Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1972
Research and Development
The Department of Defense Appropriation Act for fiscal year 1972, Public Law 92-204, appropriated $1,787.7 million for the Army's research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) program, as compared with budget requests of $1,950.0 million. The reprograming of $51.9 million in unobligated balances carried over from prior years and the transfer of $12.0 million in Office of the Secretary of Defense emergency funds brought the total amount of new obligational authority to $1,851.6 million, of which all but $227.0 million had been obligated by the end of the fiscal year. An additional $365.0 million in prior year authorizations was carried over into fiscal year 1972. Public Law 90204 provided that all RDT&E funds carried over from fiscal year 1971 and prior years would expire on June 30, 1972, and only $57.0 thousand of the carry-over obligational authority was lost at the end of the year.
Management and Support Activities
During the past year, remote computer terminal facilities were established in the Office of the Chief of Research and Development at the Pentagon and at the U.S. Army Research and Development Information Systems Office in the Highland Building, Arlington, Virginia. The facilities, which are housed in radio-frequency-shielded enclosures equipped with electronic encrypting devices in order to handle classified RD&T information, provide the Chief of Research and Development and his staff direct access to scientific and technical information from the data bank at the Defense Documentation Center and fiscal and management information from the data bank at the U. S. Army Management Systems Support Agency.
A major thrust of the RDT&E effort is to assure that the Army maintains combat superiority through the development and acquisition of superior materiel systems at the lowest possible cost. In this regard the Department of Defense and the Army have placed increased emphasis on reliability, availability, and maintainability as a means of reducing procurement, operations, and maintenance costs. The Defense Systems Acquisition Review Council (DSARC) specifically addresses these factors during each major system review. The Army, in response
to a Department of Defense directive on the acquisition of major defense systems, instituted materiel acquisition guidelines late in the fiscal year that are designed to shorten development time, minimize costs, and assure adequate performance. Materiel developers are now required to prepare and publish a co-ordinated test program for all new RDT&E projects. This program insures that adequate testing is performed, eliminates redundant testing, and provides that all tests are fully coordinated to the satisfaction of all interested commands or agencies and that conflicts ascertained during the testing phase are resolved.
A number of laboratory management improvement actions were initiated during the year. One corporate laboratory and the laboratories of three of the Army Materiel Command's commodity commands were selected to inaugurate single element funding, a technique that was successfully tested last year and which shows promise of eliminating the administrative burden and programing inflexibility associated with exploratory development funds. Twelve Army laboratories were nominated to join four others already participating in the Department of Defense demonstration project on reconciliation of work load, funds, and manpower (REFLEX). This undertaking tests the concept of permitting laboratory directors to manage their resources by fiscal controls alone rather than by administratively separated manpower and fiscal controls. Also, an Army Materiel Command laboratory posture report is being prepared for the first time. The report, which is scheduled for completion in September 1972, will highlight laboratory contributions to the inception, development, and fielding of material during the fiscal year. It will include innovations in management, advances in the quality of the technical staff, and improvements in technical productivity and responsiveness.
The Army's exploratory development program investigates, evaluates, and develops defense related technologies through the prototype phase. In November 1971, overview responsibility for the program shifted from the Director of Army Research and the Director of Developments to the Director of Army Research, alone. The Director of Army Research conducts reviews, makes recommendations to assure that the total exploratory development program is balanced and responsive, co-ordinates and prepares recommendations for special programs, and prepares budgetary requirements for the over-all program. The Director of Developments is responsible for individual programs assigned to him.
The Office, Chief of Research and Development (OCRD), continued to disengage from contract operations research study manage-
ment. During the last quarter of 1972, the Army Study Advisory Committee agreed that responsibility for staffing and monitoring operations research studies would be transferred from OCRD to the respective agency sponsors within the Army Staff. Also, OCRD has negotiated a draft support agreement with the Army Materiel Command (AMC) which would transfer responsibility for contracting operations research studies from OCRD to the AMC Harry Diamond Laboratories.
Congressional reductions in funds for studies conducted by the Research Analysis Corporation (RAC), a federal contract research center, caused a substantial cutback in the RAC work program approved by the Army Study Advisory Committee in June 1971. Following discussions between RAC's Board of Directors and the Under Secretary of the Army on RAC's future in light of the reductions, agreement was reached that the corporation should be sold. At the end of the fiscal year negotiations were well underway for the sale of RAC to the General Research Corporation.
The biological defense research activities conducted at the U.S. Army Biological Defense Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Maryland, were terminated at the end of the fiscal year. The Fort Detrick facility was made available to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare for use by the National Cancer Institute in the Conquest of Cancer Program.
Following the disestablishment of the Defense Special Projects Group (DSPG) in June 1972, the Army took over 28 of the 88 DSPG sponsored projects then under way. These research and development efforts will be integrated into the Army's physical security work and the Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS).
The Army Research Council, in response to a request by the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research and Development), undertook an assessment of the relative research, development, testing, and evaluation posture of the Soviet Union and the United States. The study, which was completed in January 1972, was structured around the fourteen materiel objectives contained in the Army Strategic Objectives Plan. Continuing work on the initial assessment is being handled by the Net Technical Assessment Team, Plans Division, OCRD.
During the year, a study on the Army's utilization of space technology, conducted jointly by the Offices of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations and the Chief of Research and Development, was undertaken to define the Army's interest in space technology and to identify and fully utilize the opportunities space endeavors present for improving Army capabilities. The Vice Chief of Staff approved the study and directed that action be taken to exploit space technology in meeting the Army's needs. A space-related research and development
program will be developed during fiscal year 1973 to meet this requirement.
Several significant developments in the Department of Defense Food Research Development Testing and Engineering Program were registered during the past year. A project designed to test improvements in Armed Forces food service operations was concluded at Fort Lewis, Washington. This experiment is expected to lead to a number of improvements in Army food service, including wider application of central preparation concepts and better menu planning for installations. The flexible packaging effort for operational rations is in the final stages of development. Contracts with Swift and Company and several other firms have led to the establishment of an automatic production line to form, fill, seal, and heat-process flexible packages for a variety of ration items. Recently developed techniques for the reversible compression of dehydrated foods were successfully applied in production tests of specific foods. The services have adopted compressed peas and are field testing other foodstuffs. Reversible compression techniques have also been utilized in the development of a small lightweight food packet for the Marine Corps. In addition, animal feeding tests of irradiated beef were begun to determine whether such meats meet Food and Drug Administration standards.
In response to a growing national concern over protection of the environment, the Army is making special efforts to identify and control polluting emissions generated by Army activities. Special studies are required to understand the magnitude of the problem, and research must be conducted to develop effective control measures. Many of these investigations are just getting under way and will be greatly expanded during the coming year. These include development of better instruments for measuring pollutants, studies to determine the health and environmental effects of special Army waste materials, and development of equipment to control air and water pollution, solid wastes, noise, and radiation at military installations. Even though the research effort was in its early stages when the year closed, there were notable accomplishments. A biological process that uses a mutant strain of fungus to convert old newspapers to sugar has been developed, as has been a novel, single-tank complete sewage treatment plant for use in treating waste in cold regions. A jeep engine design has been modified so that the emissions produced are less than those allowed by federal standards scheduled for implementation in 1976. Also, noise from certain helicopters has been reduced sixteen fold through design changes and the addition of sound reducing materials.
OCRD, other Army staff agencies, and the Army Materiel Command are participating in a program, sponsored by the Office of the
Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, that deals with noise-induced hearing loss within the Armed Forces. The seriousness of this problem, which has long been recognized by military and civilian audiologists as a major health hazard, is attested to by Veterans Administration figures showing that in 1970 approximately $52 million was dispensed for hearing loss incurred as a result of service in the Armed Forces, and that 20 percent of all Army dischargees are entering claims for hearing loss. The coordinated hearing loss program is concentrated in four basic areas, the Office of the Surgeon General's (OTSG) hearing conservation program, an OCRD study on the adverse effects of sound on the soldier, the engineering aspects of sound reduction at its source, and the development of devices and materiel to protect hearing. A revised materiel design standard that will bring allowable noise levels for the development of AMC equipment into line with standards established by the OTSG to insure adequate hearing conservation and protection will be staffed for publication in fiscal year 1973.
The U.S. Army Tropic Test Center, Fort Sherman, Canal Zone, provides the RDT&E capability required to isolate the effects of a tropic environment on materiel being considered for Army use. During the past year the center planned, conducted, and reported on engineering design, engineering, check, confirmation, and surveillance tests. Considerable personnel support was required in order to test more complex materiel items. In addition, the center performed exposure tests on such items as paint, metal, cloth, and electronic components, as a service to developers. An extensive research program on the natural physical and biological environments of the Canal Zone, begun under the auspices of the Army Research Office and the Advanced Projects Research Agency, is continuing as part of the Department of the Army's In-House Laboratory Independent Research Program.
The Military Construction Research and Development Program is directed toward the improvement of the economy and effectiveness of facilities design, construction activities, and operation and maintenance activities pertaining to the Army's existing and proposed real property assets. This program addresses the R&D needs associated with the operation and maintenance of permanent Army facilities valued at almost $55 billion, an annual Army new construction program of more than $0.5 billion under MCA appropriation, and an annual Army expenditure of $1.1 billion for operation and maintenance of existing facilities. The research, development, testing, and evaluation budget of $3.2 million for fiscal year 1972 allowed investigation into such areas as permanent construction materials and techniques, military construction systems development, engineering in cold environments, nuclear power applications, extraterrestrial research, and basic research in mili-
tary engineering and construction. Other related research activities included investigation into special problems associated with cold regions construction, environmental concerns, and hardened facilities design and construction.
Significant progress has been achieved in many areas, including industrialized construction of bachelor enlisted quarters and bachelor officer quarters; nondestructive testing techniques for airfield pavements; increased automation in the control of wastewater treatment plants; control of cracking in pavement overlays; economic studies of flooring materials; identifying, reporting on, and evaluating facility deficiencies; pavement construction in permafrost; defining standards for foundation design based on precise definition of frozen soil structural response to static and dynamic loads; handling sanitary wastes; and in the development of a computer-aided specification system.
In the area of environmental quality, gains have been registered in protecting the environment during contract construction operations. In addition, an extensive program for enhancing environmental quality in the construction and operation of military facilities has been developed with the co-operation of other defense agencies, the Environmental Protection Agency, federal, state, and local agencies, and the private sector. Implementation of this program is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1973.
Progress in the area of hardened facilities has led to the definition of stress-strain-time relations that govern ground shock in earth materials; development of analytical procedures for calculating the stresses and motions within earth masses induced by nuclear detonations; verification and establishment of confidence levels pertinent to the accuracy of free field prediction procedures for use in the design and analysis of protective structures; and improved procedures for the collection and analysis of empirical ground motion data.
In the Military Engineering Research and Development program, progress was made in research efforts designed to correlate the impact of soils, vegetation, and terrain variation on the performance of seismic sensors used for battlefield surveillance and anti-intrusion systems. A seismic sensor system mathematical model was developed that will vastly improve our ability to interpret sensor signals as to the seismic wave trains induced in soils by the passage of men and vehicles. The model has been validated through a series of field tests. In related developments, prototype seismic intrusion detector performance maps that will aid field commanders in the employment and emplacement of sensors and improve the interpretation of sensor signals were prepared for further testing in Europe.
Research has continued on new concepts for roadway base construc-
tion that employs a membrane-encapsulated soil layer as a substitute for high quality crushed rock or granular base course materials. Experimental sections of this type road are being field tested. This construction concept, as well as experimental thin-bonded, multilayered pavement sections, are being considered for use on alert runways at Air Force bases. It is estimated that utilization of these concepts could result in a saving in construction costs of approximately $20 million. Research also was initiated on the use of mechanical cutters and liquid explosives for rapid excavation of frozen ground and rock.
Development of designs for new military personnel shelters that resist specified overpressures induced by nuclear weapon blast continued during the year. "Stand-off" distance charts for the placement of triggering screens around and above protective structures for detonation of incoming enemy explosive rounds were also developed. A new series of alternative revetment designs was developed to protect parked aircraft and above-ground petroleum, oil, and lubricants storage. Studies on the terminal ballistic properties of frozen materials (snow, ice, and soil) for employment in fortifications and protective structures were continued.
Cratering tests to develop improved techniques for chemical explosive applications in military engineering and to simulate the effects of atomic demolition munitions so that crater prediction data related to weapon yield, depth of burst, geological conditions, and various borehole stemming techniques might be established and refined, were continued. In this regard, a series of chemical explosive cratering test shots, entitled DIAMOND ORE, was conducted at Fort Peck, Montana, during fiscal year 1972, and another phase will follow in fiscal year 1973. Another cratering series, called Middle Course, was initiated at Trinidad, Colorado, to establish cratering curves for sandstone and develop a tracer technique to determine radioactive fallout.
A major change in the Military Engineering Research and Development Program came with the establishment of the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). CONUS base plant facilities and mapping programs were transferred to DMA, while the Corps of Engineers retained responsibility for conducting research and development programs dealing with expansion of the technological base in the areas of mapping, charting, geodesy, and military geographic intelligence. (See Chapter IV.)
Substantial progress was made during fiscal year 1972 in the fields of surveillance, target acquisition, and night observation (STANO). Advances in far-infrared technology have reduced the size, weight, and complexity of thermal imaging sensors without sacrificing sensitivity,
to the point that night vision sights are now being developed to fit the periscopes currently used on combat vehicles. Work is under way on a TOW night sight that will permit nighttime use of this weapon at daytime ranges. The requirement document for the Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System (REMBASS) was refined, and contracts for investigation and developmental hardware models of selected REMBASS items were awarded. These models will be used to determine the best components for integration into the engineering development phase of this system. Also, the Army initiated engineering development of a countermortar radar, the AN/TPQ-36, and continued to develop a counterbattery radar, the AN/TPQ-37. Testing of these hostile weapons location devices is scheduled to begin in fiscal year 1975.
A number of gains were registered in the terminal homing program, which consists of four projects to direct fire to point targets at ranges extending from one forward edge of the battle area back to the enemy's rear area.
Work continued on laser illuminator/designator units capable of being hand held, ground mounted, or borne by helicopters. 'The feasibility of using such designators with direct and indirect fire weapons launched from the ground or by helicopter was demonstrated in a successfully concluded exploratory development program.
Funds were expended to initiate the development of hand-held and ground-mounted laser illuminator/designators and to define system integration for the airborne designator.
The Cannon Launched Guided Projectile (CLGP) project has the objective of developing terminal laser guidance that will enable 155-mm. projectiles to hit stationary and moving tanks and armored personnel carriers. Two contracts for a feasibility demonstration of the CLGP were awarded in February 1972. Phase 1 (15 months) includes component manufacture and testing. Phase 11 (10 months) will consist primarily of fabricating and testing twelve fully functional prototype projectiles from each contractor.
The Heliborne Fire and Forget Missile (Helifire) is being developed to provide current and future attack helicopters with the capability to attack both stationary and moving targets. During fiscal year 1972, flight and operational tests were initiated which will determine the technical and operational effectiveness of the laser guided missile system.
Radar area correlation, the fourth terminal homing project, is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of configuring radar area correlation components in a helicopter-borne correlator to enhance the accuracy of the Pershing and other missile systems. If the prototype
program proves successful, radar area correlation will be demonstrated on actual missile flights.
Close interservice co-operation in the terminal homing program assures that test, technical, and operational data are exchanged. For example, the Army's lasers are co-ordinated with the other services in such technical aspects as frequency and pulse width in order to provide a capability for guiding Air Force and Navy missiles, as well as Army ordnance.
Following approval by Congress of a $35 million action for restructuring the Cheyenne program and the signing of new contracts in August 1971, rapid progress was made in the development of the Advanced Aerial Fire Support System. The first TOW missile was fired from the Cheyenne at night on September 28, 1971. Successful preliminary evaluation tests of the TOW missile system and night vision systems were completed in February 1972, while successful operational tests of the Cheyenne were concluded in May 1972. Concurrent with the very active flight testing of the Cheyenne, the final design and fabrication of the advanced mechanical control system was completed. Installation of the new system on the Cheyenne had not been completed by the end of the year.
Congress terminated the XM803 (MBT70) tank development program in December 1971, but appropriated $20 million for the establishment of a new program designed to produce a less sophisticated, less complex, and less costly tank than envisaged under the discontinued program. Every effort is being made to insure that maximum benefits are derived in developing the new tank from the investment made in the XM803 and predecessor programs, for which $305.1 million had been expended in research and development costs, in developing the new tank.
The four and one half year advanced development phase of the SAM-D system was successfully concluded early in 1972 with the functional demonstration of experimental system hardware performance by means of a combination of tests, simulations, and analyses. Following a review by the Defense System Acquisition Review Council and approval by the Deputy Secretary of Defense, the project entered the engineering development phase in late March. Progress to date has included the design release and fabrication of many hardware items.
In other missile system actions, the Stinger program entered full-scale development at the close of the fiscal year. This program is designed to replace the Redeye with an equally reliable and accurate but more versatile shoulder-fired air defense missile. It capitalizes on more than fourteen years of experience with Redeye and more than five years of advanced development of critical components applicable to
Stinger. Also, engineering and service tests were completed on the Lance delivery system. Due to Congressional action deleting funds for a conventional warhead, the development program for a nonnuclear Lance was halted in December 1971.
A number of significant actions relating to ongoing helicopter projects were taken during the year. The heavy lift helicopter (HLH) component development program progressed satisfactorily, and by year's end negotiations were under way with Boeing-Vertol for the production of an HLH prototype. Following approval of the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) materiel need document, a contract was signed with General Electric Company for the development of the UTTAS power-plant. UTTAS airframe development proposals submitted by civilian contractors are still under consideration. During fiscal year 1972, twenty-two contracts involving seventeen separate projects in the Advanced Helicopter Development program were awarded, including four contracts for the development of a small turbine gas generator and another contract for the production and flight demonstration of two advancing-blade concept aircraft. Two joint Army and National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) projects were initiated during the year to further the advanced helicopter development effort. These were the Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft and the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) programs. Memorandums of Agreement were signed by the Army and NASA in November 1971 authorizing a joint development and testing effort. Preliminary design studies for the tilt rotor aircraft have been accomplished, and redesign (feasibility) study contracts for the RSRA awarded.
In fiscal year 1972 the Army began a three-year $35.7 million effort to evaluate improvements to current light observation helicopters in the scout role. Contracts were signed with Bell Helicopter Company and Hughes Tool Company in May 1972. Each contractor will provide three advanced development prototype aircraft designed to provide an improved target acquisition capability through stabilized optics, accurate position location through a computerized navigation subsystem, and improved durability. A complementary effort will evaluate night vision sensors. Upon completion of prototype testing and night sensor evaluation, one airframe and selected subsystems will undergo an engineering development program prior to production of the improved aerial scout.
In January 1972 a special task force was formed within the United States Army Combat Developments Command to conduct an evaluation of advanced attack helicopter requirements. The mission of the task force was later expanded to include preparation of a draft decision co-ordinating paper for the advanced attack helicopter project. Task force activities included flight testing of the Blackhawk, Cheyenne, and
King Cobra prototype attack helicopters, analyzing field experimental results and program costs, and preparing quantitative studies. At the close of the fiscal year, the task force was on schedule in meeting the July 1972 deadline for submission of its recommendations.
Several major hurdles were overcome in the Mechanized Infantry Combat Vehicle program during the year, which moved from the validation phase to the initiation of engineering development in April 1972. Requests for proposals were subsequently released to industry, but selection of a contractor had not been made at year's end. The major developments in the Armored Reconnaissance Scout Vehicle (ARSV) program came in October 1971 when the Deputy Secretary of Defense approved the program, and in May 1972 when the Army awarded contracts to the Lockheed Corporation and the Food Machinery Corporation to produce prototype vehicles. Lockheed will develop a wheeled version of the ARSV, Food Machinery Corporation a tracked version.
In other development activities during the year, extensive preparations for a competitive evaluation of the Vehicle Rapid Fire Weapons System (Bushmaster) among three participating weapons companies were completed; contracts were awarded for the production of ten prototypes of a Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW) that would have an effective range of 800-1,100 meters arid weight, with a 200-round load, 17-21 pounds; and, with regard to the Family of Military Engineer Construction Equipment (FAMECE), competitive prototyping contracts were awarded for the fabrication of grader, scraper, and power modules. Also, in. the area of Army Tactical Data Systems (ARTADS), research and development acceptance tests were completed on the Tactical Fire Detection System (TACFIRE), and engineering and expanded service tests were initiated. TACFIRE will automate both tactical and technical fire control functions and promises to increase greatly the accuracy, responsiveness, and effectiveness of fire support. During the year, development continued on two other important members of the ARTADS family, the Air Defense Control and Coordination System (AN/TSQ-73) and the Tactical Operations System (TOS).
Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense
A more flexible Advanced Ballistic Missile Defense (ABMD) program has been developed to permit easy modification in the event that the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) talks lead to limitations on ABMD research and development projects. The program can also be stretched out should treaty ratification result in decreased emphasis upon ABMD and cuts in budgetary support.
Numerous projects relating to the ABMD program registered gains
during the year. In the area of designation and discrimination techniques, a preliminary set of engagement specifications was published that- set forth requirements for resource allocation, radar scheduling, and passive discrimination. Detailed design for an L-band solid state radar was completed and a 32-element fractional array was constructed and successfully tested. In March 1972, Upstage, the major test vehicle for advanced interceptor development with reference to the terminal defense mission, underwent successful flight testing. Also, preliminary vulnerability and hardness levels were determined for both terminal and area interceptors, and a multiburst fratricide study was initiated and lethality assessments completed for re-entry body designs.
The Advanced Ballistic Missile Agency's Data Processing Testbed was established to serve as the focal point in the development and verification of program software. A key component of the facility is a sophisticated threat simulator (SETS) that simulates battle scenarios-including re-entry vehicles, decoys, junk, ground clutter, interceptors, and nuclear effects-and validates the application of data. During the year a data link connecting the testbed with the Hard Point Defense Acquisition Radar (HAPDAR) at White Sands Missile Range was established that permits field test simulations to be run to validate operational software in real time.
In other developments, significant progress was made in preparing the Kiernan Reentry Measurement Site (KREMS) test complex in the Kwajalein Atoll for the impending flight test program; a new concept solid propellant engine with both thrust modulation and thrust vector control was successfully fired; and the design of a homing interceptor terminal (HIT) was completed and construction of a prototype model for testing begun. Work also continued on the development of a real time data processor; design and development of the Midcourse Airborne Target Signature (MATS) sensor system were completed and final hardware environmental checks initiated; and a study was begun to evaluate the applicability of various advanced laser concepts in support of area defense.
The U.S. Army has been co-operating with its British, French, and German counterparts in testing and evaluating low altitude air defense systems. During the past year, testing and evaluation of the French Crotale system has been completed; the Javelot demonstration program, a joint U.S.-French effort, went forward; and testing on the British Rapier was initiated. The French-German Roland II system is scheduled for testing in January 1973. A management plan has been developed to assure an orderly and timely selection of air defense system
candidates that satisfy low altitude Field Army Air Defense System requirements. Should the decision be made to field a foreign system, the Chief of Research and Development has proposed that eligible U.S. licensees of the foreign companies involved compete for contracts.
The successful completion of the U.S. Ribbon Bridge development program late in the fiscal year provided a significant advance in the rapid crossing of water obstacles. This program is of great interest to certain members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, who are co-operating in developing a bridge erection boat to be used in ribbon bridge construction. Prototype tests were initiated on two United States boats and one each from France, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany. Testing will be completed in fiscal year 1973.
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Last updated 27 August 2004