change to AR 27-10 to implement the revised Manual for Courts-martial, 1984, the proposed Military Justice Act of 1983, and the Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982 (PL 97-291). Chain-of-custody procedures were also developed and implemented in AR 600-85, Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Program. In addition, a draft comprehensive revision of the Manual for Courts-martial was completed. The draft reorganizes the manual to streamline procedure before, during, and after trial consistent with ensuring fair trial rights of the accused. The draft also brings certain provisions of the manual into conformity with existing case law and aligns, where appropriate, military justice practice with federal criminal practice. The draft was made available for public comment on 26 May 1983. The comment period closed on 2 September 1983 and
TABLE 9 - INDISCIPLINE INDICATORS - WORLDWIDE
(rate per 1,000)
Use and Possession
|Total Courts-Martial|| Non-
Other than Honorable
TABLE 9 - INDISCIPLINE INDICATORS - WORLDWIDE-Continued
(rate per 1,000)
Use and Possession
|Total Courts-Martial|| Non-
Other than Honorable
TABLE 10 - ARMY COURT-MARTIAL STATISTICS,
Fiscal Year 1983
review of these comments approached completion at the end of that month.
On 28 April 1983, the Senate passed S.974, the Military Justice Act of 1983 (a bill to amend the UCMJ and to improve the Military Justice System). S.974 is very similar to the 1982 proposed military justice legislation reported in the 1982 Department of the Army Historical Summary (DAHSUM). As of the end of FY 83, the House of Representatives had not yet acted on 5.974, but passage was considered imminent.
The Army also completed a major study of the Military justice System to ensure that the system functions fairly and efficiently in either high- or low-intensity armed conflict. The study identified opportunities where the Military Justice System could be made more effective in wartime, while preserving the fairness of the system. The study group published a package containing detailed legislative and regulatory proposals ready for implementation in the event of war.
In keeping with its strict enforcement strategy, the Army implemented new policies in July 1983 that mandate harsher sanctions for drunk-driving offenders and, as the new policies went into effect, increased law enforcement efforts on Army installations. A review of the most recent statistics indicates that both of these actions have dramatically reduced the number of soldiers killed in alcohol-related, privately owned vehicle accidents. For example, the number of soldiers killed in such mishaps during FY 83 was 92, a decline of 22 percent compared to the 118 recorded in FY 82. The Army anticipates further declines in traffic fatalities as the Administration, DOD, and HQDA enforce continued emphasis on dealing strictly with drunk-driving offenders.
The new Army policy on drunk drivers provides for the following sanctions against persons for drunk driving on post (for Active Army personnel, their dependents, and DOD civilians, sanctions apply whether offense was on or off post): Upon apprehension pending adjudication, persons suspected of drunk driving temporarily lose post driving privileges, are referred to the
ADAPCP for evaluation and undergo a commander's review to determine if the individual warrants either administrative reduction, bar to reenlistment, or administrative separation. For failure to take a blood alcohol test, the individual loses post driving privileges for one year and each officer, warrant officer, or enlisted member receives a general officer letter of reprimand. Upon conviction for drunk driving, the penalties are stiffer. They include a one-year revocation of license, mandatory enrollment in the ADAPCP and a general officer letter of reprimand for each officer, warrant officer, or enlisted member.
In keeping with its crackdown on offenders, on 9 March 1983, the Army approved for reactivation the Offense Reporting System as a Standard Army Multi-Command Management Information System within the Military Police Management Information Systems. The Offense Reporting System is intended to meet the requirements and objectives for crime statistics information to support crime prevention programs, law enforcement resource management, and installation/MACOM/Department of the Army management information needs. The Offense Reporting System will be fielded beginning in fiscal year 1984 to CONUS installations supported by the computer resources of Project Vertical Installation Automation Baseline.
In FY 83, the Army made two substantive changed regarding the Military Working Dog Program. To keep pace with changes and growth in the program, the Army revised for the first time in ten years AR 190-12, governing military working dogs. The changes replaced the Sentry Dog Program with the Patrol Dog Program and created several detector dogs for narcotics and explosives. The Army Veterinary Corps assumed proponency for military working dog veterinary services for all DOD components. A new Department of the Army Pamphlet 190-12 accompanied the revised regulation and provided a detailed "how to" establish, maintain, program, operate, train, and care for a Military Working Dog Program. Initial reactions to the regulation have been extremely favorable with widespread support.
In another change, the Army established a program whereby dogs and their handlers would be assigned and remain together as a team throughout the service career of either the handler or the dog. This team concept provides greater proficiency due to continued training and saves time previously lost in familiarizing the handler and his dog when a new team was formed.
The Army's crime prevention activities during FY 83 received special commendation at a conference of the International Society of Crime Prevention Practitioners held at Columbus, Ohio, from 18-21 November 1983. Crime prevention practitioners from
throughout the United States and Canada as well as representatives from both the public and private sectors and the four armed services attended the conference. In recognition of outstanding leadership and achievement in crime prevention (for a department serving a population of less than 5,000), the Fort Huachuca Provost Marshal's Office received the Outstanding Crime Prevention Unit of the Year Award and, in behalf of the society, the Department of the Army received thePresident's Award of Merit.
The Army's civilian personnel play an important role in readiness and modernization, two key elements in an Army of Excellence. The Army continued to give its civilians high priority in FY 83. It emphasized strengthening the civilian workforce through improvements in civilian recruiting and staffing procedures, the evaluation and referral system, civilian training, and the grade structure and merit pay system among other activities.
Civilian personnel increases maintained the trend begun in FY 81 when, in order to replace borrowed military manpower and to improve near term readiness, Congress authorized increases in civilian personnel serving in military functions. By the end of FY 83, the number of Army civilians supporting military functions had risen to 332,236. By then, Army civilians (primarily in the Corps of Engineers) supporting civil functions totaled 32,440 and civilians in indirect hire numbered 58,624. Thus, by the end of FY 83, civilian personnel serving in the Department of the Army totaled 423,300 the largest number since 30 June 1976 and an increase of 19,000 over FY 81 and 12,000 over FY 82. The Army Chief of Staff has maintained that a strong peacetime civilian force is necessary not only to meet Army mission needs, but also to ensure that the Army is prepared for the first stages of a future war.
Consistent with the Army's traditional policy of helping family members of soldiers and of Army civilian employees (particularly in overseas commands) find employment as Army civilians, the Army developed the Family Members Employment Program in FY 83. Under this program, the Director of Civilian Personnel reviews hiring policies and issues changes to help family members gain or maintain suitable employment. One change allows family members to register for priority consideration for jobs when they relocate to accompany the military or civilian sponsor to a CONUS activity.
During FY 83 the Army developed another innovative staffing program-the Department of the Army Scientific and Engineering Cooperative Education Program, designed to help the
Army attract high quality candidates for engineering and scientific positions. The Department of the Army Scientific and Engineering program will provide work-study jobs for ROTC students. The program will begin testing in September 1984 and will cover ROTC Region 1, the east coast from Maine to Puerto Rico.
For several years, the cost of evaluating candidates for career program positions (83,000 professional, technical, and administrative positions) and the qualifications of referred candidates has been an issue in the Army. During FY 83 the Army tested a new evaluation and referral system-the Army Civilian Career Evaluation System (ACCES). After completion of the phase I evaluation of ACCES, the results are encouraging, and the Army plans to expand use of ACCES to other civilian career programs.
On 16 June 1983, the Army added the Ammunition Specialist Career Program to its civilian career management system. The program covers employees who manage, direct, control, perform or supervise work in ammunition operations and who were previously included in the Supply, Transportation, and the Materiel Maintenance Management programs. This new career program will provide a ready supply of highly qualified candidates for ammunition specialist positions and will provide career development and advancement for these individuals.
As in previous years, the requirements for Army interns (who serve as the chief replacement source for career program positions) were not met. The Army authorization of 3,065 central intern spaces did not fill the approximately 6,000 spaces needed. Until adequate spaces are provided, MACOMs and activities will continue to use local command resources to support the intern program. To fill intern vacancies, the Army obtained authority from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) in March 1983 to appoint 600 Schedule B (mainly college graduates) outside hires to certain positions formerly covered by the Professional and Administrative Career Examination (PACE). The blanket authority allows appointment at the entry level (GS-5 and GS-7) in thirteen professional and administrative career (PAC) occupations. The Major Army Commands are expected to fill at least 50 percent of their PAC intern vacancies under this authority. The new PAC Outstanding Scholar Program permits agencies to hire college graduates directly who have a grade point average of 3.5 or higher on a 4.0 scale or who stand in the upper 10 percent of their graduating class without regard to a list of eligibles (except for consideration of displaced federal employees). While recruiting on college campuses, on-the-spot commitments can be made to top intern candidates. Although this hiring authority does not
confer career civilian service status, efforts are underway within DOD to obtain an Executive Order that will permit noncompetitive conversion at the GS-9 level for Schedule B appointees. As of 30 September 1983, 162 appointments or commitments have been made Armywide out of the 600 authorized. Most of these are in DARCOM and FORSCOM. Of the 162 appointments or commitments, 22 percent are black and 2 percent are Hispanic. MACOMs have been strongly urged to increase their use of the blanket authority for recruiting high quality external candidates including blacks and Hispanics to ensure full use of the authorization by the expiration date-March 1984.
In September 1983, the Army approved a plan to improve technical, managerial, and professional training for civilians. The plan, the Army Civilian Training Education and Development System (ACTEDS), covers intern through Senior Executive Service (SES) employees under each career program. The ACTEDS will have a plan prescribing training and developmental assignments for individual career programs as well as interdisciplinary positions (e.g., logistician, materiel acquisition management, project manager). Key ACTEDS elements include evaluating technical and managerial competencies, analyzing gaps in existing formal training, providing resources to fill these gaps, and selecting high potential employees at grades GS-12 and above for intensive training and development programs. In order to provide time for securing the necessary resources and for developing operational doctrine through a pilot test with DARCOM, the plan is scheduled for DA-wide implementation during fiscal year 1986 through 1990. When fully extended, ACTEDS will define essential preparation for career program and other managerial positions and will ensure that candidates have acquired the necessary managerial base as well as specific technical competencies and skills.
The Army labor relations program underwent two significant changes in FY 83. First, the Army initiated an Executive Order that provides for a partial suspension of labor relations' obligations in overseas areas. In the past, a number of decisions of the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) required the Army to negotiate with a United States citizen labor organization about commissary and post exchange (PX) ration limits and other matters covered by the United States and Republic of Korea Status of Forces Agreement. The Executive Order ensures that labor relations do not impair the implementation of treaties and agreements between the United States and host nations. Secondly, for the first time the Army began preparations to bargain on federal employee wages and benefits. The FLRA decided that the Army must negotiate with labor organizations on wages and fringe
benefits of employees of dependent school systems in the United States.
In FY 83 the Army developed the Commander's Award for Public Service in order to recognize private citizens who make substantial contributions to the accomplishment of the Army's mission. Comparable to the Commander's Award for Civilian Service, the award includes a certificate, bronze medal, lapel pin, and ribbon bar. The Army believes that this award will enhance the Army's image in local communities.
Since 1978, various congressional and Department of Defense actions have limited the number of Army civilian high grade (HG), GS-13 and above, positions. As of 30 September 1983, the Department of the Army's civilian HG strength (i.e., full-time employees in military functions) was 20,182, which placed the Army 192 positions below its end fiscal year 1983 target of 20,374 and represented a 6.83 percent growth above the Army's baseline during fiscal years 1982 and 1983.
The third year of implementation of the Merit Pay System was marked by a decrease in the amount of funds available for payment as incentives for high quality performance on the part of supervisors and managers in grades 13 and above. This decrease was due to the elimination of any comparability monies from the merit pay fund as a result of the delay of the annual adjustment to January 1984.
The fill rate (actual strength against authorized) of Army SES positions has lagged since its implementation in 1979 but has shown steady improvement. The fill rate was 68 percent in 1979, 71 percent in 1980, 80 percent in 1981, 91 percent in 1982, and 98 percent in 1983. The Army accomplished the marked improvement in SES fill during 1983 by identifying and prioritizing all new SES positions needed for FY 84 and FY 85 (61 positions) and authorizing recruitment and fill. To ensure a 100 percent fill rate, the practice of over-recruitment will be continued in FY 84.
In FY 83 the Army also improved the Civilian Force Management Plan (CFMP) by developing an automated capability to forecast civilian force structure, strength and personnel actions in coordination with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army, Manpower and Reserve Affairs (OASA (MRA)) through a civilian module of FORECAST, an Army ADP (automatic data processing) system designed to support personnel management. The Army hopes to derive from CFMP the following benefits: improved work force planning methodology; integrated (civilian and military) forecasts of strength and personnel management data; predictions of work force characteristics and shortages; computer simulation of the effects of policy decisions; and management information required for future personnel policy
and program planning. It is expected that a core system modeling capability will be on hand by FY 86 and enhanced system capabilities by FY 87.
At the end of FY 83, Total Army Nonappropriated Fund Work Force strength reached 40,376, an increase of 7,251 employees over the FY 82 strength. Of the total, 5,354 represented foreign national employees in overseas areas; 7,010, military personnel employed in off-duty hours; and 28,012, United States citizens civilian employees. The work force comprises 52.9 percent women; 23 percent blacks, 5 percent Hispanics, 11.6 percent Asian, and .4 percent American Indians and Alaskan natives.
Placing unprecedented emphasis on civilian mobilization, the Army studied how well MACOM and activity civilian personnel offices plan for civilian mobilization and, with other defense components, tested the Tidewater, Virginia area during MOBEX 83. Major accomplishments included completely revising the governing regulations on civilian mobilization planning, identifying employees who may go on active duty, and distinguishing emergency essential personnel.
In summary, this fiscal year the Army achieved its goals of recruiting and retaining quality soldiers and civilian personnel on which the future of our Army of Excellence depends. The Army also laid the groundwork for innovative and exacting programs that should have a positive impact on the personnel system and the development of the new Army. Finally, the modernizing drive, particularly in the area of technological advances, is providing civilian personnel with the opportunity to contribute their talents to the growth of the new Army.
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Last updated 9 March 2004