Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1977
Research, Development, and Acquisition
For the fiscal year 1977 budget request for research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDTE), the Army cited the buildup in the conventional forces of the Warsaw Pact countries and their improved weapons. The Army's equipment urgently needed modernization to meet the threat posed by the Soviet bloc. The need to reevaluate wartime replacement factors, to fill existing requirements, and to improve sustaining ability was also recognized. The budget therefore represented the first step in a series of moves designed to make U.S. conventional ground forces second to none in equipment.
Budget and Management
The initially approved RDTE program for fiscal year 1977 was based on the President's budget, and the Director of Defense Research and Engineering stated that funding for a number of key activities would not be reduced without prior approval of his office. These were the total amount budgeted for the technology base, and programs involving an advanced VTOL (vertical take off and landing) aircraft, the Pershing II missile, high energy lasers, target missiles, the NAVSTAR global positioning system, communications, and studies on the vulnerability/survivability of Army forces. Major deferrals were in the Chaparral/Vulcan surface-to-surface rocket, BMD (ballistic missile defense) advanced technology, VRFWS-Bushmaster (vertical rapid fire weapon system), Tank System XM-1, and the Standoff Target Acquisition System.
In September 1976 Congress reduced the Army's request for $2,386.2 million in RDTE funds to $2,290.7 million-an appropriation of $2,280.8 million and $9.9 million to be collected from RDTE surcharges on foreign military sales. Major items affected by the congressional action were an aerial scout, BMD technology, high energy laser, the advanced VTOL, an advanced multipurpose missile, a mechanized utility vehicle, command and control, and the Kwajalein Missile Range.
The RDTE request for fiscal year 1978 of $2,740 million was submitted to the Army's Budget Review Committee in September 1976. The committee's decisions were incorporated in the RDTE budget submission of $2.902 million to the Department of Defense, and the budget presented to Congress in January 1977 incorporated the decisions made during a review by the Office of Management and Budget and the Department of Defense. The total requested for RDTE was-
$2,616 million. An amended budget was submitted in February 1977 to accommodate changes directed by President Carter, a decrease of $100 million for the Advanced Attack Helicopter and an increase of $6.4 million for the Mechanized Combat Vehicle were directed. The fiscal year 1978 appropriation, passed in September 1977, provided $2,418 million for Army RDTE programs.
The RDTE request for $2,677 million for fiscal year 1979 was submitted to the Army's Budget Review Committee in August 1977. The committee's decisions were incorporated into the Army's budget submission of $2,776 million to Defense in September 1977. The final RDTE appropriation request for fiscal year 1979 was $2,721 million.
The total RDTE budget for a given fiscal year is reduced by the estimated RDTE surcharges on foreign military sales. Projected collections for fiscal year 1977 were $9.9 million (congressional offset). Foreign surcharges collected above the congressional estimate ($13.5 million) were distributed to various research and development projects. A major policy change, pertaining to recoupment of nonrecurring RDTE and production costs, occurred in January 1977. The thresholds for recoupment were reduced to $5 million RDTE costs and/or $5 million nonrecurring production costs.
The Army continued to use Total Risk Assessing Cost Estimates (TRACE) techniques in estimating cost for all major materiel developments, new and current. During the review of the 1979 budget, fourteen systems were identified as having TRACE deferrals in fiscal years 1978 and 1979.
Congress appropriated $14.7 million for construction of RDTE facilities in fiscal year 1977. Major projects included were an electromagnetic pulse simulator for the Harry Diamond Laboratories ($2.1 million), a camouflage laboratory at Fort Belvoir ($3.3 million), and a range operations center for the Yuma Proving Ground ($6.9 million).
The Standard Army Research, Development and Acquisition System was started in April 1976 to support the planning, programming and budget cycle and to improve reports for external distribution. Of twenty-five RDTE milestone tasks, six had been completed in 1976 and two more were finished in the first half of 1977. Those two were Phase I, RDTE Tailored Management Information System package, and Phase II, Crosswalks, Procurement Data on RDTE Worksheet. Additional effort was also directed to RDTE Worksheet Enhancements.
Science and Technology
The Army Science and Technology Objective Guide, first published in May 1976, was distributed to appropriate agencies in April 1977. The guide established a user-determined priority list of requirements for Army materiel, equipment, and systems. Most of the requests for
items came from Training and Doctrine Command in coordination with the Requirements Directorate, Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans. The guide is used as the primary requirements document for research and exploratory development by the Materiel Development and Readiness Command. In addition, copies were furnished to industry to encourage Army-oriented research by private corporations and advertise specific Army needs. Over ninety percent of the science and technology efforts reported during 197'7 were concerned with identified requirements.
The Research, Development, and Acquisition Committee conducted a fiscal year 1979 budget review in August 1977 to settle issues in research and exploratory development programs. Funds were allocated in accordance with user needs as stated in the Science and Technology Objective Guide, and the solution of major Army problems was emphasized.
The Army Scientific Advisory Panel held three general meetings during fiscal year 1977, and the panel's ad hoc groups worked on command and control systems, electronic warfare and intelligence, training technology, remotely piloted vehicles, military operations in built-up areas, optical countermeasures, systems engineering, and nuclear protection for the soldier. Plans were made to transfer the panel from the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Research, Development and Acquisition to the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research, Development and Acquisition).
The Army's Advanced Concepts Team, established in May 1975, is a group of scientists and engineers from Army research and development organizations who evaluate new technological concepts or new uses of current technology. Eleven projects totaling $4.54 million were completed during the fiscal year. These projects included optical fiber communication links, countermeasures for target-seeking projectiles and missiles, band width compression for voice channels, direct electronic Fourier transforming of images, and laser-beam-rider antitank missiles.
All Army research and development programs are governed by what is known as fife-cycle management. In the conceptual phase, combat development agencies examine projections and plans to determine potential materiel systems of value to the Army. These agencies also identify technical, operational, and logistical support problems to be resolved in subsequent phases. The second or validation phase consists of verifying preliminary design and engineering, planning, analyzing trade-offs, resolving logistical problems identified during the conceptual phase, preparing a formal requirement document, and validating the concept for full-scale development. Actions taken in the validation phase are known as development testing I and operational testing I. In the third or full-scale development phase, the system, including support items, is fully
developed, engineered, and fabricated, and a production decision is made. Actions taken in the full-scale development phase are known as development testing II and operational testing II. Concurrently, procedures for fielding an integrated system are developed. In the fourth phase, production and deployment, units are trained, equipment is procured and distributed, and logistical support is provided. Actions taken in the production and deployment phase are known as development or operational testing III, production testing, and follow-on evaluation.
Two joint Army/NASA research aircraft projects continued during the year. Under the first project, Bell Helicopter was developing two XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. The first XV-15 was extensively ground tested on a tie-down test facility, and its first test flight took place on 3 May 1977. Afterward it was flown for three hours at hover and low speeds and is completing tests in preparation for full-scale wind tunnel testing. The second XV-15 is being prepared for limited ground testing prior to flight tests to establish the basic flight characteristics for both helicopter and airplane operations.
The second project provided for the design and construction of two rotor systems research aircraft to serve as "flying wind tunnels" for helicopter research. The research aircraft, with its first set of rotor blades, first flew on 12 October 1976 and has completed its first flight testing phase as a pure helicopter. It is presently being fitted with wings and thrusting engines for testing in high-speed maneuvering flights.
The Advancing Blade Concept Aircraft (XH-59), a coaxial, counterrotating, hingeless rotor aircraft, completed its flight tests in the pure helicopter mode in the spring of 1977, attaining speeds up to 170 knots. In a program just begun, the Army, the Navy, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have joined to fund high-speed tests. The test aircraft has been fitted with thrusting engines, lent by the Air Force, and is being prepared for more tests.
Ice engineering research covered a wide range. The Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory used both basic and applied research to study one of the most critical problems faced by helicopters, rotor blade icing. The laboratory developed a device for studying ice formation on rotating blades and for testing anti-icing materials, and a first-generating computer program to predict icing rates on rotor blades. In the applied area, the laboratory was developing a standardized ice adhesive strength test, conducting large-scale field tests under natural icing conditions, and developing a numerical model for predicting icing rates.
During the winter of 1977-78, one of the major links in the Great Lakes waterway, the Poe Locks, will be usable all winter without inefficient and sometimes hazardous hand and mechanical ice removal. Credited to the joint efforts of Army, private university, and private
industry research, and considered a breakthrough in technology, a coating material was developed based on a block copolymer that either lets ice fall off naturally or makes it easy to remove.
The U.S. Air Force Distant Early Warning Line Station DYE-3 was built on the Greenland ice cap in 1959-60 on extendable columns to keep it above the ever-rising snow surface. The supporting substructure of the 3,300-ton building had become distorted and highly stressed because of ice cap strains, differential footing settlement, and footing tilt. The Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory conceived the idea of moving the building sideways onto a new undistorted foundation. After years of study by the laboratory the Air Force approved the move, and in September 1977 DYE-3 was shifted sideways 210 feet onto a new foundation without incident. The move took four days.
In bulk explosives research, two cratering tests to determine the relative effect of blasting agent DBA-105P and TNT were completed. DBA105P performed one and a half times as well as the same amount of TNT at the optional burial depth for TNT. Somewhat deeper burial produced the best cratering performance for DBA-105P. Major field tests continued using explosives to excavate hull-down positions for tanks. Data from those tests was also used in the antitank ditching phase of the Military Engineering Applications of Commercial Explosives program. Three technological reports were published between December 1976 and July 1977. They were: Antitank Ditching with Explosives; An Experiment in the Field Mixing of Bulk Explosives; and Explosive Ditching with TNT.
A procedure for repairing airfield runways using truck-mounted concrete mixers and regulated-set cement was perfected in late 1976. The technique was demonstrated in April 1977 on a fifty-foot crater in two hours and fifteen minutes. To analyze the load-bearing capacity of the repairs, the Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksburg, Mississippi, constructed a test pad and subjected four different repairs to traffic testing. The analysis has not been completed.
Work continued on development of the Remote Ceiling and Visibility Sensor, a low-cost, portable device to support low-flying aircraft and artillery operations. During the year equipment to measure cloud height and short-range visibility was developed by adapting the AN/CVS-5 laser rangefinder: The modified AN/GVS-5 has been named the AN/GMQXX Visioceilometer. A mobile ceiling and visibility evaluation system has been built for use in testing the AN/GMQXX in the field.
The first model of the Cathode Ray Tube Plotting Head was completed in September 1977 for the Defense Mapping Agency. The plotting head will allow much more rapid plotting of cartographic color separations from digital data. Development of software to permit production centers of the Defense Mapping Agency to use their existing data and
extension of the hardware to meet specific center needs has begun. An experimental Electron Beam Recorder, the first of its type designed specifically for rapid, efficient plotting of digital map data, was delivered to the Army Engineering Topographic Laboratories.
Ballistic Missile Defense
In ballistic missile defense (BMD), the Safeguard System was discontinued, and to meet the desires of Congress the Perimeter Acquisition Radar mission was changed to provide attack data to the North American Air Defense Command. Research and development was broadened to hedge against future uncertainties and avoid technological surprise. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty was thoroughly reviewed in preparation for the bilateral review of the treaty with the Soviet Union in fiscal year 1978.
The Ballistic Missile Defense Systems Command in Huntsville, Alabama, and the Ballistic Missile Defense Program Office in Washington, D.C., were reorganized. Management of the program was shifted to Huntsville, and the strength of the Washington office was substantially reduced. Funding for fiscal year 1977 was as follows: advanced technology-$102.7 million; systems technology-$100.0 million; Kwajalein Missile Range-$82.9 million; and the Safeguard Perimeter Acquisition Radar-$28.0 million.
Advanced automatic techniques for design, verification, and validation of large, complex BMD software processes were developed. These techniques may significantly reduce costs and manpower. The first tests of a BMD optical sensor in a nuclear radiation environment indicated that newly developed hardening techniques can overcome the adverse effects of nuclear radiation on sensitive optical detectors. A high quality beam source suitable for injection into a linear accelerator was designed, built, and tested. A small (fifteen-pound class) hit-to-kill interceptor underwent a ground captive test.
On 2 December 1976, two weeks ahead of schedule, a small advanced phased array radar installed at the Kwajalein Missile Range emitted its first signal. Capable of generating a variety of wave forms, it is used with a commercial (CDC 7700) data processor and target tracking software to test BMD concepts and to evaluate technology for integrating subsystems and components into a missile defense system.
Throughout the year the Kwajalein Missile Range pioneered improvements in optical tracking of incoming vehicles with a digital-video camera system and a large optical telescope. The data is processed electronically and recorded on video tape, a method that permits instant replay and analysis by computer instead of the frame-by-frame analysis of the previously used film system. This Super RADOT (Recording Automatic Digital Optic Tracker) has increased the range at which
reentry vehicles can be tracked and data recorded from the 50 nautical mile slant range of the old system to 500 nautical miles.
In spite of some budget cutbacks during the past fiscal year, RDTE of systems generally made steady progress. The Army Systems Acquisition Review Council approved a proposed accelerated production plan for the Patriot air defense missile on 17 February 1977. The plan would advance operational capability by two years, provide for earlier deployment, and avoid $125 million of inflationary growth in cost. The Army Vice Chief of Staff then instructed the Patriot project manager to assess the options of Patriot/ Improved Hawk interoperability during the planned concurrent deployment. Conclusions in late April were that no changes be made in Patriot accelerated procurement, a Patriot/ Improved Hawk technical interface be developed, a study be made of the cost effectiveness of the Patriot/ Improved Hawk codeployment concept, and the high-to-medium-altitude air defense structure be reviewed annually. During the fall of 1976 activities at the White Sands Missile Range centered around the integration testing of Patriot Firing Platoon No. 1 in preparation for the next phase of flight testing. By May 1977 Phase II flight tests, including a combined Patriot/Improved Hawk flight test, were successfully completed in a countermeasure environment. The integration and checkout of tactical prototype Firing Platoon No. 2 were completed at Bedford, Massachusetts, in June 1977, and the platoon then made a five-day cross country road trip to White Sands Missile Range for preparation of Phase III of the live fire tests.
In December 1976 the Department of Defense approved the continuation of the Roland missile system technology transfer, fabrication, and test period with a ceiling of $265 million. Progress in making four prototypes was satisfactory; all schedules were met. Four fire-unit modules were in various stages of completion in the fall of 1977 and one module had been mated to and integrated with the M109 tracked vehicle chassis. The first U.S. built Roland missiles were completed, and four were shipped to Europe to be test fired by the European Roland II fire unit.
Engineering development of the 155-mm. guided projectile, known as Copperhead, continued. The projectile is guided by laser and is fired from M109AI and M198 howitzers. In February 1977 the Department of Defense directed the Army to assume responsibility for the development of all Army and Navy semiactive laser guided nonrocket projectiles. The Army was to prepare a plan for the 5-inch and 8-inch Navy projectiles that would make maximum use of the 155-mm. projectile parts and achieve the earliest possible initial operational capability.
The thermal night sight for the TOW antitank missile system was
developed and the initial procurement contract let. Increased protection for TOW gunners in mechanized units was provided by a protective blanket of nylon fabric which will stop shell fragments.
Full-scale engineering of the Viper began in 1976, and it is expected to be in production in 1980. The Viper is a man-portable antitank weapon weighing between six and seven pounds. It promises significant improvement over its predecessor, the light antitank weapon (LAW), in accuracy, range, and penetration.
The Improved TOW Vehicle (ITV) program, formerly known as the M113 Light Armored Antitank System, modifies M113 vehicles to carry the TOW missile. Armor protection from bullets and fragments is provided for the missile, launcher, optics, guidance components, and crew. During October and November 1976 the development and operational test Phase I was completed. The ITV was classified for limited production in December, and the Emerson Electric Company was awarded an initial production contract. During March and April 1977 a design review team from the Tank-Automotive Research and Development Command assessed the engineering adequacy of Emerson's approach. Based on the command's recommendations, long lead-time tooling was allowed. From mid-March through May 1977, the contractor ran extended durability testing on the terrain simulator in the command's laboratories. The tests provided data in half the time and at less expense than cross-country testing. The first production vehicles were delivered in July 1977 to Yakima, Washington, for operational testing III and to the White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, for development testing. During the same month the ITV project manager was assigned the added mission of developing the fire-integration-support-team vehicle.
Development of the thermal night sight for the Dragon antitank guided missile continued and ended in a decision for limited procurement. The final engineering design of the launch simulator, an improved training device, was approved. The viscous damped mount, which provides a stable firing platform from the M113 personnel carrier, was completing engineering development.
Adaptation of the Stinger IFF device (identification, friend or foe) to the Chaparral was completed, and after successful testing production was recommended. The smokeless motor program continued on schedule and within cost estimates. The prime contract was awarded for a demonstration of an adverse weather version of Chaparral as directed by Congress, and the fabrication of demonstration hardware started. The first deliveries of improved Chaparral missiles began in the summer of 1977.
The Improved Hawk missile system made progress in all phases of the program's life cycle last year. An active product improvement program continued, production of ground support equipment and missiles was maintained, and additional Improved Hawk batteries deployed. Sev-
eral improvements successfully completed all development tests, and the engineering change proposals were approved. Another improvement is scheduled for extensive testing in a tactical environment to confirm its military utility, and three others were under development with procurement funds authorized.
Work on an improved conventional submunition (detonator) continued. Design, development tests, and analysis of tungsten fragmentation material, incendiary devices, and pattern modification features capable of being incorporated into the current submunition were carried on.
Perishing II successfully completed captive test flights. Advanced software for Pershing II scene simulation/correlation operations on the Digital Image Analysis System was developed and delivered. The software is critical in accomplishing scene variation-correlation tasks which, during an actual mission, would allow the missile to be guided to its target along various routes. Efforts are currently under way to develop and demonstrate digital correlation and image processing modules.
Operational and development tests for the basic Stinger missile system were successfully completed in October 1976 and April 1977, respectively. A development contract for the Passive Optical Seeker was signed in June 1977. It is intended to phase the seeker into the Stinger production upon completion of its development program.
During the period progress continued in the development of high energy laser technology. The mobile test unit program was completed, and the fabrication and testing of a number of experimental devices continued. The Training and Doctrine Command and the Materiel Development and Readiness Command worked on an agreement emphasizing investigation of many possible Army uses for high energy lasers. A significant Army-Navy test program in repetitively pulsed laser damage effects was conducted, and another joint program was started to find ways of keeping a laser beam on target.
After the suspension of the initial field test of the Tactical Operations System because of software problems, the software was corrected, and the integration of software and hardware was completed in July-September 1976. A second field test was conducted successfully at Fort Hood, Texas, from April to July 1977.
Low-rate production of the Tactical Fire Direction System continued during the year. The first systems were delivered in October 1976, and various tests were completed from November 1976 to July 1977.
Four highly successful field tests of the Stand-off Target Acquisition System have been concluded over the past two years. Based upon these successes the system was returned to U.S. Army, Europe, to participate in Reforger 77, the annual field test.
The Army's Firefinder system consists of the AN/TPQ-36 Mortar Locating Radar and the AN/TPQ-37 Artillery Locating Radar. The
AN/TPQ-36 successfully completed tests in July 1977. In a subsequent demonstration with the Tactical Fire Direction System, the time from firing an 81-mm. mortar until counterfire by a 155-mm. howitzer was less than one minute, a significant improvement in response time. Limited procurement was approved for the AN/TPQ-37 in October 1976, and an initial production contract was awarded in December of that year.
The TOW night sight (AN/TAS-4) and the long range night sight (AN/TAS-6) were classified standard in July, and the Dragon (AN/TAS-5) night tracker was classified for limited procurement in August 1977. These are the first of a number of man-portable systems that will use the same infrared modules to reduce development and production costs. The Tank Infrared Elbow was successfully demonstrated at various installations, but funds for its development were cut, primarily because of lack of user interest. Third generation image intensification tubes with high sensitivity were produced. The tubes may be used either with a microchannel plate in goggles for helicopter pilots or without a microchannel plate on low cost night vision aides. A letter of agreement was approved for the Air Defense Night Vision System. A closed cycle cooler was developed for night sights of man-portable weapons, and prototypes of an instrument reading night vision system for the Cobra-TOW was obtained. Both items will have common infrared modules. The requirements for the Hand Held Thermal Viewer were questioned and are being examined by the Training and Doctrine Command.
The Army Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV), a small aircraft of less than two hundred pounds, will be used for target identification, laser designation, artillery adjustment, and battlefield reconnaissance. The RPV has been conceived as having a twelve-foot wing span, a six-foot fuselage, a gross weight of 144 pounds, a twelve-horsepower engine, speeds between 45 and 100 knots, and flight time of at least one and a half hours. The major activity has been the Aquila demonstrator, and extensive tests were carried out during the year. Other services are interested, and quarterly meetings of a joint Technical Coordinating Group prevent unwarranted duplication and encourages interservice cooperation.
As reported last year, a special task force on the Mechanized Infantry Combat Vehicle (MICV) recommended a two-man command and control turret. The task force also recommended that the MICV be developed for both infantry and scout roles. In order not to delay delivery, production with a one-man turret was approved for two years. But the one-man turret MICV was eliminated from 1978 fiscal year production by a budget decision in January 1977, and only twenty-seven of the vehicles were authorized for fiscal year 1979. Since such a small production run would not be cost effective, the MICV program was ended in March 1977. The resources of the program were applied to the develop-
ment of new infantry and cavalry fighting vehicles, and the MICV Systems Office was redesignated the Fighting Vehicles Systems Office on 30 July 1977. The MICV was renamed the Infantry Fighting Vehicle or XM2 and the MICV/Scout renamed the Cavalry Fighting Vehicle or XM3.
A full-scale engineering development contract for Phase II of the Advanced Attack Helicopter was awarded to Hughes Helicopter in December 1976. The contract includes construction of three additional flying protoypes, modification of the existing aircraft, and development and integration of the fire control and other subsystems. Competitive contracts for the development of the Target Acquisition Designation System and the Pilot Night Vision system were awarded in March 1977. In addition to the Hellfire missile being developed by the Army, the Advanced Attack Helicopter includes an XM230 30-mm. chain-gun, also developed by Hughes, as the secondary armament.
Following four years of development, contractor flight testing, and government flight evaluation, the Sikorsky Aircraft Division of United Technologies was awarded an $83.4 million contract in December 1976 to start production of the UH-60A. In addition, a $38.3 million contract was awarded to General Electric for the helicopter's T-700 engine. Sikorsky was also awarded a $61.2 million contract for maturity phase research and development for fiscal years 1977 through 1979. The helicopter was officially renamed Black Hawk on 6 September 1977.
The program to change 290 AH-1G Cobras to Cobra/TOW's was completed. The procurement program for 297 new AH-1 S Cobra/TOW aircraft is on schedule; first deliveries started in March 1977. Twenty-six new airframes were delivered by the end of September 1977. Production validation testing was completed in August 1977. Development of the improved main rotor blade was completed, and a production contract for 215 blades was awarded in May 1977 with deliveries to begin in February 1978. The development and integration of the "universal" turret, capable of housing a 20-mm. or 30-mm. gun, and of the wing stores management system are continuing. A production contract for those items was awarded in July 1977 for incorporation into the new AH/ 1 S production line beginning in September 1978. The development contract for a gun and rocket fire control system was awarded in July 1977 with production scheduled for November 1979.
A contract for the full-scale engineering development of the Hellfire Modular Missile System was awarded to the Rockwell International Corporation on 8 October 1976. The design of that weapon system for the Advanced Attack Helicopter was in full swing at the end of September 1977. During the year project production cost risks began to emerge in the triservice laser seeker program. In response the Army sought and received approval from the Department of Defense to develop a low-cost
alternate laser seeker to reduce the risk through competition and a contract was awarded to Martin Marietta in September 1977.
The Army's medium-caliber divisional air defense gun will be able to move with and provide close-in air defense for armor and mechanized forces. A cost and operational effectiveness analysis started in May and was completed in September. Proposed gun systems from five contractors were compared, and two will be selected for competitive prototype development in late 1977. The program is directed by the Project Manager, Army Gun Air Defense System, under the Army Armament Research and Development Command.
The General Support Rocket System is a multiple rocket launcher that carries twelve rockets on a fully tracked vehicle. The system will use the "wooden round" concept; the rocket will remain sealed in the factory container until it is fired. It will require a very small crew and is capable of extremely rapid reaction. The system is in the early stages of development. Prime development contracts with a total value of approximately $64.5 million were signed in September 1977.
The lightweight company mortar was classified as standard equipment in July 1977 as the M224 60-mm. mortar. The new multi-option fuze was classified as the M734 fuze. The Army approved the formal developmental in-process review, and production of the M224 mortar was expected to begin in fiscal year 1977.
In late summer and early fall of 1977 the testing of full-scale engineering development model tank thermal sights went forward at a rapid pace. The first sights were delivered by Texas Instruments in March 1977. After laboratory performance and qualification tests, the sights were installed in tanks at Fort Knox, Kentucky, and at the Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona, and field tests were carried out.
The Army announced in November 1976 that Chrysler had won the competition to produce the XM1 tank and that a 36-month full-scale engineering development contract for $196.4 million was being awarded. During that period, eleven pilot XM1 tanks with associated hardware will be produced and tested. Subsequent to this decision the Federal Republic of Germany's Leopard II tank was evaluated at Aberdeen, Maryland. It was determined that the XM1 best satisfied the Army's requirement for a new tank.
The developmental eight-inch self-propelled howitzer M110A1 with recoil brake was named the M110A1E1. Development of the brake, zone 9 of the M188 propelling charge, and the XM650 rocket assisted projectile continued on schedule. The objective is to extend the range as much as possible. When classified, this arrangement of parts will be the M110A2. All M110A1 cannon are threaded to accept the recoil brake, which is needed with the more powerful charge. A concept study was provided in March 1977 by Pacific Car and Foundry Company
on the possibility of adding more crew armor to the eight-inch self-propelled howitzers. A product improvement program was established and placed in the budget for that purpose.
Operational Test IIa of the XM204 light towed 105-mm. howitzer was conducted at Ft. Campbell, Kentucky, starting in February 1977 and ending with a desert phase at Yuma, Arizona, in September 1977. The XM204 appeared to measure up to expectations. After a review of the budget in February 1977 due to curtailment of new starts, higher priority programs, and doubts within the Army about the need to keep the 105-mm. caliber round, the XM204 procurement program was withdrawn from the President's budget. A development acceptance in-process review is scheduled for February 1978.
In September 1976 the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans began to study a light direct support weapon for nonmechanized divisions. The first study advisory group met in December 1976 and decided that the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency would conduct an eighteen-month study of its effectiveness. A general officer conference in May 1977, however, decided that Fort Sill would take over the study and draft a broad letter of agreement to begin concept design work.
The M198 medium towed 155-mm. howitzer was classified as standard in December 1976. Construction of the initial nineteen weapons started at Watervliet and Rock Island Arsenals. Hardware problems encountered during development and operational testing II were solved, and the vulnerability of the M 198 has been reduced through the use of shields and redesign of the equilibrators. The cold-weather and tropic test portions of development testing II were completed.
A number of programs continued to reduce the acquisition and operating costs for power plants and drive trains. The Army entered into contracts with Allison Division, General Motors, and AVCO Lycoming Division for a. four-year program to develop 800 shaft horsepower, advanced technology demonstrator engines. That program uses previous Army component research to provide a much more fuel-efficient and durable engine at a reasonable cost. And three active programs were under way to build and evaluate critical transmission components.
In airdrop equipment, the anti-inversion net modification program for the main personnel parachutes (TIO and MC1-1) was completed. All field stocks of the main personnel parachutes made in 1965 and later were modified. Subsequent jump statistics show that only one malfunction of any type has occurred with net-equipped main parachutes in more than 90,000 jumps. All new parachutes are made with this net. Limited quantities of the Dragon missile jump pack prototype have been delivered to the field, and a program started to develop jump packs for the Redeye and Stinger: Certification was completed of an additional twenty equip-
ment loads and thirty-nine ammunition loads for delivery by low-altitude parachute drops in situations that preclude airlanding or other airdrop techniques.
Development, improvement, and procurement of equipment to increase an aircraft's chance of surviving a hostile air defense continued. During the year production contracts were awarded for the following: the hot metal plus plume suppressor for the OH-58C helicopter, the M-130 General Purpose Dispenser (Chaff/Flare) for CH-47 and OH-58, and additional AN/APR-39 (V) 1 radar warning receivers. The AN/APR-44 Continuous Wave Radar Warning Receiver completed advance development; the AN/ALQ-144 Infrared Jammer for helicopters completed development test /operational test II; its counterpart for fixed-wing aircraft, the AN/ALQ-147 "Hot Brick," was field-tested, and the AN/ALR-46 Radar Warning Receiver for fixed-wing aircraft continued to be field tested. A major effort was made throughout the year to coordinate triservice aircraft survivability efforts to avoid duplication and to ensure the greatest standardization of systems.
After a successful competitive development program, the AN/ASN128 Doppler navigation subsystem entered production. The AN/ASN128 will provide Army helicopters with a self-contained tactical navigation ability and will first be installed in the Black Hawk and the AH-1S. Competitive, design-to-cost engineering development contracts were awarded for the Integrated Avionics Control System, which will provide integrated control of up to ten avionics devices, with a saving of cockpit space and reduction in crew work load.
Flight simulation made a major advance last year when the testing of the CH-47 Flight Simulator was completed. The first Army visual simulator uses a closed-circuit television camera that moves across a three-dimensional terrain model in response to the pilot's direction, enabling him to perform various flight maneuvers, emergency procedures, and instrument flight at less cost and in complete safety.
International Research and Development
The United States, Great Britain, Germany, and Italy were close to ratifying a memorandum of understanding to ensure interchangeability of 155-mm. ammunition developed in the future. The United States continued to participate in the NATO test and evaluation program to select a second standard rifle cartridge and possibly a rifle for post-1980. The United States provided two Army officers as permanent members of the international test control commission and entered the M16A1 rifle and two improved 5.56-mm. cartridges as standardization candidates.
In accordance with 1976 agreements with Germany and Great Britain, the United States in December set up limited firing trials of the
German and British 120-mm. tank guns and the U.S. 105-mm. gun using improved ammunition. As a result of these trials, the United States, Great Britain, and Germany agreed to conduct additional tests and evaluations before a decision would be made.
Both the Australians and the Canadians are interested in the XM204 light towed 105-mm. howitzer. Both received prototypes for testing, Australia for a tropic test and Canada for cold-weather tests. The tests were completed, and reports were pending. Both countries liked the weapon and could produce it, if needed. The Italian armament company, Oto Melara, was interested in producing the weapon for third country sales and was referred to the State Department.
The United States and Germany studied the role of Patriot in NATO. With Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, they also took part in a NATO study on future surface-to-air missiles. In addition, two NATO project groups were set up in early 1977 to consider Patriot as a replacement for Nike Hercules and Improved Hawk.
Technological information was exchanged between the United States, Germany, and France in order to establish a U.S. production base for the Roland short-range air defense system. Joint testing was scheduled to begin in January 1978.
Requests for bids on advanced development of the single-channel ground and airborne radio system were released to industry in January 1977. American, British, and Canadian firms are bidding for three development contracts. The Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands were considering submitting their own candidates for comparative tests.
A cost and technical evaluation board met in January 1977 and conducted a comprehensive evaluation of subsystems for the XM1 and the German Leopard tanks. A formal subsystem standardization plan was prepared and sent to the Germans.
In March 1977 the Secretary of Defense directed the Army to study acquisition of European equipment. The Army was to consider and assess the short- and long-term effects of such acquisition and the risks and benefits of standardization and interoperability. Completed in May, the study examined 112 foreign systems and a selected few U.S. high technology systems of interest to NATO allies, and provided specific recommendations for changes in organization and management to further standardization and interoperability within NATO.
The Vice Chief of Staff was designated as responsible for international rationalization and formation of the Department of the Army International Rationalization Office. An analysis was made on ways to improve Army participation in the American, Canadian, British, and Australian program.
A general-officer steering committee, with representatives from DCSRDA, DCSOPS, DARCOM, and TRADOC, adopted a management system that grouped materiel acquisition into eleven categories corresponding to needed capabilities. The system permits aggregation of research and development and procurement. It was used to develop budget recommendations of the Research, Development, and Acquisition Committee.
The system can be matched with the Mission Area Summary management system of the Department of Defense, and briefings were held in the Department of Defense during the fall of 1977. If adopted, the match would provide a common acquisition system which could be expanded to capture the remaining life-cycle costs associated with systems and ultimately all expenditures.
President Ford requested $555.5 million for Army aircraft procurement in his fiscal year 1977 budget message to Congress. Of that amount, $253.7 million was for new aircraft, $178 million for modifications, $64 million for spares and repair parts, and $59.8 million for support equipment and facilities. The Army aircraft procurement request was cut $13.6 million by Congress ($8 million in intelligence-related activities, $1.4 million in EH-1 H Helicopter modifications, and a general reduction of $4.2 million).
The President's fiscal year 1977 budget proposed $552.4 million for Army missile procurement. Congress reduced the amount by $55 million, the greatest cut being the deletion of $48 million for the initial production of the Stinger missile.
For weapons and tracked combat vehicles, the President requested $1,147.9 million. That request included $1,084.3 million for tracked combat vehicles and $63.6 million for weapons and other combat vehicles. Congress cut weapons and tracked combat vehicle procurement by $30.3 million.
The fiscal year 1977 ammunition procurement budget was $910.8 million: $655.1 million for ammunition, and $255.7 million for the ammunition production base. Congress reduced the program by $7.9 million of which $1.1 was in the capital investment opportunities program and the remaining an unspecified general reduction.
The Other Procurement, Army, appropriation financed procurement of tactical and support vehicles, communications and electronics equipment, and other support equipment. The budget for fiscal year 1977 was as follows:
|Activity||President's Budget||Congressional Approval|
|Tactical and support vehicles||347.9||333.4|
|Communications and electronics equipment||642.7||631.0|
|Other support equipment||427.3||412.8|
|Total-Other procurement, Army||1,417.9||1,366.6|
An analysis of the procurement accounts indicates that $4.431 billion of $5.628 billion in available funds, or 78.7 percent was obligated. This compares with a planned obligation of $4.908 billion, or 87.2 percent. Obligations against prior years totaled $1.062 billion or 45.5 percent against a planned 53.2 percent obligation.
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Last updated 27 August 2004