Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1974
Research, Development, and Acquisition
As noted previously in Chapter IV, the Army centralized the responsibility for the life-cycle management of materiel before entry into inventory within the new Office of the Chief of Research, Development, and Acquisition (OCRDA). At the same time, there was a major reorganization of Army materiel research and development programs, equipment, and people. This reorganization, which allows for direct and straight-line support of Army aircraft, missiles, armament, tanks, armored vehicles, and troop support systems, should bring about more efficient development of Army weapons systems.
The reorganization of 20 May 1974 also decentralized the monitorship of nonmateriel research and development. The human resources research and development program was transferred from the old Office of the Chief of Research and Development to the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, and the Office of the Chief of Engineers was assigned Army staff responsibilities for the Army's environmental sciences and environmental quality research and development programs.
Program and Budget
The fiscal year 1974 research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) program, as contained in the President's budget request to Congress, was $2,108.7 million. Later the program was amended: $6.2 million was taken away from the utility tactical transport aircraft system (UTTAS), $8.4 million withdrawn from the nuclear munitions program, and $1.1 million added to cover the higher costs of petroleum products. The net reduction of $13.5 million cut the amount requested to $2,095.2 million. Congress then appropriated $1,912.1 million, and major reductions were made in the exploratory ballistic missile defense program, the advanced ballistic missile defense program, the advanced forward air defense system, Site Defense, and the Safeguard' defense system.
During the year supplemental requests were made to support civilian pay increases ($35,898,000) and to improve Army readiness ($19,145,000). Congress provided $26,914,000 in June 1974. Because of this late supplemental appropriation, the goal of having an unobligated balance of $92.6 million of RDT&E funds
by the end of fiscal year 1974 was not met. The unobligated balance, as of 30 June 1974, was approximately $100 million.
The fiscal year 1975 RDT&E budget request of $2,104 million for the Chief of Research, Development, and Acquisition was submitted to the Army's Budget Review Committee in August 1973, where it was increased to $2,116 million and incorporated in the Army's budget submission to the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Included in the request were $3.7 million for pay increases, $8.5 million for test and evaluation facilities, and $4.7 million for major subordinate command headquarters.
Program and budget decisions by the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Office of Management and Budget reduced the Army RDT8cE request for fiscal year 1975 to $1,886 million, the amount included in the President's budget request to Congress in ,January 1974. Because of this reduction, the UTTAS, Safeguard, Site Defense, and SAM-D programs were adjusted, and the Land Warfare Laboratory 1 in Aberdeen, Maryland, was selected for closure as a cost-saving measure. In considering the President's budget request, the House Armed Services Committee recommended $1,878.4 million and the Senate Armed Services Committee $1,875.2 million. At year's end Congress had not yet agreed on a figure.
To manage research and development better, the Army is working on the Modernized Army Research and Development Information System (MARDIS). A vertical system for servicing all research and development levels, MARDIS will consolidate twenty-six project and task reports into a single form. The system was ready for testing at the close of the fiscal year.
Research and Technology
The overseas research offices in London and Tokyo continued to serve as windows on science and technology in both Europe and the Far East. The Tokyo office was primarily responsible for basic research in the life sciences, and the London office's activities were broader, covering almost all the scientific disciplines and a geographical area extending to India and the Near East. Both offices had a dual mission to establish technical liaison between U.S. and foreign scientists and to coordinate and support Army research in their geographical areas of responsibility. European research was performed under contracts and grants and was financially advantageous since costs were from one-third to one-half lower
1 This facility was disestablished on 30 June 1974, and its projects were transferred to other Army Materiel Command laboratories.
than those in the United States. Cost sharing was widely practiced and unique scientific talents not available in the United States were frequently employed.
To bolster the Army's research and development capabilities in the behavioral and social sciences, especially for quickly needed research, the Commander, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, approved the transfer of the functions and personnel spaces of five human research units to the Army Research Institute (ARI). Five new ARI field units were organized as a result of this transfer. Two new units were also established in USAREUR and Korea, and field activities were planned for Fort Carson, Fort Leavenworth, and Fort Lee. ARI field activities had previously been set up at Fort Benning, Fort Hood, and Fort Ord.
Army research in the behavioral and social sciences during the past year supported several projects, including the development of more realistic unit tactical training; the implementation of a training system involving computer-assisted instruction and computer-managed instruction; fielding of a new Army Classification Battery and Aptitude Area System that provides expanded measurement of interests and motivation related to Army jobs; and continued support to the Modern Army Selected Systems Test, Evaluation and Review (MASSTER) project. Also an ARI program of pilot performance flight measurements showed the usefulness of terrain analysis training in aiding nap-of-the-earth navigation.
In the topographic sciences, the Army strengthened the technology base program and concentrated on satisfying its own mapping and military geographic information requirements and those of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Work progressed on coherent optics for topographic data processing, storage and retrieval, inertial and satellite techniques for obtaining gravity data, photo interpretation for collection and analysis of military geographic information, and digital processing and digital photogrammetry. There were several specific activities related to the technology base. Computer simulations showed that satellite navigation systems, such as the Global Positioning System, could track geodetic satellites used to determine gravity fields and that reliance on ground tracking stations could be reduced. Tests demonstrated that a modified Army Position and Azimuth Determining System could be used to determine position and elevation during gravity surveys of launch sites. Studies indicated that new, all-electronic map compilation equipment offers a threefold to fourfold cost savings in hardware over present automatic equipment. Demonstra-
tions showed the feasibility of target reference scenes that could be correlated with terminal guidance radar in a static mode. In the area of military geographic information, products to assist the combat commander were designed and tested, and the evaluation of multiband imagery for collecting and processing data continued.
The Army also furthered its research in the atmospheric sciences. It developed a prototype laser sensor that can remotely measure the crosswind over a horizontal path of direct tank fire for lengths up to two kilometers (the range may be extended to three kilometers). In early tests, this sensor was more accurate than standard meteorological instruments, such as sensitive anemometers, in measuring crosswinds for tank fire. The Army and the Air Force are using this laser sensor in support of high-energy laser programs, and the Army is considering it for use with the main battle tank. At White Sands Missile Range the artillery subsystem of the Automatic Meteorological System (AMS) was installed. The objectives of the AMS, which will be evaluated next year, are to develop automated meteorological systems that would collect and organize meteorological observations obtained from various sources, perform near real time analyses, integrate these analyses with forecasts, and disseminate the data in messages and displays.
In the terrestrial sciences the Army made several advances during fiscal year 1974. Research progressed on the effect of soils, vegetation, and terrain on the performance of unattended seismic sensors developed for battlefield surveillance and anti-intrusion systems. A quantitative computer model that predicts Raleigh wave propagation as a function of subsurface conditions and propagation distance was developed. Methods of identifying the effects of the environment on materiel were also developed. These methods will allow research and development people to consider environmental effects before equipment is tested, at which point change is expensive and time-consuming. Finally, work continued on the development of a performance prediction model for the Army Materiel Command's (AMC-71) cross-country vehicle. Emphasis was placed on the effects of soft soils, snow, and other obstacles on vehicle mobility.
Extensive field tests were conducted at Fort Polk, Louisiana, to determine the cratering and collateral effects of subsurface nuclear explosives in terms of geological conditions and emplacement geometry. Additional tests are scheduled for fiscal years 1975 and 1976. Test information is expected to lead to reliable employment doctrine for tactical nuclear weapons, reduce the un-
certainty of collateral effects, and contribute to the Army's studies on tactical earth-penetrating warheads.
In activities dealing with facilities and military engineering, designs for nuclear blast-resistant protective structures were fully tested. Army researchers continued to look for ways to excavate frozen earth more rapidly, and to help solve the serious problem of electrical grounding in frozen earth, they developed a model for predicting variations in electrical resistance to the ground caused by seasonal changes. They demonstrated the feasibility of inflating fiber-reinforced concrete structures and continued work on the use of foamed material in base development construction. Army researchers also developed design criteria for medium- and heavy-duty landing mats and standardized criteria for airfields and heliports using mat surfacing, along with construction criteria and techniques for the protection of shoulder and overrun areas against high-velocity aircraft blast and downwash.
The research and development program for military construction addressed the needs associated with the operation and maintenance of permanent Army facilities valued at more than $55 billion, an annual new construction program of more than $0.7 billion, and an annual expenditure of approximately $1 billion for the operation and maintenance of existing facilities. The research, development, testing, and evaluation budget of $5.5 million for fiscal year 1974 allowed investigation into such areas as permanent construction materials and techniques, military construction systems development, engineering in cold environments, nuclear power applications, environmental problems, space technology applications, and hardened facilities design and construction.
Major military construction research and development advances during the past year included the development of a computer-based system for reporting facility deficiencies, development and field testing of a method and equipment for testing the strength of freshly mixed Portland cement concrete, development of planning and design criteria for making military facilities more habitable and useful, and development of more economical heavy-load designs for airfield pavements. In research to improve facilities and construction techniques in cold regions, low-frequency electromagnetic probing was successfully used for aerial detection of permafrost zones and geological discontinuities, such as gravel deposits. In addition, a laboratory technique for determining water content of frozen soils was developed. To improve environmental quality protection in the construction and operation of military facilities, field tests were made on a computer-aided system for
preparation of environmental impact assessments, and environmental standards for air and water pollutants resulting from the manufacture of explosives and munitions were established. Research in pollution control demonstrated that polymeric resin can be used to absorb aromatic nitrobodies and that the use of electrodes is effective in monitoring the cyanide content of waste water.
The Army and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration undertook two joint projects, one to develop the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) and the other to test the tilt rotor concept. On 17 January 1974 the two agencies approved the plan for the RSRA of the Sikorsky Aircraft Division, United Aircraft Corporation. Completion of the project should add to basic rotorcraft technology and verify through flight experimentation a wide variety of promising rotor concepts and supporting technologies. A flight demonstration of the tilt rotor, under a Bell Helicopter Company contract awarded in August 1973, was scheduled for early fiscal year 1977; benefits in performance, survivability, and safety from applying tilt rotor capabilities to various military missions will be evaluated.
The first flight of a Sikorsky S-67 Blackhawk equipped with a fan-in-fin antitorque device was made in March 1974. A 29-hour flight test program that compared the performance of the fan-in-fin with the conventional tail rotor was completed, and final assessment is expected in early fiscal year 1975.
Earlier in the year, the first advancing blade concept demonstrator aircraft was involved in an accident during flight tests. While the accident was being investigated, fabrication of the second aircraft and flight testing was suspended. The investigation revealed the cause of the accident, and modifications were made to correct aircraft deficiencies.
A special task force examined and validated Army position and navigation equipment and requirements during the year. The Army then agreed to participate in the initial research and development phase of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (formerly the Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program). Finally, the Army completed component testing of four models provided by contract for the small turbine advanced gas generator program. Testing was begun on the gas generator.
There were several actions taken during the past year in the development of systems for command and control. Following a year of intensive correction of deficiencies, the Tactical Fire Direc-
tion System (TACFIRE) showed considerable improvement, particularly in terms of reliability, availability, and maintainability, during second-phase development and operational tests begun at Fort Sill in May 1974. In the Tactical Air Control Systems/ Tactical Air Defense Systems (TAGS/TADS) program, formal testing of an AN/TSQ-73 Battalion System was started in October 1973 and will continue through fiscal year 1975. Research development acceptance testing and development and operational testing on another AN/TSQ-73 prototype was completed during the year. For the joint program to achieve interoperability between tactical command and control systems in support of ground and amphibious military operations (GAMO), the Army's Chief of Staff serves as the JCS executive agent. On 29 June 1974 contracts were awarded for production of a technical interface design plan and a joint interface implementation plan for GAMO.
In the development of communications systems, two contractors built competitive prototype models for the AN/TTC-39 automatic switch. The models were evaluated, and in April 1974 GTE-Sylvania was awarded a contract to build sixteen engineering development models, with testing scheduled to begin in April 1977. An ad hoc working group was established in July 1973 to devise a plan for the development of single channel tactical radio communications equipment. The working group's four-volume report was submitted to the Vice Chief of Staff on 18 January 1974 and will be used to revise the Tactical Communications Master Plan and to guide the future development of new radios.
Two radar programs for locating enemy weapons were on schedule at the close of the fiscal year. Fabrication of the artillery locating radar, AN/TPQ-37, neared completion, and a contract for making engineering development models for the AN / TPQ36, a mortar-locating radar, was let. The contract was awarded to the Hughes Aircraft Company in October 1973 following a sixteen-month delay due to litigation arising over protests made by competing contractors. In a related matter, the U.S. Marine Corps awarded a contract to Raytheon for a feasibility model of a system to locate both mortars and artillery. The Marine Corps model and the AN/TPQ-36 were scheduled for comparative evaluation in late fiscal year 1976.
The Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS) remained in the validation phase throughout the year. Following approval of the Defense Program Memorandum for REMBASS by the Director of Defense Research and Engineering in March 1974, preparations were made to begin development and operation tests in fiscal year 1975.
In September 1973 the Deputy Chief of Staff for Research and Development approved an Army Materiel Command recommendation to develop two common modules for thermal imaging systems: one basic module for man-carried systems, but excluding the handheld thermal viewer because of the near completion of its development, and another basic module, requiring higher performance and power, that would be vehicular mounted.
Based on early estimates the Director of Defense Research and Engineering added $3 million to the fiscal year 1975 budget request for the TOW antitank missile to support the standard module program. Engineering contracts were signed in December 1973 with two contractors for competitive engineering development of the TOW night sight and its basic common module for portable systems.
Several other development activities involved night-vision devices. In June 1974 a second contract was let to develop a second generation thermal night sight, based on the common module concept, for the Dragon weapon system. Night-vision goggles, ANA PVS-5, were classified standard, and the M60 turret integrated night thermal sight, redesignated the tank thermal sight program, underwent eighteen additional months of advanced development and testing to correct deficiencies in prototypes fabricated by Hughes Aircraft Company and Texas Instruments.
Research was completed and the first phase of the low-level night operations (LLNO) study, which had been started in 1971, was published. A final report is due in December 1974. The LLNO study demonstrated that pilots could fly at low levels in a simulated nighttime environment using only a two-dimensional display. Continuing research, however, would be required to solve the complex problems associated with actual flight. Wire and obstacle detection at low altitudes still appears to be a technological barrier for continual low-level flying.
In aerial navigation, the Army continued engineering development of the LORAN Airborne Navigation Subsystem in fiscal year 1974 and awarded a contract for the engineering development of a self-contained Lightweight Doppler Navigation System. These two systems should provide the first-line Army aircraft fleet with a tactical navigation capability. The Army also signed a production contract for the AN/TRN-30 low-frequency beacon. This system should significantly improve the tactical navigation capability of the Army aviation fleet.
In other avionics matters, the portable air traffic control (ATC) facility (AN/TSQ-97) was type classified and placed in production during the past year. This item will provide voice communications
for ATC functions in visual flight conditions at most advanced helicopter landing zones in the division combat area. The ATC facility should be available for field operations in 1976.
The Army awarded an engineering development contract for an absolute altimeter (AN/APN-209) and let a multi-option procurement contract through the Naval Air Systems Command for encoding altimeters (AN/AAU-32). These altimeters, in conjunction with other electronics equipment, will be used to report altitude data to ground ATC stations. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) directed that this equipment be operational by 1 January 1975 for Army aircraft operating in Group I terminal control areas.
A competitive procurement program was started to provide a lightweight, low cost, en route navigation and instrument precision approach capability for most first-line aircraft. The equipment (CONUS NAV PAK) will be designed to commercial standards and used in the civil environment. When aircraft deploy on tactical operations, the equipment will be easily removed.
The Army also took initial delivery of the proximity warning device. This device provides a relative position warning to pilots of similarly equipped aircraft. Since these devices were installed, no midair collisions have occurred in equipped aircraft. Proximity warning devices are to be used at Forts Bragg, Campbell, Hood, and Rucker in an effort to reduce midair collision hazards at these high-density aircraft locations.
During the past year the Army registered several gains in the development of equipment to improve aircraft and aircrew survivability. Development of a fuel system to withstand crashes was completed for the OH-6 and the UH-1, and progress was made in the development of a system for the CH-54. Work on safety seats for armored crews and troops was well under way, with design, fabrication, and crash impact tests completed and installation verified. Development testing of the individual survivor vest for aircrewmen was also accomplished, and engineering development of the OH-58 infrared suppressor, which would protect the aircraft from enemy missiles, was started.
The Army's Mobility Equipment Research and Development Center continued work on concepts and developments of camouflage nets, glare and electronic /infrared signature reduction, simulation devices, pattern painting, urethane outline disruptors, aircraft camouflage kits, and broadband suppression systems. The Army also cooperated with the Air Force in developing a camouflage scheme for airbases and aircraft shelter complexes.
A number of food service programs in the development stage moved forward during the year. The Army completed operational and development tests on a new expandable mobile field kitchen trailer capable of feeding 200 men. It has also developed the means of preparing controlled meat portions so that soldiers eating at troop messes will receive meat of the same quality and quantity. The Army and Marine Corps completed service testing of a packaged ready-to-eat meal-a probable replacement for the old C ration. Much lighter in weight and containing the same number of calories as the C ration, the packaged meal can be conveniently carried in the pockets of field uniforms.
Several significant actions were taken during the past year in the Army's helicopter development programs. The advanced attack helicopter (AAH) program continued on schedule, as both prime contractors proceeded with the design and fabrication of two flyable prototypes and one ground test vehicle. Component testing for the heavy lift helicopter (HLH) neared completion, but technical problems in power train components will probably delay the first scheduled flight of the prototype. Critical design review of the airframes for the utility tactical transport aircraft (UTTAS) developed by Boeing Vertol and Sikorsky Aircraft was completed in December 1973, while a revised General Electric T-700 engine to power the UTTAS successfully passed its final acceptance tests in March 1974 and delivery began in April. In early March 1974 a special task force at Fort Knox, Kentucky, began to develop system requirements for a new aerial scout helicopter program and will present its findings early next year.
Following operational tests conducted during October 1973, which established the effectiveness of the Cobra/TOW program as an antitank weapon system, an initial production contract was awarded to the Bell Helicopter Company in January 1974 to modify 101 basic Cobras (AH-IG's) to the Cobra/TOW configuration (AH-IQ). The October tests, however, brought to light performance shortcomings of the AH-IQ, resulting mainly from the added weight of the TOW missile subsystem. A development program was started in March 1974 to correct the shortcomings by improving the engine and drive train and increasing the gross weight capacity.
With regard to aircraft weapons developments, two competitive prototype automatic cannons for the advanced attack helicopter are in engineering development. Both will fire a medium-velocity 30-mm. round with a dual-purpose warhead. One gun is a three-barrel Gatling type. The other, a single-barrel design known as
the chain gun, employs a bicycle-like chain to operate the bolt, feed, and extraction mechanisms. Contractor efforts to improve the reliability and functioning of these weapons are to continue next year with a shooting competition to determine the best system for the advanced attack helicopter scheduled for fiscal year 1977.
The Army has two revolutionary gun and ammunition prospects in advanced development, the lockless and the advanced medium caliber automatic weapon system (AMCAWS-30). Both are fully telescoped and fire a 30-mm. high-velocity round. The ammunition for the lockless is rectangular and encased in plastic and that for the AMCAWS-30, cylindrical with an aluminum case. In addition to a slight savings in weight, both rounds take up approximately one-third less space than comparable conventional ammunition.
Two competitive prototype free rockets were developed in fiscal year 1974 as potential replacements for the 2.75-inch folding fin aerial rocket. Fin stabilization was used on one, and the other employed spin stabilization. Shooting competition is planned for next year.
The progression of Hellfire, a "helicopter fire and forget" missile system, into engineering development was deferred after user tests indicated that more operational testing of the system's laser seekers was required. Engineering development is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1976.
In January 1974 the Deputy Secretary of Defense directed that development of the SAM-D surface-to-air missile program be more austere until the ability of the missile guidance system to track potential targets had been proved. The Army's RDT&E request for SAM-D was therefore reduced from $166 million to $111 million for fiscal year 1975. A new cost and operational effectiveness analysis performed at the request of Congress reaffirmed the merits of SAM-D as compared to other existing or conceptual ground-based high- and medium-altitude air defense systems. Despite a slowing down of the SAM-D program, progress was made in the system's development, the highlight of which was the successful acquisition and tracking of multiple inflight controlled test vehicles by a demonstration model fire control group.
For other missile systems, the development of a Lance nonnuclear warhead continued on schedule, and the Department of Defense approved a development program for a new terminal guidance package on the Pershing's propulsion system. This package was designed to improve accuracy, permit employment of
greatly reduced nuclear loads with no loss in effectiveness, and minimize collateral damage in the target area.
Development of the .vehicle rapid fire system (Bushmaster), the proposed main armament for the mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), was halted during the past year. Doubts had been raised about the desirability of procuring large quantities of a new caliber of ammunition to support the system, and there was a need to review requirements in view of technical intelligence gained from the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war. Also, recent developments in cannon technology had to be considered. To resolve these issues, the Army in January 1974 started a cost and effectiveness analysis on the Bushmaster. Meanwhile the PI M 139 gun will serve as an interim weapon system for the MICV.
During fiscal year 1974 the FMC Corporation, contractor for the MICV, completed fabrication of two test rigs and the first prototype test vehicle, four months behind schedule. The delay was caused primarily by design changes, cost trade-offs, and late delivery of subsystems. The test rigs and prototype vehicle underwent extensive contractor tests to identify major problems in integrating the subsystems and to correct deficiencies. In June 1974 fabrication of twelve second-generation prototypes was started.
With regard to tank development, the XM1 program completed on schedule the first twelve months of a 34-month validation phase. For the M60AI tank improvement program, contractor testing of components, which include top-loading air cleaners, an improved electrical program, tube-over-bar suspension, and an add-on stabilization system, resumed in September 1973 and was completed in April 1974. Development testing was started in February 1974, and operational testing is scheduled to begin during the first quarter of fiscal year 1975.
Prototypes of the armored reconnaissance vehicle (ARSV) were delivered to the Army Materiel Command for testing in November 1973. Training and Doctrine Command's reservations concerning the need for a special purpose, three-man vehicle to perform ground reconnaissance led to a three-phased reevaluation study on the validity of the ARSV program. Phase I of the study reaffirmed the Army's need for a ground reconnaissance vehicle.
Regarding the development of scatterable mines, the M56 helicopter-delivered antitank mine system completed development and operational testing and was type classified standard. Development and operational testing of the XM692E1/XM731 area denial artillery munition, was suspended late in the year because of stability problems in the M483 projectile. Work continued on the
XM718 artillery-delivered antitank mine system, and the ground vehicle dispensed mine system entered engineering development. A joint plan for the triservice mine development program was also approved, and the Army's development of a rotary wing dispenser for the system was in an advanced stage.
Development of the squad automatic weapon (SAW) continued. The SAW is designed to increase the range and firepower of squad weaponry beyond that provided by the M16 rifle. Three contending prototypes were built and were undergoing initial testing and evaluation at the close of the fiscal year. A mid-caliber, lightweight ammunition that would provide the desired range was also being evaluated.
In other development activities during the year, durability testing on a prototype of the 155-mm. towed, medium howitzer, the XM 198, revealed several deficiencies. After they were corrected, a tentative plan was approved in March 1974 for issuing the XM 198. Durability testing of the first two prototypes completed under the light howitzer project, the XM204, was begun, and, as of 10 May, 5,000 rounds had been fired with no major breakdowns. The lightweight company mortar system was approved for engineering development. Also, development continued on the cannon-launched guided projectile (CLGP). Completion of the cost operational effectiveness analysis for the CLGP, however, was pushed back from June 1974 to July 1975 when difficulties were encountered during development and operational testing.
International Research and Development
Cooperation with the British in the research and development of cannon-launched guided projectiles progressed during fiscal year 1974. A draft memorandum of understanding was prepared in May 1974 whereby the United States would develop the projectiles and provide the British prototypes for testing and development data.
The joint American-French Javelot project was concluded during the year with all technical performance goals for the ammunition being met. This project was designed to test the feasibility of a short-range gun air defense system based on the directed or organized firing of a salvo of self-propelled 40-mm. projectiles launched from a multi-tube launcher. The Army is still considering whether or not to join with France in the further development of the Javelot system.
In the development of the AN/TPS-58 ground surveillance radar, the American version of the French Ratac, the United
States and France experienced reliability and maintenance problems. Development and operational testing, originally scheduled to begin in ,January 1974, was postponed pending discussions of these problems with the French government and the French contractor.
European candidates for the low-altitude, short-range air defense missile system (SHORAD) successfully completed testing during the summer of 1973. At meetings held on 7 December 1973 and 5 February 1974, the Army System Acquisition Review Council and the Defense System Acquisition Review Council firmly established the SHORAD requirement and authorized the requesting of proposal formulations. Meanwhile the United States consulted with the governments of France, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Great Britain for cooperative testing should one of the three foreign SHORAD contenders be selected.
In other international research and development matters, the Federal Republic of Germany announced that it would not develop a replacement for the Redeye air defense missile, but would consider using the Stinger, which was under development in the United States. The American-French-German Joint Studies Program on Bridging for the 1980s also was completed, and the Concept Study Team presented its recommendations to national authorities.
The table below lists appropriations in support of the Army's various procurement programs for the past three fiscal years. A more detailed description of 1974 acquisition programs, reflecting the overall downward trend set in fiscal year 1973, follows the table.
ARMY PROCUREMENT APPROPRIATIONS
(In millions of dollars)
|Aircraft||$ 106.4||$ 114.4||$ 173.8|
|Weapons and tracked combat vehicles||148.6||242.8||300.4|
The fiscal year 1974 Army aircraft appropriation provided $109 million for modification of existing aircraft, $32.3 million for spares and repair parts, and. $32.5 million for support equipment
and facilities. The 1973 program for procuring twenty U-X aircraft, which had been canceled, was rejustified and approved by Congress, and procurement was started. Congress, however, has yet to act on a 1974 supplemental request totaling $22 million ($15 million for spares and repair parts, and $7 million for 2B24 synthetic flight trainers). As noted earlier in the report, conversion of 101 AH-1G Cobra helicopters to the AH-IQ Cobra/TOW configuration was under way. In addition, twelve OV-1B/C Mohawk surveillance airplanes were modified to the OV-1D configuration.
The fiscal year 1974 budget request for Army missile procurement amounted to $599.9 million, from which Congress deleted $42.8 million for the following: Safeguard procurement, $25.7 million; Lance adaption kits for allied countries, $4.7 million; funds to maintain a production base for the Pershing missile system, $4.5 million; and $7.9 million which was saved in contract negotiations for Dragon missiles. Congress also denied $10.5 million to buy five AN/TSQ-73 systems, but later restored the funds. A supplemental budget request of $84.4 million was submitted in January 1974 for 6,000 TOW missiles and repair parts for other missile systems. Congress appropriated $76.6 million.
The Army's surface-to-surface antitank capability was improved during the year. Procurement for TOW and Dragon missiles continued. Additional improved Hawk missiles and ground support equipment were got to replace the basic Hawk system in the Army inventory. Lance missile procurement provided for all but 194 missiles required to maintain the authorized acquisition objective and sustain annual firings through the first half of 1981. Funds were obtained for the Pershing missile, automatic reference system, and sequential launch adapter. The life extension and improvement of the Pershing system will continue. Improvement of the Nike-Hercules system was also authorized and funded.
Weapons and Tracked Combat Vehicle Procurement
The President's fiscal year 1974 budget request asked for $253 million in weapons and tracked combat vehicles for the Army. The request included . the procurement of tanks, light-tracked recovery vehicles, tank turret trainers, incendiary rocket launchers, machine guns, and rifles; the high-priority modification of tanks,
artillery, assault vehicles, recovery vehicles, air defense guns, and machine guns; and associated support equipment, repair parts, and facilities. The appropriation act deleted $23.7 million from the request: $5.3 million for 34 tank turret trainers; $13.3 million for tank advanced procurement, of which $4.9 million was approved for transfer to other tank procurement; $1.7 million for special-tracked vehicle lighting kits; $3.5 million for XM198 howitzer advance procurement; $1.8 million for 2,400 M60 machine guns; $1.3 million for 303 M219 machine guns; and $1.7 million for engineering of tank modifications. The January 1974 supplemental request called for $121.8 million for weapons and tracked combat vehicles, principally for the procurement of armored personnel carriers, mortar carriers, 8-inch howitzers, and repair parts. Congress provided $71.1 million: $47.4 million for 133 M60AI tanks, $3.7 million for 11 8-inch howitzers, and $20 million for repair parts.
Ammunition procurement continued to decline during fiscal year 1974, primarily because of significantly reduced support for allied forces in Southeast Asia. Meanwhile the Army was able to replenish training consumption and losses, procure selected ammunition for modern hardware, moderately buildup U.S. war reserves drawn down in prior years to meet Southeast Asia consumption requirements, and maintain an active production base for key ammunition items. For the seventeen-year program to modernize and expand the ammunition production base, now in its fifth year, over $650 million of a planned $4.1 billion has been obligated, and funding was recently increased to $300 million a year. The modernization of propellant and explosive facilities was essentially completed.
The Other Procurement, Army, appropriation provided for tactical and commercial vehicles, including trucks, semitrailers, and trailers; communications and electronics equipment and strategic worldwide defense communications systems; and other support equipment, such as mobile assault bridges, construction equipment, materials handling equipment, generators, floating equipment, and medical support equipment. Expenditures (in millions of dollars) of the direct Army programs for fiscal year 1974 by activity were as follows:
|Activity||Fiscal Year 1974|
|Tactical and support vehicles||83.5|
|Communications and electronics||191.7|
|Other support equipment||272.8|
|Total: Other Procurement, Army||548.0|
Implementation of the Wheels study was approximately 65 percent complete as of 30 June 1974. When the study is fully carried out, the Army will have reduced its wheeled vehicle requirement from about 400,000 to about 300,000 vehicles, saved over $750 million in programmed procurements for fiscal year 1974 through fiscal year 1978, and reduced life-cycle costs by nearly $4.5 billion. Vehicles for the Army's three new divisions, however, will decrease the previously programmed net reduction attributable to Wheels. Moreover, commercial vehicles would be increased from 79,000 to about 120,000.
The Army continued to plan for the procurement of selected commercial vehicles as replacements for those of military design. Commercial 34-ton semitrailers, 40-ton low-bed semitrailers, and 11/4 -ton trucks will be brought into the inventory during the next two or three years. The Army also considered leasing vehicles for the Reserve Components, but commercial leasing firms showed little interest. For heavy equipment transport and the high-mobility fleet, the Army will rely on military design, specifically for the 8-ton Goer high-mobility vehicle, 52 1/2-ton semitrailer, and 22 1/2-ton tractor. The commercial market failed to meet the qualitative requirements for a 221/2-ton tractor, and the Army will use instead the M746 truck-tractor. Plans are under way to procure 655 M746's under a multiyear program beginning in fiscal year 1975.
Among other procurement matters, the Army started buying the forward area tactical teletypewriter, but it canceled a multiyear procurement contract for the AN/GRC-106 radio set. A new contract was awarded for this radio, with delivery to begin in fiscal year 1975. Because of delays in obtaining interference-free UHF frequencies, broadcast licenses, and approval for tower construction, the project to provide American television programs to Americans stationed in Europe will not be completed by August 1974 as expected. As a result of the delay, $12.5 million of the $23.4 million appropriated for the project in fiscal year 1972 was lost. Restoration of these funds was requested in the budget submission for fiscal year 1975.
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Last updated 27 August 2004