Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1982


Operational Forces

The Army's mission, in conjunction with that of the other armed services, is to "preserve the peace and security and provide for the common defense of the United States." The Army is required by statute to be "organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt and sustained combat incident to operations on land." In modern times, this injunction represents a tall order, for American commitments are linked to global interests and agreements which require the Army to be deployed around the world.

Organizational Developments

Against the background of a $35 billion budget, a strength of 780,000, and a 24-division organizational structure, the Army had substantial numbers of troops stationed in Europe and Korea during fiscal year 1982, as well as smaller elements distributed in various regions for peacekeeping, advisory, and logistical purposes. A four-division force in Europe was augmented by three brigades and regiments. One division remained in Korea, while Panama and Alaska each had an assigned brigade.

As the fiscal year opened on 1 October 1981, the Army established Headquarters and Headquarters Company of I Corps at Fort Lewis, Washington. The corps is composed of active and reserve component units. At a lower organizational level, the first Patriot missile battalion was activated at Fort Bliss, Texas, to train with this new high- and medium- altitude antiaircraft missile system, which is designed to attack and destroy simultaneously several enemy aircraft while tracking others. Patriot will replace the Nike Hercules and most Hawk missiles presently in use. Also in the air defense area, manportable missile systems were consolidated in most divisions during the year; Stinger and Redeye teams are now located in division air defense battalions rather than in maneuver battalions.

Two major developments occurred in the joint service organizational field during the year. One was the establishment of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force; the other was a reorganization of U.S. forces in the Caribbean region. Both developments had broad Army connections.


The Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force grew out of a 1977 study which recognized the need for a four-service force that could be deployed for contingencies outside the regions of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Korea. The President issued a directive to establish a force which could project U.S. power expeditiously; emergencies like the Iranian revolution, the seizure of American hostages in Teheran, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan stimulated and justified the formation of such a joint task force.

The headquarters of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force was established on 1 March 1980 as a subordinate element of the U.S. Readiness Command. On 1 October 1981 it was chartered as a separate task force reporting through the joint Chiefs of Staff to the Secretary of Defense. The headquarters, located at MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida, had the mission of planning, training, exercising, and being prepared to employ designated forces in response to contingencies threatening the vital interests of the United States. The focus in the early period has been on the Southwest Asia-Persian Gulf region. The force is structured to deter aggression if it should occur. The commander has Army, Navy, and Air Force elements under his control-in general, forces not otherwise committed to NATO or Korea. In 1982 the force numbered over 220,000 personnel, about 100,000 of them Army.

Naval forces stationed in the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf areas are prepared to go into action immediately to support the joint task force; the first tactical air forces could be on the scene in the Southwest Asia-Persian Gulf region within hours; a combat ready battalion could be on the ground within forty-eight hours; the combat elements of an airborne division could be in place in less than two weeks; and an additional division could arrive in thirty to thirty-five days. Near-term pre-positioned ships are on station with supplies and equipment to support Marine amphibious forces as well as selected Army and Air Force units, and long-term pre-positioning support will be provided as additional ships join the maritime fleet. Meanwhile, the Air Force, through procurement and modifications of military aircraft and structural changes in the Civil Reserve Air Fleet, is expanding its airlift capacity in support of the joint task force. Through planning, training, and exercises, the overall capability of the Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force improved steadily as the year progressed.

In the second joint-service organizational development of fiscal year 1982, readjustments and consolidations were carried out


in the Caribbean region to create the new U.S. Forces Caribbean Command. Established on 1 December 1981, the command was formed from the Contingency Joint Task Force at Key West, Florida; the Antilles Defense Command in Puerto Rico; a naval component; and Army, Air Force, and Marine units. The realignment streamlined the command structure and placed responsibility for the Caribbean region with one commander.


Operational readiness was enhanced along several lines within the year. One of the more significant advances was the introduction of the new M 1 Abrams tank into six units: three tank battalions in the 3d Infantry Division in Europe and three in the 2d Armored Division in Texas received the new tanks. The M 1 is replacing the M60-series tank on a one-for-one basis throughout the Army, with procurement spread out over a period of time. Concurrently, the M60, an excellent tank with productive service potential, is being upgraded through improvements that will increase its survivability and lethality.

Also being modernized are the following: the AH-1S Cobra helicopter, with improvements that include a laser range-finder, a rocket management system, more firepower, and increased survivability; the UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, with extended range and an all-weather capability to improve troop and supply transport and aero-medical evacuation; and the M 113 armored personnel carrier, with improved suspension and cooling systems to enhance cross-country mobility as well as general reliability and maintainability.

Although such modernization had some detrimental effect on the standards by which a unit's readiness was measured, the problem was a passing one related to the process of change and will be offset by the enhanced capability derived from updated equipment and improved organization.

Substantial improvements in personnel readiness were reported during the year as a result of initiatives to increase the number of noncommissioned officers in the combat arms and improve the skill and efficiency of recruits and careerists. Shortages of noncommissioned officers were reduced by half during 1982, and reenlistment bonuses and increased promotion opportunities contributed markedly to the retention of senior grade personnel, with a resulting benefit in general readiness. Elimination procedures were streamlined, and enlistment and reenlistment standards were toughened. Among favorable personnel


trends, 86.1 percent of all recruits were high school graduates, and 53 percent scored in the top half of the Armed Forces Qualification Test.

As the quality of the manpower improved, increased use of devices and simulations improved the instructions and led to more sustained and effective training. Deployment exercises and the National Training Center provided realistic training that improved individual and collective skills.

Overseas Activities

One of the more significant and pervasive developments in the American Army's major commitment in Europe during the year was the progress made by the theater in the Army-wide modernization program. Besides the initial three-battalion complement of Abrams M1 tanks, U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR), began receiving the new Bradley fighting vehicle and Stinger missiles, moved well along on its conversion of M60-series tanks, and received AH-1 S Cobra helicopters and the first UH-60 Black Hawks. These gains substantially advanced a modernization program that will transform U.S. Forces in Europe over the next several years. Concurrently during the year, major training areas were improved and expanded to meet the changes in doctrine, organization, and equipment, and USAREUR's ability to accommodate reinforcements from the home base was improved with the pre-positioning of a fourth division set of equipment.

In mid-March 1982, the Army deployed a battalion of the 82d Airborne Division from Fort Bragg, North Carolina, to the Sinai Peninsula in the Mediterranean-Red Sea area to join the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) established as a result of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty of March 1979. The U.S. contingent, which joined elements from several other countries including Italy and Colombia, consisted of a battalion task force of 800 troops, a 350-member logistical support element, an 85 member medical unit to provide health care for the entire force, and 32 officers and enlisted personnel assigned to the Multinational Force and Observers Staff. The infantry battalion established and will continue to man checkpoints and observation posts from Eilat to Sharm El Sheikh and conduct reconnaissance patrols as part of the effort to ensure freedom of navigation in the Strait of Tiran. Battalions of the 82d Airborne Division and the 101st Air Assault Division are to alternate every six months in this assignment while the international commitment remains in force.


Security problems in the Western Hemisphere received increased attention during fiscal year 1982. Factional strife in El Salvador, tensions between Nicaragua and Honduras, and Russian and Cuban intervention in the region either directly or by proxy created a threat that required a sharpening of regional priorities and an allocation of appropriate resources. Helicopters, trucks, weapons, and communications equipment were dispatched to El Salvador under the Foreign Military Sales program, military teams were sent to help the government develop a national military strategy, and training was provided both in and out of country to help the government deal with escalating insurgency.

The comprehensive modernization going on throughout the Army extended also to the Pacific region. In Korea, the Eighth Army brought the program to all aspects of the U.S.-Republic of Korea relationship, including equipment, training, command, control, and communications. Two artillery battalions of the 2d U.S. Infantry Division converted to the M198 155-mm. towed howitzer, and one battalion converted to the M109A2 155-mm. self-propelled howitzer. Receipt of AH-1S Cobra helicopters significantly expanded antitank capability, and modification of the M113 armored personnel carrier enhanced tactical mobility. Provocations by the North Koreans heightened the substance and reality of the exercises conducted at all levels of command during the year. Interoperability was stressed in these exercises since the defense of South Korea is a joint responsibility.

Command and Control

Command, control, communications, and intelligence are basic and interdependent properties of military operations, and their fusion provides the capability to transform individual weapons systems into an integrated and effective force. Consolidation ideally enables all levels of military force to "observe, provide warning and attack assessment, process information, support decision making, communicate, navigate, and degrade an enemy's ability to perform those functions." The need is ever-present, the mission never-ending.

During the past year work proceeded on implementing the Army Command and Control Master Plan (AC2MP), which was published in fifty-eight volumes in September 1979, with several more volumes added in 1980 to bring the tactical portion up to date. Specifically, the 1980 update defined the architecture for the Army Command and Control System (ACCS), set forth deficiencies to be overcome, and established responsibilities and mile-


stones for implementing the ACCS. The update focused on baseline capabilities of the tactical echelons of the Army, which were projected from the current program year through 1988.

Intelligence Activities

Development of the Army Intelligence Master Plan continued during the year, and publication with distribution down to division level was expected early in 1983. The plan will serve many purposes, such as identifying areas where intelligence has fallen short and how the tactical performance of combat units was affected, listing and setting priorities of intelligence goals and objectives, and linking the Army Intelligence System with Department of Defense (DOD) and national intelligence planning systems.

Matters brought up at the tactical intelligence conference hosted by the U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School (USAICS) at Fort Huachuca in July 1982 indicated that while current intelligence and electronic warfare doctrine was in general use in the field, the lack of training manuals hampered instruction and dissemination. Manuals being prepared by USAICS should help to resolve this problem. USAICS had called the conference, which was attended by a broad sampling of G2s and tactical military intelligence unit commanders from around the world, to assist the school in promulgating tactical intelligence doctrine.

In response to the continuing concern that intelligence activities lacked adequately trained human intelligence (HUMINT) personnel, the HUMINT Division of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (OACSI) participated in two actions to upgrade career programs in this field. At the initiative of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the HUMINT Division coordinated a joint-service advanced debriefing and interrogation course scheduled to begin at Fort Huachuca in fiscal year 1983. The Army was named executive agent of the course, which will have instructors from all three services. The Office of the Secretary of Defense promised continued funding for the course as part of the general intelligence training for fiscal year 1984 and beyond. The HUMINT Division also participated in the HUMINT Training Working Group chaired by DIA. The working group was set up to assess the adequacy of DOD's human intelligence training and to make improvements.

Several initiatives were taken during the year to promote linguistics, responsibility for which had been transferred from


the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (ODCSOPS) to OACSI in January 1981. These plans included creating a new linguist career management field, establishing a new language training facility in Europe, developing proficiency sustainment training packages for units, setting up remote intercept locations, providing accompanied tours for linguists in Korea, and using foreign television tapes for unit training.

A major event in the area of foreign intelligence was the completion of a draft of the Soviet Battlefield Development Plan 2,000 (SBDP 2,000). An eight-volume work, the SBDP 2,000 projects the expected Soviet ground force threat on the battlefield for the next two decades, including anticipated numbers, types, and employment options for Soviet weapons; probable numbers, types, and character of Soviet units; and a forecast of Soviet strategy and tactics. When published, the study will help Army long-range planners to develop weapons systems, force structures, and battlefield tactics.

Regarding topographic activities, the Army updated mapping needs for the continental United States (CONUS) and in the process reduced the number of requirements, gearing them to priority operational plans and major training areas. Mapping, charting, and geodesy annexes were revised for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCAP) and the Joint Strategic Planning Document (JSPD). In other actions, the contractor delivered the Firefinder Digital Elevation Dubbing Facility to Headquarters, FORSCOM, where it began operations; the Army evaluation plan for the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) prototype digital terrain data base was forwarded to DMA; and the Engineer Topographic Laboratory and the Engineer School, representing DARCOM and TRADOC, respectively, began the initial phase of development for the digital Topographic Support System.

At the instigation of the Undersecretary of the Army, OACSI initiated a plan to improve the management of Army meteorological activities. By the close of the fiscal year a proposal had been developed for an office within Headquarters, TRADOC; a research, development, test, and evaluation (RDTE) plan; and a procurement plan. The RDTE plan focused on tactical environmental matters, automated surface weather observations on the battlefield, and collection and interpretation of data on the spot. Analyzed data will be compared with known weather sensitivities of individual weapons to predict the effect of the weather on the weapons. The procurement plan focused on improving upper air sounding equipment for artillery meteorological sections and tactical weather communications equipment for the Air Weather Service-


The Analysts' Intelligence Display and Exploitation System (AIDES) became fully operational in fiscal year 1982. AIDES enables intelligence analysts to produce current information more accurately as well as time-sensitive indications and warning data. The system provides file access and limited automated message-handling capability to principal Army sites via the Worldwide Military Command and Control System (WWMCCS) and can also tap national-level intelligence files through Intelligence Data Handling Systems Communication-II. AIDES is unique in that it concurrently supports both operational and intelligence activities.

In September 1982 the Undersecretary of the Army approved the mission element needs statement (MENS) for the Korean Intelligence Support System (KISS). The new system would automate the Combined Intelligence System-Korea, which supports the ground, air, and naval forces in Korea. KISS's automated support will provide more volume in handling unassimilated information, an English-Hangul translation ability, collection management, sensor correlation, exercise support, improved analyst working capacity, and interanalyst communication.

Treating imagery intelligence as sensitive compartmented information (SCI) had long been a problem because it severely restricted dissemination, thereby curtailing its usefulness. In July 1981 the director of the Central Intelligence Agency, in consultation with the National Intelligence Board, decided that imagery intelligence products would no longer be treated as SCI. In light of this decision, the intelligence community prepared and published, in June 1982, a comprehensive new National Imagery Policy Manual which significantly increased the authority and responsibility of the military services and the Defense Intelligence Agency for the security and use of imagery intelligence products. To promulgate the new policy within the Department of Defense, representatives from the military services and the Defense Intelligence Agency met to draft Defense Intelligence Agency Manual 5frl, which was issued shortly after fiscal year 1982 ended. It supplanted previous Army imagery policy contained in the Army Special Products Utilization Guide.

During the past year there has been increasing concern over the unauthorized disclosure of sensitive and state-of-the-art technology to both friendly and unfriendly governments. To combat this problem the Army has conducted an in-depth study to determine which technologies should be protected from release; and it has worked with OSD and other military services to eliminate the release of sensitive technology, to initiate safeguards against its inadvertent release, and to establish an organization devoted exclusively to the study and release of sensitive technology.


Executive Order 12356, "National Security Information," issued on 2 April 1982, became effective on 1 August. Implementing DOD directives brought defense policies and procedures for classifying, downgrading, declassifying, and safeguarding information that required protection in the interest of national security in line with the order. The most significant change was the establishment of a new system for classifying, downgrading, and declassifying documents which enables a classifier to assign an indefinite period of classification if he or she cannot determine a specific date or event for declassification. At year's end the Army had nearly completed work on a revision of AR 380-5 which will reflect the new policies and procedures.

Changing requirements for military intelligence (MI) officers led to the revamping of the MI officer development plan. During the first four to seven years of commissioned service, MI officers will ordinarily receive tactical assignments. Basic officer training will, therefore, stress schooling in Army combat operations at corps level and below, followed by initial training in tactical all-source intelligence operations. Upon completion of the advanced course, MI officers will specialize in signal intelligence (SIGINT), human intelligence (HUMINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT), and counterintelligence (CI) or, on the other hand, foreign areas, automated data processing, and other OPM (Office of Personnel Management) specialties. Additional schooling and training will prepare MI officers for at least one tour in another specialty. The final product of the new development plan is a field grade officer highly qualified to serve in both tactical and specialized positions, such as division G-2, MI (CEWI) battalion commander, field station commander, or HUMINT operations officer. More senior officers would receive assignments to Headquarters, Department of the Army, joint, and DOD intelligence positions.

Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Matters

U.S. policy supports negotiations aimed at obtaining a comprehensive agreement banning the production, possession, transfer, and use of chemical weapons. During the period 1977-1979, the United States and the Soviet Union conducted twelve rounds of bilateral negotiating sessions for the purpose of presenting a joint proposal to the Committee on Disarmament for negotiation of a multilateral chemical arms control treaty. The bilateral sessions ended in 1980 because of disagreement on the issues of verification, declaration of stocks and facilities, and


entry-into-force procedures. During fiscal year 1982 the Chemical Warfare Working Group in the Committee on Disarmament continued to define, issues regarding control of chemical weapons. This work was pursued despite a growing body of evidence that chemical and toxic weapons were being used by Soviet surrogate forces in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan. Army chemical warfare experts have been actively supporting other U.S. government agencies charged with chemical warfare disarmament objectives.

After reviewing what little progress was made in negotiations, and considering the national security implications of the use of chemical and biological weapons in Southeast Asia and Afghanistan, President Reagan decided to pursue modernization of the deterrent retaliatory stockpile of chemical weapons. The President informed Congress of his decision and, in compliance with the 1976 DOD Appropriations Authorization Act, provided certification on 8 February 1982 that the production of binary chemical munitions was "essential to the national interest." The required follow-up report to Congress on the U.S. Chemical Warfare Deterrence Program was given on 12 March 1982.

To support the binary chemical modernization program, the President's fiscal year 1983 budget request included $104.3 million for tooling and initial production of binary munitions (Army 155-mm. GB-2 artillery projectiles and Navy-Air Force Bigeye VX-2 bombs); for the construction of a load and packout facility at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, for Bigeye; and for retaliatory research and development. The Bigeye project at Pine Bluff Arsenal is Phase II of the Integrated Binary Production Facility. Construction of the Phase I 155-mm. GB-2 artillery projectile facility, which was approved by Congress in 1981, began in November 1981. The contract to equip the facility was awarded on 9 September 1982. Plans for a third phase project for future agents and delivery systems (such as Intermediate Volatility Agent (IVA) warheads for the U.S. multiple launch rocket system and corps support weapon system) were being considered in the event these developmental systems are needed.

After long deliberation and extensive debate, Congress decided not to approve funds for binary production and the facility this year. However, funds for research and development (R&D) were approved, and $ 7.9 million of the $18.3 million requested for military construction on the Phase II Bigeye facility was allowed by the joint Appropriations Conference Report. This sum will provide for area clean-up and site preparation and for the development of a hazardous waste landfill, which is required


regardless of the binary issue. Efforts to seek approval for a critical chemical retaliatory capability will continue. The objective is to develop and maintain the safest, smallest chemical munitions stockpile that will still deny a significant military advantage to any instigator of chemical warfare.

The Army continued its firm commitment to achieve the means to conduct sustained operations in a chemical-biological (CB) warfare environment through an expanded CB defense program of research, development, test, and evaluation during fiscal year 1982. Overall program funding increased by 56 percent over the previous year.

A key element in improving the Army's CB defense was building a sound technological base. To this end, funding doubled between fiscal year 1981 and 1982. Major accomplishments in this area included completion of threat definition for mycotoxins and evaluation of current CB protective materiel against T-2 toxins; initiation of efforts to develop infrared-ultraviolet CB detection devices and individual chemical alarms and desimeters; investigation of the application of immunoassay (bioengineering) technology to CB detection; and continuation of exploratory development on a follow-up technology to decontaminate eyes and the respiratory system as well as CB protective clothing. To meet the urgent need for a standoff chemical detector and an improved point chemical detector, the Army accelerated its programs for the XM21 Scanning Infrared Remote Alarm, Chemical (SCI-REACH), and the XM22 Automatic Chemical Agent Detector Alarm (ACADA). First units of both the XM21 and XM22 are now scheduled for deployment in fiscal year 1988 instead of 1992. In addition, advanced development continued on schedule for the XM85 Automatic Liquid Agent Detector (ALAD).

In fiscal year 1982 the Army terminated its XM30-series mask program. Based on the results of operational testing, the XM30 offered no significant operational improvement over the current M17AI protective mask. Upon termination, the Army's Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and Materiel Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM) prepared a follow-up mask program which will capitalize on the achievements of the XM30 mask development (improved fit and NATO interchangeable filter canister) and the proven lens system of the M17AI mask.

Development of CB collective protection for combat vehicles, vans, and shelters continued during the year. Modular collective protection equipment was integrated with the Patriot and


TACFIRE systems. Hybrid collective protection equipment for combat vehicles was applied to the Fire Support Team Vehicle, the Field Artillery Ammunition Supply Vehicle, and combat vehicles equipped with the Roland missile.

CB decontamination efforts during fiscal year 1982 focused on advanced development of the jet Exhaust Decontamination System, to provide a rapid decontamination capability for combat vehicles, and an Interior Surface Decontamination System. Advanced development began on a diesel-powered decontamination apparatus to replace the current M 12A 1 power-driven one.

Advanced development of the XM76 smoke grenade was completed, and the program entered full-scale engineering development. The XM76 will provide armored vehicles with more extensive smoke protection in the middle and far infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The Army's major commands and reserve components received $70 million to purchase stock fund equipment for chemical defense under the OMA (Operations and Maintenance, Army) appropriation. The fiscal year 1982 OPA program provided another $75 million for major chemical defense items at the unit level, such as chemical agent alarms, collective protective shelters, and NBC protective masks.

The battle dress overgarment, a camouflaged chemical protective (CP) outer garment that enhances NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection, was adopted for field use in June 1982. This new overgarment uses the same woodland-pattern camouflage overprint as the new battle dress uniform fatigues and provides better CP protection for the soldier than the one presently in use.

In June 1982 the U.S. Army Materiel Development and Readiness Command (DARCOM) replaced five on-scene commanders and their staffs as the agency designated to respond to the scene of an Army nuclear weapon incident or accident. DARCOM negotiated memoranda of understanding with Forces Command, Training and Doctrine Command, Communications Command, and Health Services Command for support. The new arrangement should improve the Army's responsiveness to a nuclear weapon incident or accident.

Major activities continued in the toxic chemical demilitarization program, including operations and research efforts at the Chemical Agency-Munition Disposal System (CAMDS), Tooele Army Depot, Utah; Drill and Transfer System (DATS) operations at various storage locations in the United States; and operations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. The Army expanded


its demilitarization research and development program, which seeks to identify innovative technologies to provide chemical demilitarization that is less expensive and more energy efficient than current technology.

The Defense Resources Board (DRB), along with Congress, has recognized that demilitarizing toxic chemical munitions is a national problem beyond the Army's own funding resources. The Army's Program Objective Memoranda for fiscal years 1984-1988 provided for continued operations and engineering development for chemical demilitarization with CAMDS and DATS and for construction of a demilitarization facility at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, in fiscal year 1984 to dispose of the incapacitating agent BZ. The DRB programmed additional funds to build demilitarization facilities at Johnston Island and at three other U.S. storage sites to demilitarize obsolete M55 rockets and M23 land mines.

Operations and research efforts at the CAMDS facility continue to support the design and construction of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS). This work has involved demilitarizing 7,942 155-mm. GB projectiles and 7,766 105-mm. GB projectiles, conducting M55 rocket motor shearing tests and GB incineration experiments, and preparing a new 4.2-inch mortar module.

During fiscal year 1982 DATS safely and efficiently demilitarized 249 containers of leaking chemical munitions at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas, and Anniston Army Depot, Alabama. Operations programmed for fiscal year 1983 include demilitarizing leaking chemical munitions at Lexington Blue-Grass Depot Activity, Kentucky; Umatilla Depot Activity, Oregon; and Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Chemical demilitarization operations at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado, disposed of 10,196 chemical agent identification training sets. The program to dispose of 5,961 remaining sets will conclude during the second quarter of fiscal year 1982.

In 1981 the Defense Intelligence Agency undertook a study to establish damage-level goals for U.S. retaliatory nuclear attacks. The Army was an active participant. The results of the study will be one factor used in the continuing evolution of U.S. nuclear policy and will help establish goals for reaching specified levels of damage based on certain variables, such as the relative positions of U.S. and enemy forces at the time of the alert and the response option chosen. The study will be updated as capabilities, target bases, and other factors change.

During fiscal year 1982, the Army Agent Orange Task Force (AAOTF) remained the primary office representing the Depart-


ment of Defense (DOD) in the nationally publicized controversy over whether or not the use of herbicides, especially Agent Orange, had a negative effect on the health of Vietnam veterans. The size of the task force grew from three members to twelve during the year in order to fulfill the AAOTF's basic function of providing records and information to government agencies and private entities involved in data collection, scientific studies, and litigation requirements generated by this matter.

In November 1981, the Army Agent Orange Task Force submitted testimony before the Senate Veterans Affairs Committee on the amount of DOD assets committed to the Agent Orange effort. Of particular concern to the senators was adequate and prompt DOD support to the Veterans Administration (VA) Epidemiology Study mandated by Public Law 96-151. In other actions, Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, on 26 April 1982, designated the Army as the lead DOD agency for supporting the epidemiology study and others relevant to Agent Orange. Also, the DOD development of an exposure index model was unanimously approved by the science panel of the White House Agent Orange Working Group. By the close of the fiscal year, the AAOTF was ready to work on the epidemiology study, but the Veterans Administration had not yet begun on it and Congress was exerting considerable pressure to have the study done by the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia, instead of by the VA.

Military Support to Civilian Authorities

Fiscal year 1982 was another good year with regard to military support for disaster relief operations. There were only twenty-five disasters and emergencies declared by the President, and none required active Army troops. Support rendered by the Army National Guard to state and local authorities in these incidents is discussed in Chapter 6.

At the request of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, extensive support was provided during the recovery operation following the crash of Air Florida Flight 90 into the Potomac River just after takeoff from Washington, D.C.'s, National Airport on 13 January 1982. Army and Navy personnel, under the command of the Director of Military Support, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans, recovered the remains of seventy-eight victims and 92 percent of the aircraft wreckage.

When the air traffic controllers walked off the job in August 1981, military controllers stepped in to fill the void until the air


traffic control system could be revamped and new controllers trained.

Support to the U.S. Secret Service during fiscal year 1982 consisted primarily of bomb search assistance in connection with the travel of officials who were authorized Secret Service protection. Army personnel carried out over 900 such missions in the continental United States and overseas during the year. Additional support to the Secret Service was chiefly in the area of transportation.


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