Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1972
Intelligence and Communications
Beginning with the reorganization of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence (OACSI) in July 1971, which reduced the number of directorates from five to four and the number of offices from three to two, Army intelligence activities underwent a series of changes during fiscal year 1972. The principal catalysts for change were reductions in the Army's intelligence and security appropriation and the organization of new Department of Defense agencies which took over a number of intelligence functions that had been the Army's responsibility.
Despite retrenchments, the Army's intelligence effort did break new ground during the year. In December 1971, the Vice Chief of Staff gave partial approval to the United States Army Combat Developments Command (USACDC) contract study GIANT-75 as a conceptual base for the future development of topographic and military geographic intelligence support to the Army in the field. The GIANT-75 concept proposes the centralized compilation and major revision of an annotated thematic data bank of topographic information in the continental United States and provides a base for GIANT-85, a study designed to identify topographic support requirements in the 1975-85 time frame. The GIANT-85 study was forwarded to Headquarters, Department of the Army, by USACDC for review and approval. The future implementation of the GIANT concept will enhance the timeliness and the flexibility of topographic and military geographic intelligence support to deployed forces.
In July 1971, the U.S. Army Intelligence Systems Support Detachment (USAISSD) was formed in response to a Chief of Staff directive instructing Army staff' agencies to establish Class II activities in support of automatic data processing (ADP) life cycle actions and Army Management Information Systems objectives. The mission of the USAISSD is to improve ADP field guidance, produce standard software products for Army Intelligence Data Handling Systems (IDHS) worldwide, and develop and operate a Department of the Army IDHS to satisfy intelligence requirements of the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff. The detachment will become operational during fiscal year 1973.
July 1971 also marked the establishment of policies, responsibilities,
and procedures for the Department of the Army Human Resource Intelligence Collection System. The new system, known as The Army HUMINT System, revamped the Army's program for collecting, evaluating, correlating and disseminating intelligence information, activities that are authorized under the National Security Act of 1947, as amended. Care is taken to insure that Department of Defense policies designed to protect individual rights to privacy and dignity (outlined in last year's report) are observed. Congressional cuts in fiscal year 1972 appropriations reduced HUMINT's manpower resources by 16 percent and operational and maintenance support by 13 percent. These decrements resulted in the inactivation of the 531st Military Intelligence Company at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, and in commensurable reductions in HUMINT capabilities throughout the Army.
The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) was established on January 1, 1972, following a presidential decision to consolidate Department of Defense mapping, charting, and geodetic operations in a single agency. The goal of consolidation is to obtain optimum efficiency and economy without impairing the legitimate requirements of each service. The DMA became fully operational at the end of fiscal year 1972 following a six-month transition period during which the new agency organized and assumed certain mapping, charting, and geodesy functions previously performed by the services. Generally, the services retained military topographic units and some basic research and development capability, while the remainder of their resources were transferred to the DMA. The Army transferred the U.S. Army Topographic Command, the U.S. Army Engineer School's Department of Topography, and the Inter-American Geodetic Survey to the DMA, but retained its topographic troop units, Engineer topographic laboratories, and staff elements in the OACSI, the Office of the Chief of Engineers, and the Office of the Chief of Research and Development that have mapping, charting, and geodetic responsibilities.
The Director, DMA, is the program manager and co-ordinator of all Department of Defense mapping, charting, and geodesy resources and activities, including review of the execution of all Department of Defense plans, programs, and policies for mapping, charting, and geodesy activities not assigned to the DMA. The Army develops and submits Army mapping, charting, and geodesy requirements to the DMA, assesses the responsiveness of the DMA to the Army's operational needs, and co-ordinates with the DMA all programs and activities related to mapping, charting, and geodesy.
Consolidation of investigative activities at higher levels went a step further with the establishment of the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), which was charged by the Secretary of Defense with responsi-
bility for conducting, directing, and controlling all personnel security investigations for Department of Defense components in the fifty states and Puerto Rico. On May 1, 1972, DIS assumed control of the Department of Defense National Agency Check Center, the Defense Central Index of Investigations, expanded national agency checks, and personnel security investigations. DIS will become fully operational in fiscal year 1973.
The establishment of DIS will cause a sharp reduction in Army responsibilities for conducting personnel security investigations. Approximately 45 percent of the personnel and assets of the United States Army Intelligence Command will be transferred to the new agency. The Army will continue to engage in certain counterintelligence functions, including: complaint and limited investigations stemming from allegations of adverse loyalty and subversive activity not developed during the conduct of personnel security investigations; counterespionage, countersubversion, and countersabotage investigations; personnel security investigation leads for DIS outside that agency's jurisdiction; and certain security services, including counterintelligence surveys and inspections, technical security surveys and inspections, and security education and assistance.
In the matter of security, during late 1970 and early 1971 several incidents of unauthorized disclosure of information that had been classified in the interest of national security prompted the President to initiate action to review the system used to identify, annotate, and safeguard this type of information. Anticipating a change in national policy, the Army acted to improve its own security posture. Early in the fiscal year the Army reviewed and screened each Top Secret clearance held by its military, civilian, consultant, and contractor employees. Top Secret clearances were administratively withdrawn from employees who no longer required access to highly classified information, the result being a reduction in the number of Top Secret clearances from 152,000 to 99,000. Also, OACSI personnel worked closely with officials of the Office of the Secretary of Defense to review and analyze the impact which suggested changes in the classification, declassification, and safeguarding system would have on Army operations.
On March 8, 1972, the President signed Executive Order 11652. The new order, the product of nearly nine months of study and deliberation, established a new system for the classification and declassification of national security information and material. The basic objectives of the new policy were to inform the public, classify less information, declassify information at a more rapid rate, and provide better protection for information that bears on national security interests.
One of the first measurable results of Executive Order 11652 was a reduction in the numbers of officials authorized to classify information
originally. By June 30, 1972, Department of the Army had reduced the number of its officials with original classification authority, in approximate numbers, as follows: Top Secret -79 to 61; Secret- 1,933 to 1,307; and Confidential-14,249 to 2,743. OACSI personnel are continuing to work with Office of the Secretary of Defense security personnel in reviewing draft National Security Council directives and in preparing instructions for the implementation of the Executive Order throughout the Department of Defense.
In response to a program announced by the President in 1971 to declassify records created by the federal government during the World War II period, the Adjutant General and the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, initiated a project employing Army Reserve officers on annual training to review and declassify Army-originated intelligence records of the prewar and World War II periods. Three expert declassification consultants were also engaged to review all World War II records, except the intelligence collections, and to identify records that could be declassified in bulk and by record series, and those items that would require a paper-by-paper review. Army Reserve officers reviewed, on a paper-by-paper basis, the records series and items recommended for declassification by the consultants. By the end of fiscal year 1972 these actions had resulted in the review and declassification of over 8,000 linear feet of records, of which approximately 2,000 linear feet were prewar military intelligence files. The 27,000 linear feet of records involved were reduced by approximately 30 percent.
Executive Order 11652 gave additional impetus to the declassification program by providing that all material would be declassified automatically when 30 years old unless specifically exempted by the head of the issuing department. The National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, possesses extensive holdings of prewar and World War II records. The Army's portion is by far the largest and includes extensive collections of intelligence records which will require particular scrutiny.
While the Ground Mobile Forces Communications Development Concept Paper noted in last year's report has not yet been approved, research and development actions on the ground terminals for tactical satellite communications continued during the year. Prototype terminals were used in numerous tests that successfully demonstrated the capabilities and reliability of satellite communications. Contracts for engineering and service test models of multichannel super high frequency and net radio ultra high frequency terminals will probably be awarded during fiscal year 1974.
In the area of strategic satellite communications, the Defense Satellite Communication System (DSCS) continued to perform well on Phase I satellites, utilizing research and development terminals in an operational mode. Ground terminals were modified and upgraded for use in the initial test of two Phase II satellites, which took place in November 1971; however, the steerable narrow beam antennas failed to function properly, and neither satellite performed at full specification requirements. Progress on ground terminal research and development continued on schedule. The AN/MSC-60 heavy transportable terminal and the AN/MSC-61 medium transportable terminal, the first of a new family of terminals for use in the DSCS, should be in production during fiscal year 1974. Field tests were successfully completed on the AN/URC-61 spread spectrum modems, and preparations were completed for its distribution to the field.
The Joint Tactical Communication (TRI-TAC) Program is designed to fill the gap in tactical communications development caused by the discontinuation of Project Mallard, an international co-operative development program reported upon fully last year. Activity in the TRI-TAC program during fiscal year 1972 centered around a hybrid analog-digital tactical automatic switch (AN-TTC-39), a digital subscriber voice terminal, and associated communications security equipment. The Army was designated development and production procurement agency for the AN/TTC-39. Two switch prototype development contracts were awarded in June 1972. Evaluation of prototype models is scheduled for late 1973. As the program progresses the other services will also be assigned developmental responsibility for various TRI-TAC components. TRI-TAC equipment will be phased into the Army's inventory and will replace equipment currently procured for unilateral Army tactical multichannel communications programs.
An important step in moving from a manually operated, semiautomated telecommunications system to the technologically advanced system that will be required by the later 1970s was taken in October 1971, when Phase I of the Army Telecommunications Program (ATCAP) Concept Plan was approved. ATCAP will permit the Army to consolidate and automate message processing functions and facilities on an area basis, using modern communication and computer technology and existing military communication networks. Facilities scheduled for automation or consolidation will be upgraded to one of four established levels of sophistication-the first level will be a manual facility, while the remaining three will be automatic facilities with differing message processing and handling capabilities. After the plan is implemented, Army telecommunication centers will be able to process narrative and data messages and data bank information through use of
such diverse devices as cathode ray tubes, magnetic tapes, optical character readers, and high-speed page printers and collators. The type and level of services provided, depending upon individual user requirements, will include automatic and semiautomatic routing and message distribution.
Following a trip to Europe by the Secretary of the Army in October 1971, added impetus was given to a program designed to bring television transmissions originating in the United States to USAREUR in order to boost troop morale in Europe. The U.S. Air Force, the Department of Defense executive agent for American Forces Radio and Television service in Europe, had developed a phased plan to provide television coverage in Germany by 1974, but now the project completion is not anticipated until 1975 or later. Because of its interest and concern over troop morale, the Department of the Army agreed to accept program responsibility from the Air Force and procure and install all equipment for the last portion of the project. At the close of the fiscal year, final tasking of major commands for full project execution was awaiting congressional agreement.
When implemented the program will provide a microwave radio transmission system that will transmit television signals originating in the U.S. to sixty-nine television outlets. The signals will then be distributed to approximately 210 troop housing and dependent housing locations in Germany by ultra high frequency radio, cable, or a combination of both. This program will bring American television to some 90,000 Army troops, 45,000 dependents, and 4,000 Army civilian employees at the earliest possible time. It should significantly improve the morale of U.S. soldiers in Germany and their families by providing them a news, information, and entertainment medium comparable to that enjoyed by their stateside counterparts. The project will hopefully alleviate the lack of entertainment in many areas, keep personnel better informed, reduce barracks crime and racial tension, and help reduce drug use that may stem from boredom.
The Joint Tactical Air Control Systems/Tactical Air Defense Systems (TAGS/TADS) Interoperability Program seeks to provide joint and unified commanders with longer range detections, more time for threat evaluation and weapon assignment, and quicker response, as well as other increased capabilities that will accrue when the semiautomated tactical systems used by the services are interconnected through digital links to form a composite system. The program is administered by the Navy for the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
During the past three years, emphasis had been placed on developing the documentation needed to insure compatibility of the services' systems and to make certain that the capabilities of each system are
exploited for the common good. The success of this phase of the TACS/TADS program has made it possible to develop digital exchange capabilities for the composite system beyond those initially envisioned. The systems involved in the program, which include the Army Air Defense Command's Control and Coordination System, the Navy's Tactical Air Control System Control and Reporting Center/Post, and the Marine Corp's Air Command and Control System, are all on schedule. Actual testing of the systems' interoperability is scheduled for late in fiscal year 1973.
The Tactical Air Control Systems and Air Defense Systems involved in the TAGS/TADS Interoperability Program have common air surveillance, air traffic control, air support, and weapons control capabilities. Individually, the systems are limited in their capabilities by the coverage of their associated radars. By exchanging positional information through data links, the coverage available to commanders at each system is increased to that of the combined systems. Vastly increased coverage facilitates the handling of today's high-speed aircraft and will provide a significant increase in the capabilities for conducting offensive and defensive air operations.
Another program that involves those systems that will support ground and amphibious military operations (GAMO) in the 1980's was established by the joint Chiefs of Staff to achieve joint interoperability and operational effectiveness of automated tactical command and control systems. The Army is the executive agent for GAMO, and the Assistant Chief of Staff for Communications-Electronics has responsibility for the joint management of the program.
Although still in its conceptual phase, the GAMO program showed progress during the year. A GAMO Management Office was organized within the Electronics Directorate of OACSC-E to provide joint program management services. A Joint Management Committee composed of senior representatives from each service was organized and met monthly to review the program's activities, co-ordinate responses to actions initiated by the GAMO Management Office, and establish program priorities and policies. Also, a co-ordinating committee was formed to assist in developing the Interface Management Plan and the Technical Interface Concepts Plan. These documents will establish the management criteria, define management concepts, and indicate the general technical approach for the execution of the GAMO program.
A concentrated effort to study and improve the security afforded all Army electrical communications, initiated in 1971, led to the publication, in June 1971, of three new regulations that more clearly define and delineate the signal security functions of Army Staff agencies and the major commands. Also, on July 15, 1971, the Office of the Signal
Security Manager was established within the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Force Development. The new ten-man office, which became fully operational in December 1971, provides a focal point for the management of actions associated with improving the Army's signal security posture. In. addition to management functions, the office has or is undertaking a thorough review of cryptographic equipment development and procurement plans to insure that crypto needs are in accord with budgetary guidance; an in-depth determination of the status of communications security within the Army by types of communications media; a survey of Army educational programs and facilities to determine the adequacy of individual soldier and unit signal security training; and a review of crypto equipment assets that are available from the drawdown of Army forces in Southeast Asia to assure their reallocation to other Army units in accordance with established priority needs.
The Office of the Signal Security Manager also prepared the first Army Master Plan for Signal Security. The plan provides for integrated direction and over-all management of the Army's efforts to improve its signal security posture, implements signal security policies and the national communications security plans of the U.S. Communications Security Board, and establishes specific objectives that will enhance the combat effectiveness of the Army's tactical forces during the 1973-1978 time frame. The plan also provides for the development and implementation of a comprehensive signal security education program, an integral part of which is the tasking of unit commanders at all levels to improve signal security by increasing the awareness of all personnel to the threat posed by foreign communications intercept activities.
By the end of fiscal year 1972, the Army was already experiencing favorable results due to the actions taken to improve signal security. Procurement plans and objectives are better defined, distribution of security devices and their associated installation kits is well co-ordinated, utilization of communications security equipment has increased, and significant advances have been made in achieving the minimum acceptable security for the command and control of communications links of Army tactical units.
In other communications developments, upgrading and standardization of communications and terminal navigation aid facilities was completed at the first of ninety nontactical Army airfield and heliport installations. The remaining installations will be upgraded during the next three years. The Signal Operation Instruction (SOI) General Procedure is an automated system which has been approved for implementation in all active Army divisions except the 1st Cavalry. This procedure eliminates much of the work load of preparing new SOI's
by placing repetitive data on punch cards, and has the added advantage of enhancing communications security by permitting a more frequent change in SOI editions. Approval was also won for the transfer of certain communications, security, and logistical responsibilities from the U.S. Army Strategic Communications Command (USASTRATCOM) to the U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC). At the close of the fiscal year USAMC and USASTRATCOM were developing plans for the implementation of the change in responsibilities.
In the area of telecommunications standards, the Military Communications System Tactical Standards Committee (MCSTSC) was organized to develop military communications standards for tactical equipment and systems. The committee has prepared an outline and identified areas in tactical communications where standards will be developed. Also, work progressed on preparing for publication military communication standards that are common to both tactical and strategic communications, and arrangements were completed to transfer responsibility for operating the Environmental Data Collection and Processing Facility from the Bell Aerospace Company to the United States Army Communications-Electronics Computer Applications Agency, effective July 1, 1972.
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Last updated 27 August 2004