Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1971
Civil Works and Military Engineering
The Army; through the Corps of Engineers civil works program, has been the principal developer of the nation's water resources. Recent years have seen a change in public policy toward all resource development, with the recognition that this nation's natural resources are finite. Yet a growing population and an ever-advancing technology use water for a variety of sometimes conflicting purposes: navigation, flood control, hydropower, irrigation, municipal and industrial water supply, fish and wildlife, and recreation. The corps, in its planning, design, construction, and operating capacities, faces the task of weighing each project and its alternatives, balancing developmental and environmental considerations, and selecting the best solution to meet the needs and aspirations of the public.
The passage of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (PL 91-190) strengthened permit authorities (as set forth in Section 13 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899, known as the Refuse Act) for environmental protection. It also provided a firm legal basis for giving due weight to preservation and enhancement of the quality of the environment in connection with the corps' entire program.
The Refuse Act of 1899 makes it illegal to throw, discharge, or deposit refuse matter of any kind or description, other than that flowing from streets and sewers and passing from them in a liquid state, into any navigable waters or their tributaries. On December 23, 1970, the President issued Executive Order 11574, directing that the Secretary of the Army implement a program to administer the Refuse Act. Final regulations were published in the April 7, 1971, edition of the Federal Register. Application forms and a booklet instructing prospective applicants on how to apply for permits were distributed. Those parties currently discharging or depositing material into navigable waters or their tributaries will be required to apply for a permit by July 1, 1971. Parties found to be in violation of the Refuse Act or refusing to comply with the corps' permit program will be referred to the Department of justice for appropriate legal action.
The regulations require close co-ordination between the Army Corps of Engineers, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of the Interior, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis-
tration (NOAA). The EPA will advise the corps on the water quality standards applicable to a proposed discharge or deposit and on the impact which the proposed activities may have on water quality considerations. EPA may inform the corps of any limitations or conditions which must be included in any permit, and advise the Department of the Army to deny a permit for reasons relating to water quality.
The Department of the Interior and NOAA will advise the corps of any implications that proposed activities might have on fish and wildlife resources and may recommend that conditions for adequate protection of fish and wildlife be included in the permits granted. The Army's district engineers may deny any application which would have an adverse effect on anchorage or navigation.
The corps is currently developing an automatic data processing program to facilitate the processing of many thousands of permit applications expected by July 1, 1971. The program will be compatible with one being developed by EPA to monitor discharges and water quality in the nation's waterways.
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 requires that, with every project recommendation, a statement be submitted detailing the environmental impact, any adverse environmental effects, alternatives to the proposed action, the relationship between man's short-term uses of the environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long-term productivity, and any irreversible or irretrievable commitments of resources which would be involved. An economic, social, and environmental analysis for each possible alternative, including the status quo, must also be indicated. The Corps of Engineers-processed to the Council on Environmental Quality 195 draft and 155 final environmental statements as of April 31, 1971. Of these, 120 final environmental impact statements were for authorized civil works projects under construction or in operational status, as well as for permits issued in connection with corps regulatory functions.
In co-operation with the Office of Water Programs, EPA, the corps initiated a pilot wastewater management program to assist state and local agencies in the development of regional wastewater management systems for five of the nine largest urban centers in the United States. San Francisco Bay, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, and the Merrimack River Basin north of Boston were selected for early action programs based on expediting ongoing total water management studies of the Army Corps of Engineers. This effort, guided by the principle that pollutants are potential resources out of place, will allow for consideration of the reuse of the beneficial components of wastewater, the immobilization of heavy metals and viruses, and the production of high quality water through wastewater management. The practice of partially treating municipal and industrial discharges still requires the use of U.S.
rivers and lakes to dilute, assimilate, and accumulate chemical and viral wastes. Because many wastes previously not identified as pollutants are now recognized to have significant detrimental effects on the quality of the nation's waters, alternatives to using rivers and lakes as disposal areas for partially treated wastes will be assessed.
In the feasibility studies, each alternative system was evaluated on its ability to meet or exceed federal-state water quality standards. This evaluation also included consideration of pollutants not currently regulated by water quality standards. Subsequent studies will provide a complete analysis of the economic, environmental, and social effects of the more promising alternatives identified in the feasibility studies.
Construction and Management
The fiscal year 1971 appropriation for the Army Corps of Engineers water resources program was $1.310 billion, which covers investigations and surveys, planning, construction, and the operation and maintenance of flood control, river and harbor, beach protection, and hydroelectric projects. Construction activities were performed on 300 specifically authorized navigation, flood control, and multiple purpose projects during the fiscal year.
In 1824 Congress passed the forerunner of the River and Harbor Acts, under which the Corps of Engineers has developed and maintained the nation's waterways for navigation and related purposes. The program now consists of three major elements: coastal harbors and channels, Great Lakes harbors and channels, and inland and intracoastal waterways. To date, the corps has improved in varying degrees some 22,000 miles of inland and intracoastal waterways, a vast majority of which are currently in commercial use. Latest available statistics indicate that foreign and domestic traffic on inland waterways increased 3.9 percent during fiscal year 1971 to establish a new record of 302.9 billion ton-miles.
Nationwide flood control activities were made a function of the Corps of Engineers in 1936. The 1936, 1938, and 1944 Flood Control Acts also assigned to the corps responsibilities for considering and proposing multiple water uses including hydropower, water supply, recreation, and fish and wildlife. Subsequent legislation has expanded the civil works program and added such functions as water quality control and flood plain information service.
Since 1936 the Army Corps of Engineers has completed more than 726 flood control projects. In addition to major reservoir projects, 120 specifically authorized projects were under construction during fiscal year 1971 to provide flood protection to local communities. Many small projects were also constructed under general authorities.
Although the flood control works have performed as intended, other factors, mainly in the acceleration of building and other flood plain encroachments, have led to increasing flood losses. To counteract this trend the corps is encouraging state and local authorities to adopt flood plain land use regulations. Flood plain information essential to regulatory actions has been provided under the Corps Flood Plain Management Services Program for over 1700 locations throughout the nation. Of these areas, 398 have adopted or strengthened land use regulations and 720 more are either studying or in the process of adopting regulations. In addition, some 12,000 corps responses to other requests for flood hazard information is influencing land use at thousands of building sites.
Fifty-three projects located in twenty states generate hydroelectric power. At the end of the fiscal year, a total of 12 million kilowatts of generating capacity was in operation, representing 3.8 percent of the total generating capacity of the nation.
Water-oriented recreational activities attract more visitors to corps projects than to any other federal lands. In calendar year 1970 more than 276 million visits were recorded. Typical recreation facilities include tent and trailer sites, picnic areas, boat launching ramps, swimming beaches, and sanitary facilities, as well as visitor centers and overlooks. Public use areas of reservoirs are either operated by the corps or leased to states and counties for public park and recreation use.
Construction on the $1.25 billion multiple-purpose McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System in Arkansas and Oklahoma was essentially completed in December 1970. The remaining five locks and dams were placed in operation, opening the waterway to Catoosa, Oklahoma, the port facility of Tulsa. Approximately 3 million tons of commodities were transported on the previously completed portion of this navigation project during calendar year 1970. In addition to the navigation feature, the project provides for flood control, hydroelectric power, low-flow regulation and opportunities for water-oriented outdoor public recreation.
On January 19, 1971, President Nixon announced the decision to halt construction on the Cross-Florida Barge Canal. The Chief of Engineers immediately directed the district engineer at Jacksonville to suspend work on all contracts as well as hired labor construction work. Two contracts were subsequently terminated; on March 4 work on the three remaining contracts were reinitiated, with the concurrence of the Council on Environmental Quality, to leave the areas affected by these contracts in a safe condition or to mitigate adverse environmental effects. A contract to restore the area of the terminated work to its original condition has been proposed. To implement cessation of work on the project, studies were being conducted by the Department
of the Army and the Council on Environmental Quality to develop recommendations for the future of the area.
Measures to insure the safety of structural components of the corps' civil works projects do not end with the successful accomplishment of design and construction. There is a continuing need for periodic surveillance of the behavior and condition of completed structures to insure their structural stability, safety, and operational adequacy, especially when failure or partial failure would endanger human life or cause substantial property damage.
In 1965 the corps established formal procedures for a continuing program of inspection and evaluation of completed structures, as well as for those under construction. Such evaluations, based upon periodic inspections and supported, where appropriate, by programs of instrumentation, are conducted to detect conditions of significant structural distress and to provide a basis for timely initiation of restorative and remedial measures.
Selection priority for establishing inspection programs for completed structures is on the basis of their size and importance and the potential hazard they present. The first general field inspection of newly built structures is carried out immediately after topping out for earth and rockfill dams and embankments, and not later than one year after the project has been placed in service for concrete dams and other structures. Subsequent inspections are scheduled at one- to five-year intervals, depending on the type of structure and its condition at the last inspection.
From 1965 through June 30, 1971, approximately 400 initial inspections and 150 subsequent inspections were conducted on existing major civil works structures. This program made possible early detection of abnormal behavior, which enabled construction of less costly remedial works than if constructed at a later stage of structural deterioration, and averted possible structural failure or partial failure.
The Army Engineers provided disaster assistance in the San Fernando area of California following the February 9, 1971, earthquake. The damaged area extended from the epicenter near Newhall, California, about twenty-six miles southeast through a heavily populated area to the Los Angeles city center. There were 64 people killed and 881 injured. Damage to public and private property was estimated at $436 million.
The Los Angeles district engineer responded immediately to a request from the city of Los Angeles for assistance in rescuing persons trapped in the debris of the Veterans Administration hospital at Sylmar. Under the Corps of Engineers flood fighting authority of Public Law
84-99, water was drained from the severely damaged Lower Van Norman Water Supply Reservoir.
In response to a request from the Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) under Public Law 91-606, the corps immediately began a survey of the damaged area. The survey included assessment of damages to utilities: water, power, gas, and sewage. Responding to additional requests from the OEP, the corps provided temporary surface water lines to communities without water, and began repairing and restoring sewer and water lines, streets and sidewalks, and demolishing and removing condemned buildings. As of June 30, 1971, these disaster assistance activities of the Los Angeles Engineer District under PL 91-606 totaled about $10 million.
In February 1971, the Army Corps of Engineers initiated a program (Operation Foresight) of advanced flood emergency operations under PL 84-99 in those areas of the northern states and Alaska having a flood potential due to the above-normal snowpack. Corps personnel placed increased emphasis on observations of flood potential; maintained liaison with other federal, state, and local agencies; and accomplished advanced flood emergency planning including construction of levees, channel clearing, and bank protection, as well as furnishing equipment and supplies. The flood control works constructed under a similar program in 1969 were inspected and, if required, maintenance measures were taken to assure adequate functioning. The total program was accomplished at a cost of $4 million.
The Army continued its participation in the Federal Water Resources Council's nationwide program of comprehensive river basin regional and framework water and related land resources studies. The Corps of Engineers furnishes members to the interagency co-ordinating studies. One framework study has been completed, eleven are in progress, and seven are under consideration. Ten river basin or regional studies have been completed by field-level co-ordinating committees, eight are in progress, and six more are under consideration. The reports submitted by the committees contain recommendations for water and related land resource development to meet the needs of both the near and distant future. As far as specific projects are concerned most of the preauthorization planning is done entirely in the corps, working with the local interests.
As a result of the governmentwide planning, programing, and
budgeting system (PPB), the Army Corps of Engineers adopted a regional approach to multiyear investment planning. The nineteen regions are broken down into 131 river basins, and for each river basin, needs are projected for urban flood damage reduction, rural flood damage reduction, water supply, commercial fisheries, recreation, navigation, and hydroelectric power.
The character and intensity of water resources problems and opportunities vary significantly among the major regions of the nation. Consequently, resource development needs and opportunities must be measured not only in physical terms but also in relation to the region's level of economic development and its concern for environmental restoration or preservation.
During fiscal year 1971, work continued on developing new, improved methodologies to estimate water resource needs in areas of major corps participation: flood control, water supply, navigation, water quality, and recreation. In addition to the work on improvement of needs estimates, attention in fiscal year 1971 was focused on developing a five-year survey program responsive to new and emerging national priorities. In this regard, information is being gathered that will provide a basis for orienting surveys to the resolution of water and related problems for the urban areas of the country. A five-year water resources investment program, reflecting the varying regional requirements, was submitted for consideration by the administration as a basis for selecting new construction and planning starts, and for allocating the funds available for civil works among nineteen major national regions.
The Secretary of the Army submitted his final report on the development of water resources in Appalachia to the Appalachian Regional Commission on April 12, 1971. The report is in response to Section 206 of the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965. The commission will submit the report and its views to the President, who will submit it in turn to the Congress.
The recommendations of the secretary are based upon studies made by the Corps Office of Appalachian Studies, with the co-operation of the Water Development Coordinating Committee for Appalachia, through which other federal agencies and the thirteen Appalachian states participated. This landmark effort in comprehensive planning was carried out in the context of inducing economic development in underdeveloped areas. The report recommends ten Corps of Engineers projects, Department of Agriculture upstream watershed and other programs, and a number of TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) projects.
The Omnibus Rivers and Harbors and Flood Control Acts of 1970 (signed by the President on December 31, 1970) authorize the Corps
of Engineers to construct, modify, or otherwise participate in the development of 32 flood control projects, 12 navigation projects, 1 beach erosion control project, and 2 multiple-purpose (including power) projects, all at an estimated federal cost of about $1.270 billion. The acts also include fifty-six sections providing for surveys in the interest of flood control, navigation, and beach erosion control; authorizing modifications to completed projects and changes in existing law; and authorizing special studies of existing projects.
Under the provisions of Section 201 of the 1965 Flood Control Act, the Senate and House Public Works Committees also approved by committee resolutions 28 projects (17 navigation and beach erosion control and 11 flood control), which individually have an estimated federal cost of less than $10 million with a collective total cost of about $395 million.
Civil Works Research and Development
With new directions in the planning and execution of the civil works program and work load, there is an increasing dependence on research to provide timely and practical solutions to water resources management problems. Accordingly, the civil works research and development program has grown significantly in scope and complexity in recent years, and presently encompasses a very broad spectrum of scientific and technical disciplines and interdisciplines in the fields of engineering and construction technology economics and other social sciences, and ecology and the environment. The program's funding for fiscal year 1971 was about $11 million.
During fiscal year 1971, engineering research continued on construction practices; soils, concrete, and other construction materials; and improvements in site exploration and design techniques to assure more economical construction of locks, dams, levees, floodwalls, and other structures (aiming for greater safety, longer service life, lower operation and maintenance costs, and more flood and earthquake resistance). Efforts are being made to improve the analysis of hydrologic data, with special emphasis on flood control, water supply, pollution abatement; navigation improvement, hydropower, and beach, shore, and riverbank protection.
While civil works research is still oriented primarily toward problems of engineering design, construction technology, and operation and maintenance of completed works, increasing attention is being given to the nonengineering aspects of plan formulation and evaluation, particularly with respect to economics, water quality, and aquatic biology and ecology. In support of the planning effort, the fiscal year 1971 program included research to improve flood plain management and de-
velopment; economic results of completed projects; recreation design criteria and demand analysis; physical and economic effects of impoundments and releases upon upstream and downstream water quality; water supply economics; economic analysis of requirements for deep-draft harbors; estuarine water quality; aesthetic criteria and evaluation of water resources projects; aquatic plant control studies; and fisheries engineering investigations.
Major increases in research efforts occurred in the biological, ecological, and environmental fields as applicable to coastal waters, reservoir impoundments, construction activities and effects, fish passage facilities at corps projects, and nationwide aquatic plant control. A relatively new field of endeavor for corps research is concerned with the improvement of operation and maintenance techniques. Subjects of research initiated in fiscal year 1971 were the development of better methods for determining depths to which varying densities of material are to be dredged; oil spillage removal; and hydrographic surveying.
The Institute for Water Resources continued to expand its research in social science, economics, and related disciplines, as they apply to the management of the nation's water resources. To improve comprehensive and long-range planning, all social costs and benefits associated with alternative courses of action are explored and evaluated. Concepts and methodologies for consideration of economic, social, environmental, and aesthetic values to be integrated into the planning process are being developed.
Corps field offices propose subjects for researchproblems encountered in planning, design, construction, and operation and maintenance of projects. Needs for specific studies in various research areas are determined by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, program requirements are established, and guidance and direction are provided to the research centers or other offices assigned the detailed planning and execution of research projects.
Latest available statistics, compiled in 1968, show that from 1956 to 1965 research expenditures of about $26 million produced directly traceable savings in design, construction, and maintenance costs of about $126 millionapproximately a 500 percent return on investment. This estimate is exclusive of less tangible benefits resulting from increased planning, design, and operating reliability, effectiveness, and safety, which are difficult to quantify.
On December 16, 1970, the U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) successfully excavated a 400-foot railroad cut with two parallel row shots containing forty-four tons of chemical explosives.
The experiment near the proposed Trinidad Dam on Colorado's Purgatoire River removed about 18,000 cubic yards of sandstone and shale to a depth of 15 to 20 feet with a bottom width of 46 feet. The experiment was part of a project to relocate the Colorado and Wyoming Railroad tracks around the dam site. Two additional railroad relocation experiments are being planned.
To identify suitable project sites for future chemical explosive excavation experiment programs, the Nuclear Cratering Group is evaluating the excavation requirements of about forty corps civil works projects. Project analysis has revealed the need to develop new excavation techniques for sidehill cuts and deep through cuts.
Co-ordination was completed to convert the cratering group to the Explosive Excavation Research Office, an activity of the Waterways Experiment Station, at the end of fiscal year 1971.
Army engineering efforts are divided into two major functional areas, public works and military engineering. Some activities are common to both fields, and one that has received special attention in both civil and military contexts is the environment. In response to the mandate placed, on federal agencies by executive orders, the Army published additional instructions and assigned staff responsibilities for environmental actions. Comprehensive programs were developed to control air and water pollution at Army installations. For the period from fiscal year 1968 through fiscal year 1973, $148 million was programed for air pollution control ($6 million in 1971) and $138 million for water pollution control ($29.5 million in 1971). A program was being developed during the past to control toxic emissions from vehicles, aircraft, and ships.
The Army placed restrictions on the use of certain types of pesticides, revised procurement regulations to implement many new environmental laws and policies, and began research to control noise. The Army won the Department of Defense Conservation Award for 1969, which went to Camp Pickett, Virginia, for outstanding progress in land, forestry, fish, and wildlife management.
The nature of many Army activities requires careful attention to environmental considerations, and environmental impact statements have been required of agencies responsible for a wide variety of programs. Statements that were submitted for review and evaluation included the impact of the Safeguard installations in Montana and North Dakota; the ocean-dumping of chemical munitions; the demilitarization of the chemical and biological munitions at several locations; the transfer of chemical munitions from Okinawa to Johnston Island;
missile testing at White Sands, New Mexico; and a variety of construction projects.
As part of a continuing program to seek improvements in military engineer troop organizations, a board of officers evaluated contemporary patterns and concepts of nondivisional Army engineer combat units during the year. The objective was to determine the modifications and changes required to provide the most effective combat engineering support within projected force structures, operational plans, and tactical and technical trends. New concepts were developed along with guidance for departmental staff agencies and major commands pertinent to advancement in the combat engineer support field.
A board also studied the structure of the engineer construction battalion, developing alternative organizations that would update requirements and accommodate new equipment and craft skills. Two of the patterns functionalized skills and equipment so that job proficiency could be improved through more effective skill development, utilization, and training. Construction operations of the new units were envisioned to be similar to those of civilian contractors but not identical because of self-defense, unit integrity, and personnel responsibilities peculiar to the armed forces. The two organizational alternatives will be evaluated by the U.S. Army Engineer School and in tests utilizing field troop units.
The new organizational concept for real property maintenance activities support in oversea theaters of operations, outlined in chapter 9, was approved during the year and the Combat Developments Command prepared to implement it. Real property maintenance activities would be transferred from theater Army service support elements to the Theater Army Engineer Command; three new Army engineer organizationsfacilities engineering team, group, and districtwould be developed and assigned to the Engineer command to provide the real property support.
The roles and assignment of the Theater Army Engineer Command in a theater of operations were also examined and modifications were made to provide a theater commander with a doctrinal base from which to refine the engineer support organization. Requirements for engineer command support were analyzed in the light of theater of operations experience, allocation of resources, priorities of projects, enforcement of standards, massing of support, and provision of technical advice. Adoption of recommended changes would require the engineer command to provide major support in troop construction, contract construction (when designated), real property maintenance, and base topographic support. Even more significant, the engineer
command would be assigned to theater Army headquarters rather than a support headquarters to facilitate planning, co-ordination, and control of theaterwide engineer support.
Military Engineering Research and Development
Research in military engineering methods and techniques to support the Army in the field was broadened and increased during the year. New design data for aircraft revetments were developed and disseminated to engineer units in the field. Prototype shelters providing overhead cover were constructed and tested. Thin-walled metal arch structures having a clear span up to eighty feet were included in the program. These structures were designed to support a two-foot-thick layer of concrete or five feet of earth on top of the shell providing protection from direct hits by most artillery, mortar, or rocket projectiles. The structures are sized to shelter existing Army aircraft models.
Research also continued to develop methods of locating covered sources of aggregates (gravels) in delta areas through analysis of various types of aerial and ground contact sensors. As indicated previously, excellent progress has been made to date in special construction materials maps which are being used to aid the highway program in Vietnam.
In conjunction with the Air Force and the Federal Aviation Administration, Army engineers developed permanent pavement design and evaluation criteria applicable to the Air Force C-5A and other multiwheeled and very heavy jumbo aircraft. Development of criteria for expedient pavement surfacing of airfields for such aircraft in theaters of operations was continued. Reports indicate that present design theories and practices are adequate for portland cement concrete pavements, but joints require special care to prevent failure. Previous practices were conservative for asphaltic concrete pavements.
Research was continued to develop methodology for blowing the deck off a bridge by means of an explosion-produced water column. Methods of protecting against this form of bridge demolition were also investigated.
A pre-engineered collapsible and reusable battle-area bunker system which can be emplaced by a squad of men in under eight hours was developed and tested under simulated combat conditions. The system was entirely emplaceable without the use of special tools.
Research and testing was initiated to establish design schemes and construction techniques for protective triggering screens that would detonate incoming shells before they reached a fortification or protective shelter.
Research and testing also continued in nuclear construction en-
gineering under the Corps of Engineers portion of the Army's Nuclear Weapons Effects Research and Test Program. Reports and technical papers on nuclear cratering and on underground and underwater effects of nuclear weapons were published. These reports will be useful in the design and construction of ballistic missile systems and air defense missile employment. A long-range (five-year) Nuclear Weapons Effects Research Plan was published.
Equipment and Bridging
In August 1969, the Army decided to equip construction units with commercial items available off-the-shelf instead of with items designed and manufactured for military use. A pilot program was established to identify cost effectiveness, requirements, types, and characteristics and to evaluate candidate items. Procurement would be based on a standard two-step contract and with a multiyear purchase. At the same time, but as a separate contract, manufacturers would be invited to submit their technical proposals for repair parts support. Firms whose proposals were acceptable would be invited to quote on end items and end item support. Awards would be based on the price of the item package and would consist of two elements: a multiyear contract for commercial construction equipment end items, and an open-end contract for repair parts support. Organizational and maintenance support missions and functions for the commercial items would remain unchanged. Manufacturer's publications would be used for training, operation, maintenance, overhaul, inspection, repair, and parts.
A pilot program covering three items was approved during the fiscal year as follows:
25-ton crane shovel
October 15, 1971
July 15, 1972
1500-gallon asphalt distributor
December 31, 1971
August 1, 1972
20-ton dump truck
February 13, 1972
September 13, 1972
The Army's ability to cross wet and dry gaps by the use of tactical bridging has been improved. The development of a rapidly erectable floating structure known as the ribbon bridge proceeded to the point of product-testing in swift-running water. It can be easily linked together to form a continuous bridge, or sections may be used for rafts of various sizes and load capacities. The mobility of these units and their speed of assembly permit rapid assault crossing in support of combined arms operations.
Two sets of the medium girder bridge, developed by the British, were procured. When they are delivered early in fiscal year 1972, they will be tested by the Army. These bridges were made of high-strength alu-
minum alloy components that can be assembled and installed rapidly without the aid of heavy erection equipment. The use of helicopters to emplace the erected bridge is being tested by a joint British-American team.
Mapping and Geodesy
The U.S. Army Topographic Command (TOPOCOM) produced 1,073 new large-scale maps covering 214,600 square miles, and 313 new medium-scale maps covering 1,627,600 square miles during the past year.
TOPOCOM also continued to support the Project MASSTER test facility at Fort Hood. TOPOCOM developed a family of prototype military geographic intelligence products designed to assist battlefield unattended ground sensor activities and to support airmobile operations. These products are being furnished to Project MASSTER for evaluation.
TOPOCOM provided considerable support to NASA with regard to the space program. Work included preparation of Apollo landmark graphics, lunar surface exploration map data packages, simulator models for flight crew training, and a number of lunar topographic maps and photomaps. TOPOCOM also supported the Apollo Hasselblad and lunar topographic camera photography work connected with the topographic evaluation of landing sites and approach corridors for potential Apollo landing sites. Technical and scientific studies were conducted to determine the orientation of a terrain camera in a local lunar co-ordinate system.
TOPOCOM digitized over 150 sheets in the year. Each sheet is a recording on magnetic tape of elevation data at .01-inch intervals. Of the 467 sheets required to cover the continental United States, 302 were complete. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center is the primary user of the digital terrain data produced by TOPOCOM.
During May 1971 TOPOCOM produced a special block of digital terrain data covering a fire base area in Southeast Asia. These data are being used by the Army Materiel Systems Analysis Agency to prepare a scenario of the operations in the fire base area. This scenario is to support the Army position of rotary-wing air support versus the Air Force's fixed-wing air support. The subject was being considered by the Packard Committee as the year closed.
TOPOCOM continued to support Department of Defense requirements for more precise determination of horizontal and vertical control for specific locations on the surface of the earth.
Among major ground survey projects, the TOPOCOM completed a 600-mile traverse, accomplished by electro-optical means to one part per million accuracy, along the coast of California. Ties from
this line were made to coastal islands as well as across the San Andreas Fault to a National Ocean Survey precise traverse. Surveys in support of mapping were completed in Iran. Control survey support to gravity surveys was provided in New Mexico, Florida, Wisconsin, and Mexico. Continuing survey support was provided at the White Sands Missile Range as well as at the Arizona Test Range. Parties were fielded to establish astronomic positions at missile sites.
The trend toward satellite geodesy continued at an accelerated pace with TOPOCOM receiving four sets of Doppler receiver equipment during fiscal year 1971. Doppler-derived positions were obtained for sites in Turkey, the Falklands, Chile, Argentina, the Pacific, and Scandinavia, as well as for a number of U.S. sites. Participation in BC-4 optical satellite tracking was phased out.
The Department of Defense requirement for worldwide gravity coverage continued to be a top survey priority. In the United States, gravity surveys were completed by TOPOCOM in California, Florida, and West Virginia. Work continued in Arizona, New Mexico, Missouri, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Major survey areas outside the United States are Mexico, Iceland, Norway, and Finland, where TOPOCOM and the host countries are conducting co-operative surveys. A gravity survey of the near-shore waters of Norway was continued during the summer months, and underwater surveys in some U.S. waters were completed. Final tests of the Helicopter Gravity Measuring System were completed and the data were being evaluated as the year closed.
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Last updated 9 August 2004