Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1982
The physical and emotional well-being of a soldier depends upon the support services offered the soldier and his or her dependents. These services form the keystone of an army's morale and play an important role in maintaining an alert and highly motivated force.
The Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff, Army, made achieving total fitness throughout the Army a priority and designated 1982 as the Year of Physical Fitness. TRADOC established the Soldier Physical Fitness Center at the Soldier Support Center, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, to begin the program, while the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) provided support through The Surgeon General's Task Force on Fitness, which consisted of four full-time AMEDD officers and fourteen medical and nonmedical consultants. During the past year, the task force provided guidance for the over-forty medical screening project, which was fielded in June 1981 and scheduled for completion in July 1983. During fiscal year 1982 over 18,000 of 55,000 personnel were screened, with approximately 38 percent proceeding to the second level of screening-an exercise stress test. A significant amount of non-symptomatic heart disease was found, and data was collected by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) for use by the research community.
In an effort to reduce the number of sudden deaths due to exercise in the under-forty population, the Task Force on Fitness started the Health Risk Appraisal Program (HRAP) at the Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Major objectives of the HRAP pilot program were to provide a cost-effective, computer-assisted method of screening for occult cardiovascular disease in a predominantly under-forty population before the exercise level was accelerated and to evaluate the usefulness of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Health Risk Appraisal questionnaire as both a primary cardiovascular screening tool and as a method for initiating a comprehensive risk intervention program. Preliminary results were expected to be published in the spring of 1983. If successful, this pilot program could serve as a model for Army-wide use.
The task force's major work was in the area of promoting total fitness. The main thrust was in helping apparently healthy people to modify their lifestyle in a positive way to reduce the effect of many degenerative diseases. Specific areas of emphasis were weight control, nutrition, stress management, substance (alcohol, tobacco, and drugs) abuse reduction, and the components of physical fitness-strength, flexibility, and endurance. This approach could give new direction to Army health care and be cost beneficial in the long run.
Each Army medical activity (MEDDAC) and medical center (MEDCEN) worldwide formed a local AMEDD health and advisory team under the leadership of the commander, which was the focal point for the Army's total fitness program. Each team was composed of those individuals (physicians, dietitians, physical and occupational therapists, social workers, psychologists, community health and preventive medicine officers, and other health care professionals) with the skills necessary to carry out lifestyle modification programs. The teams will develop and provide comprehensive health education classes to three target audiences: the soldier, leadership groups, and the soldier's family.
The total cost of medical operations for fiscal year 1982 was $2,211.3 million, an increase of nearly $133 million over fiscal year 1981 expenditures. Funding increases gave a growing number of physicians their required ancillary support personnel, several new management information systems, and expanded hospital facilities at Fort Irwin, California. Other mission changes with budgetary implications included congressional designation of the Army as the lead agency within DOD for infectious disease control and combat dental research; also the Army Medical Intelligence and Information Agency was dissolved and a similar agency was established that serviced all of DOD, but under administrative control of The Surgeon General.
The breakdown of Army medical operations costs is as follows (in millions of dollars):
|Operations and Maintenance||$1,068.2|
|Research, Development, Test and Evaluation||123.3|
During fiscal year 1982, The Surgeon General was successful in obtaining increases in active component Army Nurse Corps
officers, physician assistants (warrant officers) and enlisted medical support personnel. Total AMEDD officer authorization increased by 279 over fiscal year 1981. Authorized and actual end strengths by corps were as follows:
|Corps||Authorized End Strength||Actual End Strength||Required End Strength|
During fiscal year 1982, the medical workload was characterized by the continued trend toward outpatient care. While admissions increased somewhat, average length of stay continued to decrease. Average daily workload totals worldwide were as follows:
|Medical care composite units||38,515|
When hospitals and clinics of the Public Health Services (PHS) closed in 1981, the Army obtained the former San Francisco PHS hospital for its use as well as the St. Louis PHS clinic. During fiscal year 1982, the San Francisco hospital provided selective administrative and clinical space in support of Letterman Army Medical Center as well as storage for pre-positioned war reserve stocks. The St. Louis clinic was used by Health Services Command on a test basis to provide outpatient services to beneficiaries in the area. As a result of its successful operation, tile St. Louis facility will continue to be used for the foreseeable future, thus eliminating the need for a previously programmed construction project nearby, resulting in a one-time savings to the Army in excess of one million dollars. The Army also agreed to reopen inpatient hospital services at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana. Those services had stopped in 1977 because of reductions in AMEDD officer authorizations. The Fort Benjamin Harrison Hospital formally reopened on 1 October 1982.
The first Strategic Planning Conference for senior leaders and managers of the Army Medical Department was conducted
during the year. The three-day event focused on Army goals and objectives; on establishing a shared understanding of AMEDD values, mission, goals, and objectives; and on developing team spirit and a collective process for setting goals.
The Civilian-Military Contingency Hospital System (CMCHS), a DOD program to provide civilian hospital beds for casualties evacuated to CONUS from a major conflict outside of the United States, was directed by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) and was coordinated at the community level by commanders of designated military medical treatment facilities of the Army, Navy, and Air Force. Participation by civilian hospitals, which would be accredited and would commit at least fifty beds each, was purely voluntary. CMCHS, endorsed by the American Medical Association, American Hospital Association, American Osteopathic Association, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, was initiated in 1980 with a goal to obtain a commitment of at least 50,000 beds. As of 22 October 1982, 48,187 beds had been pledged to the entire system, with the Army responsible for 11,890 of them. By the end of October, the 50,000-bed goal had been reached.
Because advances in technology ensured the development of increasingly sophisticated weapons that would subject soldiers to previously unrecognized or greatly amplified health hazards, The Surgeon General's responsibilities for health hazard assessment (HHA) were incorporated into the most recent edition of AR 1000-1, "Basic Policies for Systems Acquisition." To carry out these duties, the Office of Health Hazard Assessment was established in the Preventive Medicine Consultants Division of OTSG (Office of The Surgeon General) headed by an officer experienced in industrial hygiene. A draft AR describing policies, procedures, and responsibilities of HHA in support of the materiel acquisition process was completed, and emphasis was placed on providing timely technical and consultative medical support to program managers.
The Preventive Medicine Consultants Division, OTSG, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research cosponsored a workshop on leptospirosis in May 1982. Leptospirosis had emerged as a disease capable of infecting large numbers of soldiers at the jungle Operations Training Center in Panama. In the fall of 1981, the Army identified over eighty cases among soldiers who had passed through the training center. The goal of the workshop was to develop prevention and treatment measures. Discussions revealed a lack of knowledge concerning the epidemiology of the disease in Panama as well as its treatment and prevention.
As a result, surveillance activities in Panama were increased, and drug studies began which would explore methods for both prevention and early treatment.
The Army Medical Department was rebuilding its surgical capabilities, which had reached their nadir in 1977, by concentrating on retaining and recruiting quality individuals. Although AMEDD came close to its goals in certain surgical specialties (such as urology, anesthesia, gynecology, obstetrics, and-ophthalmology), significant shortages still existed in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, and otolaryngology. Substantial relief was not anticipated until 1986, when individuals from ROTC and the HPSP delay program would become available. In the critical specialties, the AMEDD started sponsorship programs in the civilian community, strengthened the teaching staffs of medical centers, and offered fellowships to outstanding surgeons for training in additional specialty areas, such as surgical oncology, joint replacement, pediatric surgery, and retinal surgery.
Surgical equipment was rapidly updated in medical facilities with emphasis on surgical intensive care units and anesthesia equipment. Special projects were successful in procuring surgical endoscopy and arthroscopic surgical equipment. Programs were started to modernize noninvasive vascular laboratories in medical centers and to supply appropriate vascular diagnostic equipment at the MEDDAC level.
The surgical specialties led in preparedness for possible mobilization situations, with all surgical short courses stressing military applications of surgical techniques. The Advanced Training Life Support (ATLS) Course was accepted at all Army medical treatment facilities. In April 1982, the first Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) was activated, and plans were drawn up to organize new MASH units and to convert some combat support hospitals to MASHs over a period of several years. Surgical sets and kits were reviewed and revised. The Research and Development Command continued to study trauma, while other programs focused on wound ballistics, blast injury, surgical infection, and burns.
On 1 October 1980 the Department of the Army was designated by OSD as the executive agent for veterinary matters, responsible for providing veterinary support to DOD, to all military services, and to the Coast Guard in time of war. Consolidation of Army-Air Force Veterinary Services was scheduled for completion by fiscal year 1984. During the past year the Army received responsibility for veterinary duties at ten additional Navy installations, thus completing consolidation of support for all
Navy and Marine Corps bases worldwide. The mission at forty-eight Air Force and two DOD installations was also transferred to the Army.
In fiscal year 1980, the Office of the Secretary of Defense had directed that 102 military veterinary positions in research and development be filled by civilians. Recruitment efforts were unsuccessful, however, and the military authorizations were returned to the Army in fiscal year 1982. Congressional shortening of the Army and Air Force Veterinary Service consolidation time from five years to three, coupled with an inability to recruit and train military veterinarians for research specialties during the civilianization period, seriously jeopardized DOD, Navy, and Air Force research programs. Air Force veterinarians could no longer support these programs beyond fiscal year 1983, nor could they fill positions that were given to the Army.
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the medical departments of the Army and Air Force was written which protected DOD, Navy, and Air Force research and development (R&D) missions by allowing specialty-trained Air Force veterinarians to be retained in R&D positions for a limited period, thus giving the Army time to train replacements and establishing an orderly transfer of all veterinary R&D positions to the Army by fiscal year 1987. This MOU met the congressional direction to protect the interests of the individuals concerned, preserve critical R&D functions, and complete the consolidation as expeditiously as possible.
A memorandum of understanding between DOD and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provided support by the Army Veterinary Corps to the USDA in emergency animal disease eradication programs. The plan, developed in 1975, was tested in a joint USDA-FORSCOM exercise in August 1982, which simulated the introduction and subsequent spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the United States. The exercise identified shortcomings in the 1975 plan and prompted recommendations for revision.
The UH-60A Black Hawk MEDEVAC helicopter was introduced to the Army at a formal acceptance ceremony on 14 January 1982 at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. It was another first for the 101st Airborne Division and the 326th Medical Battalion. The Black Hawk MEDEVAC helicopter is a major improvement over the 22-year-old Army UH-1 Huey. The Black Hawk is the Army's first helicopter designed with a MEDEVAC litter system which provides full patient accessibility and easy loading. The speed of the Black Hawk is a major advantage, since time is critical and
rapid evacuation is vital. Furthermore, the speed and range of the Black Hawk allows the medical commander flexibility in the strategic placement of his hospital and clearing stations in any combat operation. The Black Hawk also has space for four litters as opposed to three in the Huey in the combat configuration.
The nerve agent antidote program was composed of the Atropine Autoinjector, the Pralidoxime Chloride Autoinjector (2 PAM), and one Atropine Autoinjector and one 2 PAM Autoinjector linked together with a plastic clip, known as the Mark I Injector System. TAB (oxime TMB4, atropine, benactizine), the old nerve agent antidote, was replaced with Atropine and 2 PAM. The injectors were saved for possible reloading. Based on TOE supported strength, the first issue of Atropine Autoinjectors was centrally funded, procured, and allotted to MEDDACs down to the unit level by the U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency (USAMMA).
Army Medical Specialist Corps (AMSC) activities to support readiness included the completion and subsequent DA approval of a MACRIT (Manpower Authorization Criteria) for occupational and physical therapists and their enlisted support personnel, which placed them in more forward areas. A similar MACRIT for medical food service support was awaiting DA approval.
Army dietitians, through the Academy of Health Sciences, worked on improving medical field feeding equipment and hospital rations and updating medical field feeding doctrine. During a training exercise conducted in the fall at Fort Hood, Texas, dietitians in conjunction with Natick Laboratories field tested a new ward transporter for field hospitals, with further testing scheduled for November.
Specialty consultants for medical food service and physical therapy worked on the standardization of deployable medical equipment. By increasing liaison with medical specialists in the Army Reserve and Army National Guard, they enhanced Active Duty Training/Inactive Duty Training (ADT/IDT) opportunities and increased cooperation among AMSC personnel in the Army's active and reserve components.
The AMSC increased its assistance to local commanders regarding weight control and nutrition education programs, physical fitness and injury prevention, and stress-lifestyle management. In addition, a full-time staff of a physical therapist and dietitian at the Physical Fitness Center, Soldier Support Center, Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana, trained physical activities specialists and battalion training NCOs and officers. A full-time dietitian was assigned to the Surgeon General's Physical Fitness Task Force.
There were 465 warrant officer physician assistants (PAs) on active duty at the close of fiscal year 1982, an increase of 82 over the previous year. This improvement was caused by a high retention rate and the input from the Army's PA training program at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, which graduated a class every six months. The orthopedic and aviation medicine programs proved to be very successful and will continue. Additional specialty areas (including ear, nose, and throat, urology, general surgery, dermatology, and family practice) were under study for PA use. Plans were under way to affiliate the PA training program at a baccalaureate level and to incorporate advanced cardiac life support certification and additional trauma training into the program curriculum.
The Optical Fabrication Laboratory at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center began providing reimbursable optical support to four selected VA hospitals during 1982. This was made possible by the Health Resources Sharing and Emergency Act. The support to the VA followed a test to determine cost effectiveness and product quality. A test protocol was developed jointly by the Office of The Surgeon General and the Veterans Administration (VA) covering such details as ordering instructions, reimbursement procedures, and materiel specifications. Test results proved that considerable money would be saved on a quality product with a favorable turnaround service time.
Active Army and reserve component personnel could now be issued spectacle inserts for protective masks when starting initial entry training. The change became effective 1 October 1981 as a result of an increased emphasis on nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare training. The optical laboratories at Fort Jackson, South Carolina; Fort Knox, Kentucky; Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri; and the Brooke Army Medical Center in Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, Texas, supported the new mission. Directed military overstrength was approved to provide additional manpower where needed to support the increased workload. Clinics were authorized to request inserts for personnel with unaided binocular visual acuity who did not meet the profile standards specified in AR 611-201.
The chaplaincy filled the religious and moral needs of the military community by exercising spiritual leadership and nurture of individuals, providing free access for religious practice, affirming the intrinsic worth of all soldiers, supervising material
acquisitions and future developments, maintaining a position of personal and organizational readiness for strategic deployment, and managing resources to provide for mission accomplishment.
On 24-30 April 1982, the Chief of Chaplains hosted a Minority Ministries Training Course in Atlanta, Georgia. The theme of the training course was "The Challenge of Cultural Ministry Amidst Multi-cultural Needs." The course focused on ministry and effective spiritual leadership to persons having different racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds than the chaplain. Among the many speakers were Atlanta mayor Andrew Young and Lt. Gen. Julius W. Becton, Jr., Deputy Commander, TRADOC.
A $50,000 contract awarded to the Triton Corporation of Washington, D.C., for a study entitled "Pre- and Post-marital Chaplain Ministry to Military Personnel and Korean Nationals" was extended into fiscal year 1983. The purpose of the study is to identify problems confronting American soldiers who marry Korean nationals and to provide chaplains with strategies to assist in a more effective ministry to transcultural couples. As a result of the study a handbook on pre- and post-marital counseling for chaplains will be printed and will include recommendations about ongoing programs for Korean spouses. In addition, a series of twelve programs on Asian-American cultural awareness was conducted by the El Pomar Renewal Center at Fort Carson, Colorado.
A team-building workshop for chaplains, chapel activity specialists, and directors of religious education at Fort Carson was completed. This pilot program was developed as a research and training model and produced significant results in the areas of role clarification, norms and standards, team stability, and performance without training.
Procurement, career development, and schooling received additional emphasis. Chaplains were strongly encouraged to participate in non-residence courses and short-term courses directly related to their work. They were also urged to seek diverse assignments which would give them experience in many different facets of soldier ministries. Every effort was made to reduce personnel turbulence, which was a continuing concern for the Chief of Chaplains.
The chaplaincy continued to improve its mobilization planning. In December 1981, the Office of the Chief of Chaplains sponsored and FORSCOM hosted a Mobilization and Army Reserve Chaplain (MARCH) Coordinators Workshop in Atlanta. MARCH coordinators from all mobilization stations, Army Re-
serve commands, and continental United States armies as well as major Army command chaplains attended. The conference was effective in providing guidance, information, and definitive instruction for mobilization preparation and also highlighted the need for more concentrated planning and coordination between key planners of chaplain mobilization.
Effective 27 May 1982, the U.S. Army Equipment Authorization Review Activity authorized that chaplain kits be issued to chaplains upon their entry to active duty or upon assignment to U.S. Army Reserve or Army National Guard troop units. This will prevent a massive stockpiling of chaplain kits for mobilization.
On 23 November 1979, two senior Harvard law students filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York and charged that the Army chaplaincy violates the establishment clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. On 14 April 1982, the plaintiffs moved for summary judgment. On that same day, the government asked that the case be dismissed. On 19 May 1982, the government moved for summary judgment. By the end of fiscal year 1982, the above three motions, along with a fourth to compel the plaintiffs to submit a copy of their tax returns, were still before the judge.
Major Army commands designated 221 dining facilities for upgrading under the Dining Facility Modernization Program during fiscal years 1984-1988 at a total cost of $120 million: $10 million for 1984, $15 million for 1985, $13 million for 1986, $41 million for 1987, and $41 million for 1988.
The fiscal year 1982 Army Military Construction Program included the modernization of five dining facilities (four at Fort Dix, New Jersey, and one at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas) at a cost of one million dollars. Six new dining facilities were approved for construction at Fort Benning (Georgia), Fort Ord (California), and Fort Stewart (Georgia) as well as three in USAREUR, at a total cost of $7.7 million.
At the end of fiscal year 1982, 1,108 dining facilities were in operation worldwide (653 in CONUS, 455 overseas), 18 of which were free-standing specialty or short-order facilities and 2 of which were field ration dining halls for officers. During the year, 226,119,937 meals were served, valued at $267,152,461. The one garrison bread bakery in Berlin, Germany, and the one central pastry kitchen at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, continued operation.
Initial planning began in September for a long-term study to develop a manpower staffing standard for table of distribution and allowances (TDA) dining facilities. The result will be a formal manpower standard based on workload that will accurately reflect personnel requirements for TDA facilities.
TRADOC and DARCOM, with support from the Troop Support Agency (TSA), continued to develop the Combat Field Feeding System (CFFS), described in last year's report. Preliminary TRADOC analysis indicated that the CFFS would improve mobility and responsiveness of highly mobile units for the Army of the 1990s and estimated that the CFFS would reduce requirements for food service personnel, fuel, and water at an annual operating cost savings of $210 million for a mobilized force. The Troop Support Agency published the T-Ration Menu Development and Procurement Plan to support the CFFS. The services, at OSD request, procured more than 250,000 tray packs during calendar year 1982 to ensure industrial base support for the system.
During fiscal year 1982 the Army began a major initiative to better familiarize soldiers with the wartime, nonperishable B-rations by increasing their use. Joint training exercise GALLANT EAGLE tested a new concept in menu-configured pallets of B-rations that contained all the required components for breakfast and dinner meals for either twenty-five or fifty men for one day. A program was under way to ultimately afford table of organization and equipment (TOE) units the opportunity to serve at least one B-ration meal during field training exercises and to continue evaluation of the concept for menu-configured pallets.
A major program to improve the logistical sustainability and operational readiness of the M1945 field bakery was begun this year. It seeks to overcome unavailability of repair parts, critical shortages of components, and training problems that had a severe impact on unit readiness and mobilization planning throughout the Army. Repair parts valued at $350,000 were purchased for bakery units of active and reserve components, and plans were made to consider commercial parts for the dough mix and make-up trailer in order to enhance unit mobility and responsiveness.
The five TSA-based Food Management Assistance Teams in operation visited 68 active Army commands and installations, including lengthy visits to Germany, SETAF, Korea, Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, Japan, Okinawa, and Panama during the fiscal year. They stopped at 526 active Army and 312 reserve component dining facilities and assisted 7,593 active Army and 1,974 Army Reserve and Army National Guard food service
personnel. In addition, the teams continued to help in the operation of newly constructed or modernized dining facilities.
Work continued on the Army Food Management Information System (AFMIS), which will give cost-effective automated support to Army food service operations by reducing administrative workloads, improving management controls and responsiveness, and providing more reliable and efficient accounting and reporting practices. The Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Logistics, and Financial Management) approved the product manager charter on 25 February 1982, and the Army Audit Agency validated the AFMIS economic analysis.
Initiatives to support Army physical fitness objectives included the development of a nutrition training package for food service personnel and the establishment of a nutrition flasher message system, which provides information on the nutritive aspects of physical fitness and health. The Master Menu continued to emphasize low calorie items, the posting of calorie information at the dining facility level, and food preparation techniques that encourage good nutrition and diet.
In the field of joint service food-nutrition technology, prototypes of the Mobile Food Service Unit, a major component of the new Army Combat Field Feeding System, were successfully tested during three field exercises, thus verifying that the concept gives highly mobile units the ability to distribute highly acceptable hot meals with minimal setup time and manpower. A prototype of the Harvest Eagle Food Service System, a consolidated field unit capable of feeding 1,100 troops, also met with success. As a result, the Air Force planned to refit all of its war reserve field support systems and equip air units in the Rapid Deployment Force with this new system. Other elements of the Army Combat Field Feeding System were tested and evaluated by the Marine Corps in Norway and were well received. New ration dense foods were tested on Navy submarines; results indicated that these foods would significantly increase the voyage endurance of crews on both submarines and surface ships. A new hospital food service system was designed and tested at Moncrief Army Community Hospital, Fort Jackson, South Carolina, which was highly acceptable to the patients and resulted in significant labor savings. The first prototype of a liquid food supplement packaged in a flexible pouch for use by encapsulated military personnel in a toxic environment was developed, and several subsistance packaging materials were evaluated for vulnerability to toxic agent penetration. The concept for a food service unit with a low identifying signature, that was toxic rain protected, diesel operated,
and truck mounted and could be operated by personnel not trained in food service was developed to provide this necessary support for ground-launched cruise missile flights. In addition, planning began on systems that could be used at Air Force bases under chemical warfare attack.
Clothing and Personal Equipment
The temperate camouflage battle dress uniform (BDU) was introduced as the Army's field and garrison uniform on 1 October 1981. The BDU has a woodland-colored pattern, infrared reflection, and reinforced elbows, knees, and seat in a 50-50 cotton-nylon fabric. It includes coat, hat, and trousers and represents the second stage of a multiphased transition to an individual clothing and equipment system that is totally camouflaged. The temperate BDU is part of the Army's battle dress system (BDS), which includes four camouflage subsystems allowing the Army to operate in temperate, desert, tropical, and arctic environments.
Work continued on a camouflage overgarment to supplement the new battle dress uniform system. This overgarment, which incorporates the battle dress (fatigue) uniform's 6.8-ounce nylon and cotton fabric as the outer layer, passed development and operational tests and was approved for limited procurement by the U.S. Army Support Activity in Philadelphia.
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the transfer of the operation and management of the Army Military Clothing Sales Stores (AMCSS) to the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) was signed on 10 July 1981 and became effective for all AMCSS in the first quarter of fiscal year 1982.
A contract study, sponsored by ODCSLOG and initiated in May 1981, examined the existing personal, optional, and organizational clothing and, individual equipment management process of the Army and recommended a more economical and responsive system. The following elements of study were approved for implementation effective 1 October 1982: a simplified requirements document; a statement of need-clothing and individual equipment (SN-CIE); a MACOM-level clothing advisory group (CAG); a commodity management office (CMO) within HQ, DARCOM; an Army clothing and equipment board (ACES), cochaired by the DCSPER (for personal and optional clothing) and the DCSLOG (for organizational clothing and individual equipment items); and an Army staff proponent office within ODCSLOG.
The Army Chief of Staff approved several recommendations of the Army Uniform Board (AUB). These included adopting the AG-344 trooper cap for optional purchase and wear by male and female soldiers when the Army green uniform is worn with the black all-weather coat, green overcoat, or green raincoat; accepting a 100-percent texturized polyester fabric for use in optional-purchase, washable Army green trousers, skirts, and slacks; adopting the camouflage maternity work uniform as organizational clothing (basis of issue will be two uniforms, either the camouflage maternity work uniform or the white maternity uniform, as determined by the commander); implementing new optional-purchase blue and white mess uniforms for female enlisted and officer personnel; and discontinuing the issue of the white scarf to female enlisted soldiers (only the black scarf will be authorized for optional purchase and wear with the black all-weather coat by all soldiers, male and female). The prohibition against male soldiers carrying an umbrella while in uniform continued.
Pay, Leave, and Travel
During the period January-April 1982, the Army participated in a joint services study group set up to determine a definitive mechanism for military pay adjustment. OSD initiated the study, and the Navy directed it. A professional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC) survey had been used to determine pay increases for both federal civilian and military personnel. However, the study group felt that the survey was not representative of the mix of military skill specialties, and during the assessment of various surveys and indices, they placed primary emphasis on identifying the most representative military skills. The study group recommended that the military pay mechanism be separated from the General Schedule-PATC system and that the annual wage change in the Wage and Salary Series of the Employment Cost Index (ECI) be used instead, since the ECI represented more improved skill correlation (65-70 percent as opposed to 12-18 percent).
The General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated these recommendations and stated in a report to the Secretary of Defense on 28 September 1982 that there were advantages to using the ECI over other available indices. However, they noted some factors which deserved consideration. There was a need for an alternative pay plan option. Presidents needed such authority to deal with unusual economic situations, but it should be no easier
nor more difficult for Congress to override than similar alternative plans affecting federal civilian employees. Any proposed legislation to switch to the ECI should include a catch-up provision. The possibility of reducing the six-month time lag between the date of the index and the date of the effective pay adjustment was also considered.
The final report of the President's Military Manpower Task Force (MMTF) was released on 18 October 1982. The MMTF agreed that the ECI would be a more appropriate base point for military pay adjustments, and concluded that the President must have some flexibility in varying the pay adjustment through an alternative plan when conditions demanded.
Since 1967, annual military pay adjustments have been approved on a "matching increase" principle based on approved adjustments in federal civilian pay, which are subject to changes in the PATC. The connection between federal civilian and military pay adjustments was specifically suspended by Congress in fiscal years 1981 and 1982. Federal civilian pay comparisons with the growth of wages in the private sector showed that the pay caps imposed on annual adjustments during the previous four years had caused a decrease of 18.47 percent in comparability. Although President Reagan acknowledged this loss, he submitted an alternative pay plan calling for a 4-percent increase in support of his national economic recovery plan. The comparison of military pay with wage growth in the private sector revealed that significant increases in the past two years have regained rough pay comparability. Even though wage growth in the private sector over the past year ranged between 8 and 9.5 percent, depending on the index examined (PATC growth was 9.5 percent), a 4-percent annual pay raise was approved for federal civilian and military personnel. As a result, federal civilian pay lagged behind the private sector by 14.5 percent and military pay lagged by 5.5 percent.
In September 1982, staff members of the General Accounting Office stated that the military bonus system was not cost effective. Although Congress had instituted cash awards as a highly selective means of obtaining and retaining qualified personnel in hard-to-fill specialties, approximately one-half of all jobs qualified for reenlistment bonuses. The Department of Defense countered by stating that, as a result of the bonus system, recruitment and retention rates had increased, while turnover and training expenses had decreased.
Changes in military retirement pay were made in the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1982 (PL-253), which affected
all military retirees. One provision limited the annual cost-of-living adjustments to one-half of the increase in the Consumer Price Index (CPI) for retirees under sixty-two years of age for the next three years. If the actual CPI increase is greater than projected, the cost-of-living adjustment is the total of one-half the projected increase plus the full amount of the difference between the actual and projected CPI increases. Another provision delayed the annual adjustments by thirteen months instead of twelve for the next three years. Since there was no catch-up clause, retired pay was permanently reduced. Military retirees subsequently employed by the federal government would offset cost-of-living increases in military retired pay against federal civilian pay for the next three years. Military personnel first employed as federal civilians on or after 1 October 1982 must buy into civil service retirement by paying in an amount equal to 7 percent of all basic pay received on or after I January 1957. These provisions did not apply to disability retirements resulting from injury or disease received in the line of duty as a direct result of war or armed conflict.
Travel and transportation policies in the 1970s resulted in soldiers absorbing significant out-of-pocket costs while traveling on official business. This situation adversely affected morale and retention. The Uniformed Services Pay Act of 1981 changed these policies to reduce the soldiers' out-of-pocket expenses and to improve their quality of life. A mileage allowance was granted for one-way travel while transporting a vehicle to the port of embarkation and from the port of debarkation in conjunction with a PCS (permanent change of station). Enlisted service members on TDY (temporary duty) were authorized to receive either their basic allowance for subsistence or the per diem amount allowed for food, whichever was greater. Previously, enlisted personnel were given subsistence in kind. During 1981, interest in quality-of-life issues intensified, and the policy begun in 1980, whereby service members shipped their personal household goods to Germany, was reviewed to determine its cost effectiveness and impact on the soldiers and their families. Examination revealed that the weight allowance for shipping full household goods was not cost effective and adversely affected the soldiers and their dependents. The Army changed its position in order to support the provision of government furniture in Germany, thereby saving the Army money and giving better support to the troops.
Career sea pay was approved for qualified Army personnel on 23 April 1982 with entitlement retroactive to 1 January 1981. The monthly rates depended on pay grade and cumulative years
of sea duty. Members who received career sea pay and who served thirty-six consecutive months of sea duty were also entitled to a premium of $100 a month for the thirty-seventh consecutive month and each subsequent consecutive month of sea duty served. Approximately 400 of 718 Army personnel with marine field MOSS began receiving career sea pay in August 1982, most of whom were assigned to Fort Eustis in Virginia, Hawaii, and the Azores.
As noted in last year's report, Public Law 96-579 allowed service members without dependents to decline government quarters and elect instead to receive a basic allowance for quarters (BAQ). Initially the Army excluded from this option members (E-7 or above) who were married to other members but otherwise without dependents. Subsequently, the Army Judge Advocate ruled that the law providing the option included these members; confirmation was given in legal opinions from the Army General Counsel and the OSD General Counsel. As a result, the Army instructed the major commands and installations to extend the BAQ option accordingly.
During fiscal year 1982 the Army began redesigning its Basic Skills Education Program into a progressive continuum of achievement using the latest educational technology. The objectives were to develop a competency-based, military-related prototype of basic skills instruction for soldiers and to provide an opportunity for those who did not graduate high school to earn a diploma or certificate. This effort was needed because of reduced resources, increased numbers of recruits who required such education, the smaller population from which to recruit, the growing complexity of military weapons systems, and the current program's lack of both a common curriculum and a coherent assessment process to determine if functional requirements for mastering basic skills were met. The continuum will be tied more closely to the educational standards and professional development necessary for reenlistment and promotion to staff sergeant.
Although AR 621-5, "Army Continuing Education System (ACES)," was completely revised in October 1981, another overhaul was called for because of a shift from micro to macro management as well as some shortcomings discovered in the regulation. These shortcomings included limited flexibility for managers of major commands and installations, lack of clear definitions
for developing management strategies, and confused delineation in the roles and responsibilities of commands, educational services offices (ESOs), and counselors. By the end of fiscal year 1982, basic research and plans were under way to restructure AR 621-5 as a policy and goals document, allowing the major commands to develop their own management strategies.
Several other steps were taken during the year to improve ACES. A chapter of the ACES Management Handbook, containing information on methods for assessing basic needs and on data sources, was published and distributed. The Department of the Army (DA) requested that each major command select a pilot installation, pool all available expertise, and conduct a comprehensive needs assessment. A multi-service panel on educational needs was planned for the American Education Association convention in San Antonio, Texas. The Department of the Army also planned to require each major command to identify target groups to set objectives for each ACES subprogram.
Programs and services of the Army Continuing Education System were offered at 374 education centers and sub-centers during fiscal year 1982 with a staff of 1,283 DA civilians, including 491 full-time counselors.
The education level of incoming soldiers rose during fiscal year 1982 because of higher enlistment standards, increased recruiting support, and greater youth unemployment. Although participation in ACES programs and services increased, 48.3 percent of Army enlisted accessions without prior service had a reading level below ninth grade, while those in category IV held at 19.2 percent.
Soldiers earned 4,162 high school diplomas and 12,605 high school equivalency certificates, 15,682 vocational or technical certificates, 2,088 associate degrees, 1,057 baccalaureate degrees, and 1,553 masters degrees. The Army College Fund was extended nationwide and 90-percent tuition assistance was authorized for enlisted members in grade E-5 and above with less than fourteen years service.
The Preseparation Counseling Program was launched with the publication of AR 621-5, 15 October 1981, and all commands developed a program during the fiscal year. The Adjutant General, coordinator of all Army separation activities, established a special project office to analyze and operate the separation process.
The Army Education Information System (AREIS), an interactive computerized system and adjunct to counseling, was designed to offer a common set of data bases for use by both
counselor and soldier; provide an automated library of extensive information about educational and vocational opportunities, the enlisted promotion system, planning, goal setting, and value clarification for soldiers; display this information in an interesting and relevant format; and personalize the information by making use of a stored soldier record and monitoring system. AREIS has four subsystems: subsystem I will give an overview of the content and capabilities of AREIS, all ACES programs, and services of the education center; subsystem II will help soldiers identify or clarify work-related interests, aptitudes and skills, and values; subsystem III will supply soldiers with goals; and subsystem IV will aid counselors and administrators. An initial test of part of the AREIS system, consisting of an "interest inventory" and education center "information segments" at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, indicated a high degree of soldier interest and acceptance. Further field tests were to be completed by mid-fiscal year 1983.
Morale, Welfare, and Recreation
Public Law 97-35, 13 August 1981, authorized an open season, starting 1 October 1981 and ending 30 September 1982, which permitted eligible retired members to enroll or increase participation in the Survivor Benefit Plan (SBP). An eligible member could either sign up for the first time with the plan, increase existing participation to a higher level, change current children-only coverage to include a spouse, or elect coverage for a natural person with an insurable interest if the member had no spouse or dependent child. A two-year waiting period before the designated beneficiary could become eligible to receive an annuity was included in the law. As of 5 October 1982, some 35,163 retirees opted to take advantage of the open season, of whom 28,877 were newly enrolled and 6,286 changed their participation.
An appropriation of $5 million ($1.5 million for the Army) in the fiscal year 1982 Defense budget legislation resulted from congressional interest in the Family Advocacy Program. The legislation stated that funds would be used only "to establish a program of child advocacy and family counseling services to deal with problems of child and spouse abuse." Funds were used at the installation level for model family advocacy projects, contracts for services, curriculum and training materials, training, staff, and an automated data system to supply information on the incidence of child abuse and neglect, spouse abuse, and services provided.
The Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS) is a Department of Defense (DOD) computer-based system, mandated by Congress, which contains data on military active duty and retired members and eligible dependents who are entitled to military health care benefits. The system has over 9.5 million eligible beneficiaries from the seven uniformed services enrolled in its data base. DOD has not yet determined whether DEERS enrollment will be extended overseas. The DEERS Program Office, DOD, began to make the system's data base accessible to military personnel offices (MILPOs) and supplied DEERS cathode ray tube (CRT) terminals to personnel offices at thirteen Army installations along with a new personnel information screen.
The Department of Defense, because of congressional pressure to tighten control over the unauthorized issue of identification cards, designed a more tamper-proof card system. It would be tested during the second quarter of fiscal year 1983 at Fort Lee, Virginia. The Real Time Automated Personnel Identification System (RAPIDS) will interface with the Defense Enrollment Eligibility Reporting System (DEERS). Personnel offices will be on line with DEERS and will be able to determine an individual's eligibility status more accurately through RAPIDS. A major feature of RAPIDS will be a new, machine-readable identification card of durable plastic. The use of RAPIDS in conjunction with DEERS was designed to detect easily an invalid card or unauthorized use at the time it was presented for benefits.
The Army Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Review Committee (MWRRC) meets twice each year to review MWR programs and consider new initiatives to strengthen management and improve use of resources for its programs in support of unit cohesion, personnel readiness and retention, and the needs of soldiers and their families. The committee reached several major decisions in 1982. A minimum of 40 percent of the net income from package store beverages would be distributed to installations for operating programs and capital expenditure beginning in fiscal year 1984. Up to 50 percent of the package store profits could be distributed to local clubs for authorized spending, such as loan repayments, capital expenditures, and centralized administrative and training expenses. Ten percent of the package store earnings would be distributed to the Army Club Fund to increase loans available to finance major construction and renovation of Army clubs. The committee approved funding of the $4.7-million shortfall in Army Club Fund cash flow in fiscal year 1983 with a variable-rate bridge loan from the nonappropriated
fund (NAF) investment program to be repaid in fiscal year 1984. A revised list of NAF major construction projects, valued at $60.8 million, was approved for fiscal year 1982 along with design completion and contracting for construction of all fiscal year 1982 projects. Fiscal year 1983 projects, valued at $34 million, were approved subject to documentation and review. The committee also directed The Adjutant General to prepare a study of the concept of merging the Army Morale Support Fund and the Army Club Fund into a single central fund, the Army Community Life Fund, to be used primarily to finance MWR capital expenditures.
Ongoing major construction projects that were near completion as the fiscal year ended were phase I of the Fort Hood Belton Lake project, Fort Hunter Liggett physical fitness center and playing fields, Fort Hood Officer Club (renovation), Fort Knox Officer Club (renovation), Carlisle Barracks Officer Club (renovation), Redstone Arsenal Officer Club, Fort Jackson Officer Club, and Fort Lee Enlisted Club. Projects completed during the year included the Fort Buchanan Community Club, Fort Bliss swimming pool cover, Aberdeen Proving Ground NCO Club, Aliamanu outdoor fields, Camp Casey outdoor fields, Hanau sports complex, and Fort Meade Officer Club.
Two firsts in the construction of Army outdoor recreation facilities were accomplished at Fort Campbell in fiscal year 1982. A nature center built with funds from the Sikes Act and started in fiscal year 1981 was finished, and the search for a director to manage it began. Design work was completed for the first newly constructed check-out center for outdoor recreation equipment, which will also be located at Fort Campbell. Nearly all installations operate this type of facility, but they are located in existing structures that were designed for other functions.
Army club earnings increased 12 percent to $26.2 million on revenues of $389.9 million during fiscal year 1982. Ninety percent of the clubs were profitable, a record year for the system. Clubs alone had a net income of $20.83 million on revenues of $274.92 million, also up 12 percent. Meanwhile, the package stores operated by the club system gave $6.87 million of their earnings to fund morale support activities, a 2-percent increase from the year before. In the United States and Far East, clubs operate package stores to generate money for morale support activities at installations and to fund club construction and centralized support expenses. USAREUR Class VI agency-operated package stores earned $15.56 million on revenues of $40.26 million for distribution to morale, welfare, and recreation (MWR) activities in Europe
The Army Morale Support Fund received $55 million from the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES) in 1982. Morale Support Fund (MSF) operating programs were supported by $23.98 million; $25.7 million was allocated for capital purchases and minor construction (CPMC); and $20.5 million went toward the nonappropriated fund (NAF) major construction program. The major commands responded to the challenge of meeting increased operation requirements by generating $104 million locally, compared with $79 million in the previous year. Package store beverage income accounted for an additional $17 million. Recurring operating costs, however, continued to drain efforts to reduce the backlog on facility improvement, with personnel costs alone absorbing 67 percent of every dollar spent on MSF programs. The Army Club Fund was abolished on 1 October because of depleting resources, and the remaining assets were consolidated into the Army Morale Support Fund. The consolidation of accounts and the creation of one fund reflected the increasing integration of nonappropriated funds at the installation, major command, and DA levels for greater flexibility in allocation.
Approval was granted to place more slot machines in Army clubs and Armed Forces Recreation Centers overseas where no violation of status of forces or other host nation agreements occurred. The decision was based on a need to improve the recreation facilities and opportunities available to soldiers, particularly in the face of continually rising operating costs and deteriorating facilities. The 250 slot machines in operation since April 1981 serving the Frankfurt and Kaiserslautern military communities earned $2.2 million through July 1982. Such results encouraged similar expansion to other overseas military communities at the option of the commander.
The Army Library Management Office (ALMO) contracted for a study on "Integration of New Technology in Army Libraries," which assessed the feasibility of introducing new automation techniques into Army library processing activities, examined and recommended appropriate systems and configurations for such automation, and determined implementation costs. Plans to carry out recommendations would establish technical processing centers at each Army installation using an integrated, minicomputer-based turnkey library automation system to increase the efficiency of technical processing functions and the exchange of resources among Army libraries.
During fiscal year 1982, 158,313 books were purchased for 276 libraries throughout the Army. Paperbound book kits
(25,930) were bought and distributed to units and activities not having access to a library, as well as to the troops from Fort Bragg and Fort Campbell who served in the U.S. contingent of the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) in the Sinai. Special purchases were made in the areas of war games, children's books, and physical fitness and in support of Defense Activity for the Nontraditional Educational Support (DANTES) program. Forty-one libraries participated in the Federal Library Information Network for shared cataloging and interlibrary loans, with TAGO funding fifteen libraries and adding two more during the year. The remainder were funded by major commands or installations.
Army service members participated in nineteen interservice sports competitions for both men and women during fiscal year 1982, taking eight first places, four second places, and three third places. Army team members selected for armed forces teams also competed in eighteen national sports competitions, including the Conseil International du Sport Militaire (CISM) where they placed first in two events and second in two others. Thirty-five Army athletes participated in the Fourth Annual Sports Festival sponsored by the U.S. Olympic Committee in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 22-29 July 1982.
During fiscal year 1982, 106 performing units toured military installations throughout the world for DOD or combined DOD-USO shows, performing before approximately 445,000 personnel in nearly 3,000 performances. Celebrities in many fields presented a wide range of entertainment.
Although Army recruiting has generally gone extremely well, Army bands were still facing shortages in certain instrument areas. To improve this situation the Army Bands Office continued to develop initiatives with the U.S. Army Recruiting Command (USAREC). New endeavors included a poster, "Rhapsody in Dress Blues"; a recruiting handout, "Start Your Music Career in an Army Band"; and USAREC funding of band personnel to recruit at music conventions. A new display to aid in convention recruiting was under development.
Commissary and Subsistence Supplies
During fiscal year 1982, Congress, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Department of the Army, and marketing organizations focused considerable attention on Army commissary operations. Assistance visits to the field and various training programs improved operations at all levels as sales reached $1.5
billion. At the end of the fiscal year, 70 domestic (in 50 states and Puerto Rico) commissary stores and 9 annexes were in operation. Overseas, 70 foreign stores and 29 annexes were open for business. The Fort Dix commissary was transferred to the Air Force on 28 June 1982. A new commissary was constructed at Fort Belvoir; the Fort McPherson store was downgraded to an annex of Fort Gillem; and new annexes were opened at Fort Story, Virginia, Kirchgeons, Germany, and Al Batin, Saudi Arabia. In July, commissary privileges were restored to all military personnel serving in Korea. In compliance with a congressional mandate, the joint Service Commissary Committee recommended that a 5-percent surcharge be applied and collected at the point of sale. The use of scanning equipment, installed in the commissary at Fort Lee, Virginia, in September 1981 with excellent results, was expanded to the commissary at Fort Belvoir, also in Virginia, in July 1982. Installation in 63 additional stores is contemplated.
In accordance with Office Management and Budget Circular A-76, the Army began cost studies in the commissaries at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, and Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, to see if operation by civilians under contract would save money. Conversion to this contract method would be carried out only if the studies indicated a savings to the government equal to at least 10 percent of personnel-related costs. The outcome of the study would have no effect on commissary food prices.
A memorandum of understanding (MOU) which transferred the troop issue subsistence supply mission from the 200th Theater Army Materiel Management Center (TAMMC) to the Defense Subsistence Region-Europe (DSR-E), a Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) activity, became effective 1 October 1982 and provided several advantages: (1) realignment of peacetime and wartime missions, thereby ensuring smoother transition to war; (2) consolidation of all personnel in the USAREUR Wholesale Subsistence Supply under one agency; and (3) improvement of the peacetime management of subsistence supply.
Family Housing and Homeowners Assistance
On 1 February 1982, a revised AR 210-50, "Installations Family Housing Management," was published. It included several recommendations made by the Army Housing Committee following its 1981 review of Army housing and the opening of family housing for diversion for unmarried chaplains. The regulation also made special provisions for COHORT family members deploying to Europe on three-years tours.
The family housing management account had been underfunded for several years. To improve the fiscal management of the program, Army leadership sought and obtained the transfer of the account back to the Department of the Army as the Army Family Housing Program, with full management effective in fiscal year 1983. Two new construction projects for 486 units were awarded during the year at an estimated cost of $37,920,000232 units at Fort Drum, New York, and 254 units at Fort Irwin, California.
The Family Housing Maintenance, Repair, and Improvement (MRI) program consisted of the following: Line Item Improvement Program-4 projects, $8,046,000; Minor Construction Program-$2,500,000; Energy Conservation Investment Program-$27,200,000; and Maintenance and Repair Programs-$305,507,900.
The Housing Operation Management System (HOMES), a computer-aided tool to assist Army personnel in the day-to-day management of family housing, billeting (unaccompanied personnel and transient housing), community housing, financing, furnishings, and facility management, was under development. The Assistant Secretary of the Army approved the HOMES mission element needs statement and the project manager's charter, and various workshops were held to define housing functional areas and computer specifications.
By congressional direction, the domestic Family Housing Leasing Program of 1,043 units was being phased out. On the other hand, overseas leasing authority increased from 10,497 units in fiscal year 1981 to 12,961 units by the end of fiscal year 1982 and is expected to increase to 18,500 units in fiscal year 1983. The majority of these units were allocated to European installations.
On 1 October 1981 revised Variable Housing Allowance (VHA) rates took effect. The VHA program was established for all uniformed service members who lived in areas of the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) where housing costs were at least 15 percent higher than the basic allowance for quarters (BAQ). The VHA was also available for members assigned overseas whose families lived in the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Its purpose was to give service members who were assigned to high cost areas more money to offset the increased cost of housing.
A major change was made in the way VHA was paid. In fiscal year 1981 a VHA rate applied to "grade grouping." For example, one rate was set to cover E-4s, E-5s, and E-6s. This method tended to overpay some members and underpay others. The VHA for
fiscal year 1982 was paid according to individual grades, including officers with over four years' enlisted service (0-1 E, 0-2E, and 0-3E), to better reflect the different housing costs incurred by each grade.
Variable Housing Allowance rates were set according to military housing areas (MHAs). A thorough analysis was made in fiscal year 1982 to ensure that an MHA encompassed a geographical area where members both lived and worked, and housing costs were examined to ensure consistency throughout the MHA. This resulted in several changes in military housing areas.
As executive agent for all military services, the Army paid $3.2 million under the Homeowners Assistance Program to 436 applicants in fiscal year 1982 as a result of base closures and realignment actions. Mortgage assumptions on thirty-two properties acquired during the period totaled $335,771.
Quality of Life
In response to 1981 family-life policy decisions by the Chief of Staff, the Army established three new vehicles for overseeing communication and policy on Army family issues. First, the Family Liaison Office (FLO) was created to coordinate, review, and initiate policy, research, and studies on families. It reported directly to the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel. Reporting to the FLO (but located within The Adjutant General's Quality of Life Office) were the Family Life Communication Line (FLCL) and "News for Army Families," a quarterly newsletter distributed worldwide. The FLCL offered Army family members easy access to Army Headquarters for defining and resolving specific family problems via a toll-free hotline service. Although located in Army Headquarters, both the FLO and the FLCL actively promoted emphasis on quality of family life at major commands and installations.
In its first year, the FLO compiled a list of the various agencies and staffs within the Army that have conducted research or studies on Army families and examined the relevancy of specific studies, research findings, and ongoing data bases. The FLO also initiated research in spouse employment, family stress, and family demographics.
Two worldwide symposia on Army families, the second (1981) and third (1982) Army Family Symposia, were held. These symposia offered unique experiences for hundreds of family members to define and rank issues and to communicate their concerns to key policy makers. The FLO supported the Army's
participation in these pioneering events and served as the focal point for developing an action plan in response to issues raised at the symposia.
The Army expanded employment assistance to family members of military personnel and civilian employees. In January 1982 HQDA told commanders to expand family employment assistance within currently available resources. Some installations broadened their efforts to provide employment assistance to family members. This included increased efforts to publicize vacancies, development of working relationships with local state employment offices regarding jobs in the private sector, establishment of a single point-of-contact on post where family members could obtain employment information, and presentations given at meetings attended by family members regarding employment opportunities.
The Leadership Division sponsored a major conference at the Army War College in March 1982, which established the philosophy and direction for leadership initiatives. Several subsequent conferences clarified and refined these efforts. Three long-range support objectives were prepared to improve command environment, leadership doctrine and training, and the personnel system. The Leadership Division was assigned proponency for the human goal in 1982. The initial effort was to develop an expanded meaning and philosophy for this concept. Emphasis was placed on the role of the Army in society and its need to be more people-oriented.
Numerous actions were taken during fiscal year 1982 to correct problems noted in the Concepts Analysis Agency study of the Army's ability to handle personnel killed in combat, described in last year's report. Cemetery operations and mass casualty procedures were added to the graves registration (GR) specialist program of instruction; FM 10-63, "Handling of Deceased Persons in Theaters of Operations," was revised to include nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) operations; and an HHC, Quartermaster Battalion (GR), was added to the force structure in the reserve components, and two additional graves registration companies will be added during fiscal year 1983. Procedures were again established requiring a fingerprint card in the military personnel record jacket, and Army staff functional responsibility for graves registration was transferred from the Troop Support Agency (TSA) to the Quartermaster School (QMS). Furthermore,
OACSI was asked to study GR doctrine of allied and Warsaw Pact nations; a program to allow GR specialists to train with civilian mortuaries was in the planning stage; and a GR field manual for soldiers not in graves registration was being written. Guidance to ensure that all active Army soldiers have a panographic dental x-ray was promulgated, arid a program to investigate the interest of graduate morticians in joining the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) was begun.
The Military Postal Service Agency (MPSA), organized as a field operating agency of The Adjutant General in 1980, was the single manager for DOD military postal service functions worldwide. During the first year of MPSA operations, mail service to remote areas like Korea and Diego Garcia posed severe problems. Transit times were excessive, and mail arrived irregularly. MPSA coordinated an intensive effort to review each factor affecting mail delivery, arranged an extensive network of back-up flights where possible, and had the postal elements of the services streamline their mail processing and transportation operations as well as schedules. Transit times of letter mail to Diego Garcia were reduced by two days, and over 80 percent of the letters now arrived within eight days of postmark. In Korea, well over 80 percent of the letters were delivered within seven days. The success of these efforts led to a program of intensive mail service management for other remote locations experiencing similar problems. The program consisted of special monitoring, close communications, step-by-step analysis of mail flow, and measurement of transit times where possible.
While the Military Airlift Command (MAC) provided an invaluable service to countries with no or insufficient commercial airlift, such as Guantanamo Bay, Greenland, Diego Garcia, and Turkey, commercial carriers generally gave reliable and frequent service to more accessible areas. The law required the use of U.S. commercial carriers wherever possible. Back-up resources to be used in the event of strikes or other factors affecting U.S. air carriers were required. With the help of the U.S. Postal Service (USPS), negotiations with foreign back-up carriers such as British Air, Alitalia, and Japan Airlines resulted in agreements to carry mail that exceeded the capacity of U.S. carriers from CONUS to many overseas points at the domestic rate. This was significantly lower than the universal postal union rate usually charged by most foreign carriers.
Historically there has been a shortage of U.S. Commercial airlift to move the great volumes of mail to and from overseas locations during the November-February period. In the past, space available mail (SAM), excess to what the U.S. Commercial air carriers could handle, was diverted to the Military Airlift Command. In many instances this was a costly and inefficient operation. For the 1981 Christmas period, MPSA coordinated a program of selective improvement of mail transportation priorities, which resulted in U.S. airlines adjusting their cargo contracts and adding additional airlift so that all military mail for Germany, the United Kingdom, and Italy was transported by commercial carriers. A significant improvement in service was achieved, and the number of times mail had to be handled was significantly reduced. This program will be repeated during the 1982 Christmas mail rush.
The Comptroller General (GAO) submitted a report in January 1980 entitled "How Military Postal Service Operations Can Be Improved." In response, the Military Postal Service Agency, working with the LISPS, developed a standard, uniform measurement system that produced reliable performance data with minimum administrative work. This system, the Transit Time Information System Military Mail (TTISMM), filled the need of managers throughout the Military Postal Service (MPS), as well as commanders at all levels, to know how long it takes letter-class mail to reach armed forces overseas from various points in CONUS. TTISMM is the basis for developing mail delivery standards, monitoring actual performance, and identifying and resolving mail processing and transportation problems in a systematic, disciplined way.
Deployment of the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) to the Sinai presented MPSA with its first from-the-ground-up MPS support requirement. The isolation and autonomy of the force presented challenges far beyond those normally encountered in establishing overseas postal service. Extensive diplomatic negotiations were required to overcome concerns such as national sovereignty over postal service, equity of service to all elements of the MFO, and problems of contraband entering postal channels. By the time the MFO arrived in the Sinai, MPSA's efforts had met with partial success-the U.S. element was able to send and receive correspondence and official material through the MPS. Persistence and accommodation brought complete success; full postal service to all national elements was achieved three months after the MFO took up its positions in the Sinai.
The distribution of MPS operating costs was not resolved during the negotiation of the 1980 USPS and DOD Postal Agreement. Because of incomplete data on the costs, USPS and DOD agreed to conduct a survey of MPS operating costs and selected revenues generated through the MPS. Conflicting perspectives on revenue data and resource requirements caused delays, but agreement was reached in May 1982 and the survey was begun in July. Results of the one-year survey will be used by MPSA in negotiations between DOD and USPS and for developing the long-range goals of the agency. Interim data from the survey will enable one long-standing goal to be realized when legislation is introduced during the first session of the 98th Congress to allow postage-free movement of personal correspondence moving solely within the MPS.
The U.S. Postal Service and DOD had discussed for years the problem of how to reduce the flow of narcotics, black market items, and other contraband through the U.S. mail to military post offices overseas. By the fall of 1981 the discussions had reached a stalemate. At that time the Secretary of Defense dispatched a letter to Postmaster General William F. Bolger asking for his help. Postmaster General Bolger set up a series of meetings between the general counsels of each organization. To prepare for these meetings, the DOD general counsel held a series of conferences with legal representatives from each service and MPSA, who represented the DOD postal operators. Subsequent meetings between the general counsels produced a proposed policy on search and seizure by DOD of mail in MPO channels overseas. The proposal was published in the April 1982 Federal Register. After final comments were received and reviewed, a policy agreement was reached and signed by both the Secretary of Defense and the Postmaster General in August 1982. The final policy statement is currently being processed for publication in the Federal Register and for inclusion in Change 1 of the DOD Postal Manual.
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Last updated 24 May 2004