Bibliography of Senior Officers
All of the Army’s senior officers have received brief mention in one or another of the standard biographical reference works. Principal among the general sources are the twenty-volume Dictionary of American Biography with supplements; Webster’s American Military Biographies; the various editions of Who’s Who in America, Who Was Who in America, and Who Was Who in American History—The Military; the Encyclopedia Americana and Encyclopedia Brittanica; and Current Biography.
Detailed military background is assembled in Francis B. Heitman’s Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 and Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789–1903; Thomas H. S. Hamersly’s Complete Army and Navy Register of the United States of America, 1776–1887; George W. Cullum’s Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military Academy and the official Army Register.
Supplementing these sources are the Army General Orders published from earliest times and the official biographical sketches prepared for public information purposes in more recent times.
Autobiographies and secondary works on the Army’s senior military officers provide the real substance on their lives and service. Understandably, the more prominent have received abundant attention (James Thomas Flexner has noted that published biographies of George Washington are as innumerable as the leaves in a forest), and in a select bibliography the problem becomes one of deciding what to leave out as well as what to put in. Unfortunately, other individuals of modest mien or quieter times may not have been appraised at all and have been disinclined to fill the void on their own. These individuals would make useful subjects for biographical attention; until they are treated, the listing that follows must remain incomplete. Some senior officers have published books. Although not autobiographical, they may provide some insight into their lives and have also been included in this bibliography.
Abrams, Creighton W., Jr.
Abrams, Creighton W., Jr. Vietnam Chronicles: The Abrams Tapes, 1968-1972. Edited by Lewis Sorley. Lubbock: Texas Tech Univ. Press, 2004.
Sorley, Lewis. Thunderbolt: General Creighton Abrams and the Army of His Times. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.
Bell, J. Franklin
Raines, Edgar F., Jr. "Major General J. Franklin Bell and Military Reform: The Chief of Staff Years, 1906–1910." 2 vols. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1976.
______. "Major General J. Franklin Bell, U.S.A.: The Education of a Soldier, 1856-1899." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 83 (Autumn 1985): 315-46.
Bliss, Tasker H.
Palmer, Frederick. Bliss, Peacemaker: The Life and Letters of General Tasker Howard Bliss. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1934.
Trask, David F. General Tasker Howard Bliss and the "Sessions of the World," 1919. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society 1966.
Bradley, Omar N.
Bradley, Omar N. A Soldier’s Story. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1951.
Bradley, Omar N., and Blair, Clay. A General’s Life: An Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983.
Whiting, Charles. Bradley. Illustrated History of the Violent Century. New York: Ballantine Books, 1971.
Brown, Jacob J.
Barbuto, Richard V. Niagara, 1814: America Invades Canada. Lawrence: Univ Press of Kansas, 2000.
Morris, John D. Sword of the Border: Major General Jacob Jennings Brown, 1775-1828. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 2000.
Chaffee, Adna R.
Carter, William Harding. The Life of Lieutenant General Chaffee. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1917.
Collins, J. Lawton
Collins, J. Lawton. Lightning Joe: An Autobiography. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.
———. War in Peacetime: The History and Lessons of Korea. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1969.
Coffin, Charles, comp. The Lives and Services of Major General John Thomas, Colonel Thomas Knowlton, Colonel Alexander Scammell, Major General Henry Dearborn. New York: Egbert, Hovery & King, 1845.
Dearborn, Henry. Revolutionary War Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775–1783. Edited by Lloyd A. Brown and Howard H. Peckham. New York: Caxton Press, 1939.
Erney, Richard Alton. The Public Life of Henry Dearborn. New York: Arno Press, 1979.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Ike, Abilene to Berlin: The Life of Dwight D. Eisenhower. . . . New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
———. Eisenhower: Soldier and President. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.
Childs, Marquis W. Eisenhower, Captive Hero: A Critical Study of the General and the President. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1958.
Clarfield, Gerard H. Security With Solvency: Dwight D. Eisenhower and the Shaping of the American Military Establishment. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1999.
D'Este, Carlo. Eisenhower: A Soldier's Life. New York: Holt, 2002.
Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War: 1943–1945. New York: Random House, 1986.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday & Co., 1948.
———. The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower. Edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Jr., et al. 9 vols. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970–78. The Chief of Staff, edited by Louis Galambos, 1978.
———. The Eisenhower Diaries. Edited by Robert H. Ferrell. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1981.
Eisenhower, John S. D. General Ike: A Personal Reminiscence. New York: Free Press, 2003.
Hatch, Alden. General Ike: A Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1944.
Lyon, Peter. Eisenhower: Portrait of a Hero. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1974.
Grant, Ulysses S.
Badeau, Adam. Grant in Peace: From Appomattox to Mount McGregor. Hartford: S. S. Scranton & Co., 1887.
Catton, Bruce. U. S. Grant and the American Military Tradition. The Library of American Biography. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1954.
______. Grant Takes Command. Boston: Little, Brown, 1969.
______. U.S. Grant and the American Military Tradition. Boston: Little, Brown, 1954
Fuller, John Frederick Charles. The Generalship of Ulysses S. Grant. Civil War Centennial Series. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929.
Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co., 1885–86.
———. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant. Edited by John Y. Simon. 8 vols. to date. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1982-95.
______. Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. 2 vols. New York: Webster, 1885-86.
Hyman, Harold M. "Johnson, Stanton, and Grant: A Reconsideration of the Army's Role in the Events Leading to Impeachment." American Historical Review 66 (October 1960): 85-100.
Lewis, Lloyd. Captain Sam Grant. Boston: Little, Brown, 1950.
Perret, Lloyd. Ulysses S. Grant: Soldier & President. New York: Random House, 1997.
Smith, Jean Edward. Grant. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Halleck: Lincoln’s Chief of Staff. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1962.
Halleck, Henry W. Elements of Military Art and Science. . . . New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1846.
———. International Law: or Rules Regulating the Intercourse of States in Peace and War. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1861.
Marszalek, John F. Commander of All Lincoln's Armies: A Life of General Henry W. Halleck. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 2004.
Cooke, Jacob E. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1982.
Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. New York: Penguin, 2004
Hacker, Louis M. Alexander Hamilton in the American Tradition. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1957.
Hamilton, Alexander. Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation. Edited by Richard B. Morris. New York: Dial Press, 1957.
———. The Works of Alexander Hamilton. Edited by Henry Cabot Lodge. 9 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1885–86.
McDonald, Forrest. Alexander Hamilton: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979.
Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.
Walling, Karl-Friedrich. Alexander Hamilton on War and Free Government. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 1999.
Harmar, Josiah. Outpost on the Wabash, 1787–1791: Letters of Brigadier General Josiah Harmar. . . . Edited by Gayle Thornbrough. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1957.
Peckham, Howard H. "Josiah Harmar and His Indian Expedition." Ohio State Archeological and Historical Quarterly 55 (1946): 227–41.
Johnson, Harold K.
McMaster, H. R. Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies That Led to Vietnam. New York: HarperCollins, 1997.
Sorley, Lewis. Honorable Warrior: General Harold K. Johnson and the Ethics of Command. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 1998.
Brooks, Noah. Henry Knox: A Soldier of the Revolution. . . . New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1900.
Callahan, North. Henry Knox: General Washington’s General. New York: Rinehart & Co., 1958.
Carter, Michael D. "Nationbuilding and the Military: The Life and Career of Secretary of War Henry Knox, 1750-1806." Ph.D. diss., West Virginia Univ., 1997.
Drake, Francis S. Life and Correspondence of Henry Knox, Major General in the Revolutionary Army. Boston: S. G. Drake, 1873.
Lonergan, Thomas J. Henry Knox: George Washington's Confidant, General of Artillery, and America's First Secretary of War. Rockport, Me.: Picton, 2003.
Thompson, John Mark. "Citizens and Soldiers: Henry Knox and the Development of American Military Thought and Practice." Ph.D. diss., Univ of North Carolina, 2000.
James, Dorris Clayton. The Years of MacArthur. 3 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1970, 1975, 1985.
Lisio, Donald J. The President and Protest: Hoover, MacArthur, and the Bonus Riot. 2d ed. New York: Fordham Univ. Press, 1994.
Lowitt, Richard, comp. The Truman-MacArthur Controversy. Berkeley Series in American History. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1967.
MacArthur, Douglas. Reminiscences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1964.
Perret, Geoffrey. Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life of Douglas MacArthur. New York: Random House, 1996.
Petillo, Carol Morris. Douglas MacArthur. The Philippine Years. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.
Macomb, Alexander. The Practice of Courts Martial. New York: Samuel Coleman, 1840.
Richards, George H. Memoir of Alexander Macomb, the Major General Commanding the Army of the United States. New York: McElrath, Bangs & Co., 1833.
March, Peyton C.
Coffman, Edward M. The Hilt of the Sword: The Career of Peyton C. March. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.
March, Peyton C. The Nation at War. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1932.
Marshall, George C.
Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. New York: Norton, 1990.
Frye, William. Marshall: Citizen Soldier. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1947.
Larrabee, Eric. Commander in Chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, His Lieutenants, and Their War. 1987. Reprint, Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 2004.
Marshall, George C. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976.
______. The Papers of George Catlett Marshall. Edited by Larry I. Bland and Sharon R. Stevens. Vols. 2-5. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1981-2003.
Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951.
Payne, [Pierre S.] Robert. The Marshall Story: A Biography of General George C. Marshall. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1951.
Pogue, Forrest C. George C. Marshall. 3 vols. New York: Viking Press, 1963-73.
———. George C. Marshall Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest C. Pogue. Lexington, Virginia: George C. Marshall Research Foundation, 1991.
Stoler, Mark A. George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. Boston: Twayne, 1989.
U.S. War Department. General Staff. Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1945, to the Secretary of War. Washington, D.C., 1945.
McClellan, George B.
Beatie, Russel H. Army of the Potomac. Vol. 2, McClellan Takes Command, September 1861-February 1862. Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo, 2005.
Hassler, Warren W., Jr. General George B. McClellan: Shield of the Union. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1957.
McClellan, George B. The Armies of Europe. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1861.
______. The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, 1860-1865. Edited by Stephen W. Sears. New York: Ticknor and Fields, 1989.
———. McClellan’s Own Story: The War for the Union. . . . New York: Charles L. Webster & Co., 1887.
Sears, Stephen W. George B. McClellan: The Young Napoleon. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1988.
Miles, Nelson A.
DeMontravel, Peter R. A Hero to His Fighting Men: Nelson A. Miles, 1839-1925. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1998.
Johnson, Virginia Weisal. The Unregimented General: A Biography of Nelson A. Miles. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1962.
Miles, Nelson A. Personal Recollections and Observations. . . . Chicago and New York: Werner Co., 1896.
———. Serving the Republic: Memoirs of the Civil and Military Life of Nelson A. Miles. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1911.
Wooster, Robert. Nelson A. Miles and the Twilight of the Frontier Army. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Palmer, Bruce, Jr.
Palmer, Bruce, Jr. The 25-Year War: America's Military Role in Vietnam. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1984.
Pershing, John J.
Palmer, Frederick. John J. Pershing, General of the Armies: A Biography. Harrisburg, Pa.: Military Service Publishing Co., 1948.
Pershing, John J. My Experiences in the World War. 2 vols. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1931.
Smythe, Donald. Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J. Pershing. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973.
______. Pershing, General of the Armies. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1986.
Vandiver, Frank E. Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing. 2 vols. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1977.
Ridgway, Matthew B.
Bacevich, A. J. "The Paradox of Professionalism: Eisenhower, Ridgway, and the Challenge to Civilian Control, 1953-1955." Journal of Military History 61 (April 1997): 303-34.
Ridgway, Matthew B. The Korean War: How We Met the Challenges. . . . Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1967.
———. Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956.
Soffer, Jonathan M. General Matthew B. Ridgway: From Progressivism to Reaganism, 1895-1993. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1998.
Rogers, Bernard W.
Rogers, Bernard William. Cedar Falls–Junction City: A Turning Point. Department of the Army Vietnam Studies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1974.
Schofield, John M.
Connelly, Donald B. "Political Soldier John M. Schofield and the Politics of Generalship." Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Houston, 2003.
Schofield, John M. Forty-six Years in the Army. New York: Century Co., 1897.
Scott, Hugh L.
Harper, James W. "Hugh Lenox Scott: Soldier-Diplomat." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1968.
Scott, Hugh L. Some Memories of a Soldier. New York: Century Co., 1928.
Eisenhower, John S. D. Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott. New York: Free Press, 1997.
Elliott, Charles Winslow. Winfield Scott: The Soldier and the Man. New York: Macmillan Co., 1937.
Johnson, Timothy D. Winfield Scott: The Quest for Military Glory. Lawrence: Univ. Press of Kansas, 1998.
Long, Laura. Fuss ’n’ Feathers: A Life of Winfield Scott. New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1944.
Mansfield, Edward D. The Life of General Winfield Scott. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co., 1846.
Peskin, Allan. Winfield Scott and the Profession of Arms. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 2003.
Scott, Winfield. Memoirs of Lieut.-General Scott, LL.D. New York: Sheldon & Co., 1864. Contemplated as a two-volume set; only one was published.
Sheridan, Philip H.
Hutton, Paul Andrew. Phil Sheridan and His Army. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1999.
Sheridan, Philip H. Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General, United States Army. 2 vols. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co., 1888.
Sherman, William T.
Andrews, Richard Allen. "Years of Frustration: William T. Sherman, the Army, and Reform, 1869-1883." Ph.D. diss., Northwestern Univ., 1968.
Athearn, Robert G. William Tecumseh Sherman and the Settlement of the West. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956.
Fellman, Michael. Citizen Sherman: A Life of William Tecumseh Sherman. New York: Random House, 1995.
Kennett, Lee. Sherman: A Soldier's Life. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
Lewis, Lloyd. Sherman: Fighting Prophet. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1932.
Liddell Hart, Basil Henry. Sherman: Soldier, Realist, American. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929.
Merrill, James M. William Tecumseh Sherman. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 1971.
Miers, Earl Schenck. The General Who Marched to Hell: William Tecumseh Sherman and His March to Fame and Infamy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1951.
Sherman, William T. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1875.
St. Clair, Arthur
St. Clair, Arthur. A Narrative of the Manner in Which the Campaign Against the Indians, in the Year 1791, Was Conducted, Under the Command of Major General St. Clair. The First American Frontier. 1812. Reprint. New York: Arno Press, 1971.
———. The St. Clair Papers: The Life and Public Service of Arthur St. Clair. . . . Edited by William Henry Smith. The Era of the American Revolution. 2 vols. 1882. Reprint. New York: Da Capo Press, 1971.
Wilson, Frazer Ells. Arthur St. Clair, Rugged Ruler of the Old Northwest: An Epic of the American Frontier. Richmond: Garrett & Massie, 1944.
Sullivan, Gordon R.
Sullivan, Gordon R. Portrait of an Army. U.S. Army Center of Military History, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991.
Sullivan, Gordon R., and Michael V. Harper. Hope Is Not a Method: What Business Leaders Can Learn From America's Army. New York: Random House, 1996.
Taylor, Maxwell D.
Kinnard, Douglas. The Certain Trumpet: Maxwell Taylor and the American Experience in Vietnam. Brassey, 1991.
Taylor, John M. General Maxwell Taylor: The Sword and the Pen. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1989.
Taylor, Maxwell D. Precarious Security. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1976.
———. Responsibility and Response. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
———. Swords and Plowshares: A Memoir. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1972.
———. The Uncertain Trumpet. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.
Flexner, James Thomas. George Washington. 4 vols. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1965–72. The Forge of Experience, 1732–1775 (1965); . . . in the American Revolution, 1775–1783 (1968); . . . and the New Nation, 1783–1893 (1970); Anguish and Farewell, 1793–1799 (1972).
———. Washington: The Indispensable Man. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1974.
Freeman, Douglas Southall. George Washington: A Biography. 7 vols. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1948–57.
Kwasney, Mark V. Washington's Partisan War, 1775-1783. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1996.
Marshall, John. The Life of George Washington, Commander in Chief of the American Forces . . . and First President of the United States. 5 vols. Philadelphia: C. P. Wayne, 1804–07.
Washington, George. The Diaries of George Washington, 1748–1799. Edited by John C. Fitzpatrick. 4 vols. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin & Co., 1925.
———. The Writings of George Washington . . . , 1745–1799. Edited by John C. Fitzpatrick. 39 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931–44.
Boyd, Thomas Alexander. Mad Anthony Wayne. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1929.
Gaff, Alan D. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 2004.
Knopf, Richard C., ed. Anthony Wayne, A Name in Arms: Soldier, Diplomat, Defender of Expansion Westward of a Nation. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1959.
Nelson, Paul David. Anthony Wayne: Soldier of the Early Republic. Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1985.
Preston, John Hyde. A Gentleman Rebel: The Exploits of Anthony Wayne. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1930.
Tucker, Glen. Mad Anthony Wayne and the New Nation: The Story of Washington’s Front-line General. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1973.
Wildes, Harry Emerson. Anthony Wayne: Trouble Shooter of the American Revolution. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1941.
Westmoreland, William C.
Furguson, Ernest B. Westmoreland: The Inevitable General. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1968.
U.S. Department of the Army. General Staff. Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, 1 July 1968 to 30 June 1972. Washington, D.C., 1977.
Westmoreland, William C. A Soldier Reports. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1976
Zaffiri, Samuel. Westmoreland: A Biography of General William C. Westmoreland. New York: Morrow, 1994.
Wickham, John Adams, Jr.
Wickham, John Adams, Jr. Korea on the Brink: A Memoir of Intrigue and Military Crisis. 1999. Reprint, Washington, D.C.: Brassey, 2000.
Hay, Thomas Robson, and Werner, Morris Robert. The Admirable Trumpeter: A Biography of General James Wilkinson. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1941.
Jacobs, James Ripley. Tarnished Warrior: Major General James Wilkinson. New York: Macmillan Co., 1938.
Shreve, Royal Ornan. The Finished Scoundrel: General James Wilkinson. . . . Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1933.
Wilkinson, James. Wilkinson: Soldier and Pioneer. New Orleans: Rogers Printing Co., 1935.
———. Memoirs of My Own Times. Philadelphia: Abraham Small, 1816.
Hagedorn, Hermann. Leonard Wood: A Biography. 2 vols. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1931.
Lane, Jack C. Armed Progressive: General Leonard Wood. San Rafael, Calif.: Presidio Press, 1978.
Wood, Leonard. Our Military History: Its Facts and Fallacies. Chicago: Reilly & Britton Co., 1916.
Wotherspoon, William C.
Birtle, Andrew J. "The U.S. Army's Pacification of Marindugue, Philippine Islands, April 1900-April 1901." Journal of Military History 61 (April 1997): 255-82.
Wotherspoon, William Wallace. The Training of the Efficient Soldier. Philadelphia: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1905
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