1 For an overview of this evolution, see Jonathan M. House, Toward Combined Arms Warfare: A Survey of 20th-Century Tactics, Doctrine, and Organization, Combat Studies Institute Research Survey no. 2 (Fort Leavenworth, Kans.: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1985). For an in-depth study, see John B. Wilson, Divisions and Separate Brigades, draft Ms, CMH.
2 This grade should not be confused with that of the electrical sergeant within the artillery. The legislation increasing the Corps' strength is published in WDGO 76, 28 Apr 1904. See also ARSO, 1905, p. 229, in ARSW, 1905, vol. 2. From 1903 to 1909 the chief signal officer's reports were published in volume two of the secretary of war's report. From 1910 to 1916 they were published in volume one.
3 ARSW, 1904, vol. 1, pp. 21-25.
4 WDGO 9, 6 Feb 1901, sec. 26.
5 ARSO, 1905, p. 228.
6 The system of schools was set forth in WDGO 115, 17 Jun 1904. The Army War College stood at the pinnacle, followed by the Infantry and Cavalry School, and then the special service schools, such as the Signal School. At the lowest level were post schools that provided elementary military instruction. See Nenninger, Leavenworth Schools, pp. 56-57.
7 Nenninger, Leavenworth Schools, p. 75; Clark, "Squier," p. 111.
8 Regulations governing the school are published in WDGO 140, 19 Aug 1905; WDGO 145, 16 Aug 1906; WDGO 211, 15 Oct 1907. See also A. C. Knowles, "The Army Signal School: The Training School of the New Combatant Arm," JMSI 43 (Jul-Aug 1908): 31-37. On Squier's service at the school, see Clark, "Squier," ch. 5.
9 ARSO, 1905, pp. 235-36. The stations given are those as of the end of 1905. See table in ARSO, 1905, p. 228, and reports of changes of station in the Report of the Military Secretary (the term from 1904 to 1907 for the position of The Adjutant General) in ARSW, 1906, vol. 1, pp. 568-71.
10 AR, 1904, par. 1594.
11 ARSO, 1907, p. 183.
12 For more on this unusual aspect of Signal Corps history, see Rebecca C. Robbins, "Carrying a Torch for Lady Liberty," Army Communicator 11 (Fall 1986): 40-43.
13 Field Service Regulations, United States Army (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1905), p. 21.
14 For a detailed discussion of these regulations, see John B. Wilson, "Army Readiness Planning, 1899-1916," Military Review 64 (Jul 1984): 60-73.
15 Cir 7, War Department, Signal Office, 11 Oct 1907.
16 ARSO, 1908, pp. 181-83.
17 See tables in ARSO, 1904, p. 3 85, and ARSO, 1905, p. 179.
18 ARSO, 1907, p. 180; Historical Sketch, pp. 50-51. Directives governing the installation of post telephone systems include WDGO 90, 12 Apr 1905; WDGO 110, 11 Jul 1905; WDGO 175, 21 Oct 1905; WDGO 97, 25 May 1906; and WDGO 219, 29 Oct 1907.
19 ARSO, 1904, p. 405; WD Cir 12, 31 Mar 1904.
20 John T. Greenwood, "The American Military Observers of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)" (Ph.D. dissertation, Kansas State University, 1971), pp. 500-545. No signal officers were sent, but two of the Army's observers later became chief of staff Peyton C. March and John J. Pershing.
21 ARSO, 1905, pp. 207, 242; ARSO, 1906, pp. 197-98; Dulany Terrett, The Signal Corps: The Emergency, United States Army in World War II (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1956), p. 16.
22 On communications during the Russo-Japanese War, see M. C. Sullivan, "Signal Service in Modern Warfare," Scientific American 91 (10 Sep 1904); C. McK. Saltzman, "The Signal Corps in War," Arms and the Man 46 (Apr 1909); and E. D. Peek, "The Necessity and Use of Electrical Communications on the Battle-Field," JMSI 49 (Dec 1911). All of these articles are reprinted in Scheips, ed., Military Signal Communications, vol. 2.
23 The award came about largely through the efforts of William Mitchell, who later published a biography of the former chief signal officer, General Greely: The Story of a Great American (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1936). See George M. Hall, "Renaissance Warrior," Army 38 (Dec 1988): 56. General Greely died quietly at his home in Georgetown, D.C., in 1935.
24 For a summary of Allen's career, see his obituary in USMA Graduates Report (1934), pp. 52-62. Greely's comments are quoted on p. 60. See also Cullum, Biographical Register. Allen was West Point graduate number 2438.
25 Leonard D. Wildman, "The Reconstruction of Communications at San Francisco," Army and Navy Life and The United Service 9 (Jul 1906): 1.
26 Phil Jordan, "The First Great San Francisco Earthquake," National Guard 44 (Feb 1990): 30.
27 According to GO 32, Hq, Pacific Division, 26 May 1906, Company A was not relieved until 1 June. The order is printed in ARSW, 1906, vol. 1, p. 161.
28 See Rpt, Maj Gen Adolphus W. Greely to the Military Secretary, War Department, 30 Jul 1906, published as Appendix A to ARSW, 1906, vol. 1, pp. 91-140. He gives these figures on p. 117. Wildman, on page 6 of his article cited in note 25 above, differs slightly in his statistics. He does not give the total number of telephone offices, but states that forty-six telegraph stations had been set up by 10 May.
29 Funston is quoted by Greely on p. 97 of the report cited above. Greely discussed "lines of information" on pages 116-17 of this report.
30 Norman M. Cary, Jr., "The Mechanization of the United States Army: 1900-1916" (M.A. thesis, University of Georgia, 1971), p. 24.
31 Wildman, "Reconstruction of Communications," p. 7.
32 Waldon Fawcett, "The Auto-Telegraph Car of the U.S. Signal Corps," The Army and Navy Magazine 14 (Mar 1906): 7-10.
33 Congress originally passed the Platt Amendment as part of the Army Appropriation Act of 1901. It was later ratified as a treaty between Cuba and the United States. See Allan R. Millett, The Politics of Intervention: The Military Occupation of Cuba, 1906-1909 (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1968), pp. 39-42.
34 Millett, Politics of Intervention, p. 122.
35 On the Signal Corps in Cuba, see George A. Wieczorek, "Field Wireless Operations in Cuba," Journal of the United States Cavalry Association 17 (Jan 1907): 526-29; William Mitchell, "Report of the Chief Signal Officer, Army of Cuban Pacification," dated 18 Nov 1906, in Serial no. 11, app. 6, Army War College, Monographs, Problem Reports, Army War College Studies, and Committee Reports ("Serial Set"), 1906-1909, RG 165, War Department General and Special Staffs, NARA. (An interesting aspect of this report is Mitchell's recommendations for the organization of signal units. He took issue with the Field Service Regulations, which did not provide for separate organizations to handle permanent and field lines.) ARSO, 1907, pp. 170-72; and the report of the Army of Cuban Pacification in ARSW, 1907, vol. 3, p. 348.
36 Company I's change of station from the Annual Report of The Adjutant General (hereafter cited as ARAG), 1909, in ARSW, 1909, vol. 1, p. 228. See also Mitchell, "Report of the Chief Signal Officer, Army of Cuban Pacification."
37 Medal of Honor Recipients, p. 374. For a brief description of the Mount Dajo operation, see the report of the Department of Mindanao in ARSW, 1906, vol. 1, pp. 278-79. See also Bowers Davis, "Mount Dajo Expedition," Infantry Journal 25 (Sep 1924): 250-56.
38 The details of Johnston's career were obtained from "Biographical Sketches of Former Signal Corps Personnel," an unpublished manuscript prepared by the Signal Corps Historical Division, Washington, D.C., in 1957. A copy is in the possession of Dr. Paul J. Scheips, who generously lent it to the author.
39 This unattributed quotation is taken from A. Lincoln Lavine, Circuits of Victory (Garden City, N.Y.: Country Life Press, Doubleday, Page, and Company, 1921), p. 107.
40 Articles on the buzzer include Charles McK. Saltzman, "Signal Troops in Campaign," National Guard Magazine 1 (Aug 1907): 399-402; Raymond Sheldon, "Experiments with the Cavalry Buzzer," Journal of the United States Infantry Association 4 (Nov 1907): 341-48; A. T. Ovenshine, "Should the Buzzer Be Issued to Troops of the Line?" Infantry Journal 6 (Sep 1909): 240-48.
41 Charles McK. Saltzman, "Signal Troops in Campaign," National Guard Magazine 1 (Sep 1907): 454. This is a continuation of his article cited above.
42 On the club's influence, see Herbert A. Johnson, "The Aero Club of America and Army Aviation, 1907-1916," New York History 66 (Oct 1985): 374-95.
43 Parkinson, "Politics, Patents, and Planes," pp. 259-61; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, ch. 4.
44 Memorandum, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1 Aug 1907. The memo is printed in Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 80, n. 6. The Air Force considers 1 August 1907 to be its official birthday. On Squier's role, see Clark, "Squier," chs. 5 and 6.
45 Parkinson, "Politics, Patents, and Planes," p. 255; ARSO, 1908, p. 210.
46 Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 80-81.
47 The Wrights maintained a high degree of secrecy about their invention, especially prior to their receipt of a patent in 1906.
48 Fred Howard, Wilbur and Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), p. 230; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 144-46. The specifications are published as Appendix 6. Clark, "Squier," pp. 136-38, discusses Squier's role in preparing the specifications.
49 Dated 21 January 1908, these specifications are published as Appendix 3 to Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings.
50 Report of the Board of Ordnance and Fortification, 1908, in ARSW, 1908, vol. 2, pp. 262, 266-67. See also Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 148-50.
51 Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 147-48.
52 Ibid., ch. 8; Merle C. Olmsted, "Dirigible Balloon #1: A History of the First U.S. Military Powered Aircraft," Military Collector and Historian 26 (Fall 1974): 149-52; ARSO, 1912, p. 964. Baldwin had worked with but was not related to Ivy Baldwin, who had previously served with the Signal Corps (see ch. 3). For more on Baldwin, see Crouch, Eagle Aloft, ch. 16. Howard, Wilbur and Orville, also contains considerable information about Thomas Baldwin. During World War I, Thomas Baldwin received a commission as a major and served as balloon inspector for the Army in Akron, Ohio (Crouch, Eagle Aloft, p. 529).
53 For details of Selfridge's aeronautical work, see Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, ch. 11; Robert V. Bruce, Alexander Graham Bell and the Conquest of Solitude (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1973), ch. 32; Howard, Wilbur and Orville, chs. 24 and 26.
54 Howard discusses the flight trials of both the airplane and the dirigible in chapter 30 of Wilbur and Orville. The tragedy of 17 September is discussed separately in chapter 31. See also Clark, "Squier," pp. 139-47, and Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 113-16 and 152-54.
55 ARSO, 1908, p. 215.
56 On the 1909 flight trials, see Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 155-62; Howard, Wilbur and Orville, ch. 34.
57 Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 162-67; Rebecca Hancock Welch, "The Army Learns To Fly: College Park, Maryland, 1909-1913," The Maryland Historian 21 (Fall/Winter 1990): 38-51.
58 Benjamin D. Foulois and C. V. Glines, From the Wright Brothers to the Astronauts: The Memoirs of Major General Benjamin D. Foulois (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968), p. 70.
59 As quoted in Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 183, n. 6. Their source was a story in a Washington, D.C., newspaper.
60 Foulois, Memoirs, chs. 5 and 6; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 180-84; Clark, "Squier," p. 165, n. 128.
61 Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 184-92; Juliette A. Hennessy, The United States Army Air Arm, April 1861 to April 1917 (1958; reprint, Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1985), pp. 40-47; Foulois, Memoirs, pp. 87-94.
62 William F. Lynd, "The Army Flying School at College Park," Maryland Historical Magazine 48 (1953): 227-41.
63 Arnold relates his early flying experiences in Global Mission (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1949).
64 Howard, Wilbur and Orville, p. 314. In chapter 38 Howard explains how the use of ailerons became a part of the dispute between the Wrights and Curtiss. An equally compelling biography that emphasizes the psychological dimension behind the Wright brothers' legal battles is that by Tom Crouch, The Bishop's Boys: A Life of Wilbur and Orville Wright (New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1989). The implications of the suits brought by the Wrights on the development of Army aviation will be discussed below.
65 On winter operations in Georgia, see Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 210-14.
66 A Curtiss Scout had been delivered to Augusta during the winter. Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 209-10, 216, and 220.
67 ARSO, 1912, pp. 966-68; ARSO, 1913, pp. 781-82; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 222-27 and photo facing page 248. See also George M. Chinn, The Machine Gun: History, Evolution, and Development of Manual, Automatic, and Airborne Repeating Weapons, 3 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1951), 1: 275-78; G. H. Powell, "The Lewis Automatic Gun," Infantry Journal 9 (Jul-Aug 1912): 44-48.
68 ARSO, 1913, p. 781; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 229-30, 235-38; Foulois, Memoirs, pp. 100-102; Thomas M. Coffey, Hap: The Story of the U.S. Air Force and the Man Who Built It, General Henry "Hap " Arnold (New York: Viking Press, 1982), pp. 54-55.
69 Hennessy, Army Air Arm, p. 86.
70 Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 252; Foulois, Memoirs, p. 97.
71 Alfred Goldberg, ed., A History of the United States Air Force, 1907-1957 (Princeton, N.J.: D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1957), p. 8; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 228 and apps. 9 and 10 containing both sets of requirements. The Aero Club used the qualifications drawn up by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale (F.A.I). The new badge is announced in WDGO 39, 27 May 1913.
72 WD Bull 17, 6 May 1913, p. 14; WD Bull 18, 7 Jun 1913, p. 3.
73 Scriven is number seven if Myer is counted only once.
74 Coffey, Hap, p. 68.
75 An extract of his report appears in ARSO, 1913, pp. 790-98. The quotation is from p. 791.
76 Foulois, Memoirs, pp. 110-11; Coffey, Hap, pp. 72-73.
77 Alfred E. Hurley, Billy Mitchell: Crusader for Air Power (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975), p. 17.
78 ARSO, 1912, pp. 964-71; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 258-59. Capt. Paul Beck, an Army pilot, was the only officer to testify in favor of the bill. For his arguments, see his article, "Military Aviation in America: Its Needs," Infantry Journal 8 (May-Jun 1912): 796-817. Extracts from the hearings are published in Maurer Maurer, comp. and ed., The U.S. Air Service in World War I, 4 vols. (Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History, 1978-1979), 2: 3-17.
79 0n operations at Texas City, see ARSO, 1913, pp. 783-85; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 253-58; Hennessy, Army Air Arm, pp. 74-79; WDGO 79,13 Dec 1913.
80 On Lahm's accident, see Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, pp. 247-48. Coffey recounts Arnold's brush with death in Hap, pp. 62-63.
81 Howard, Wilbur and Orville, p. 392.
82 Joseph W. A. Whitehorne, The Inspectors General of the United States Army, 1903-1939, draft Ms, CMH, pp. 319-21; Hennessy, Army Air Arm, p. 103.
83 Loening provides insight into Orville Wright's attitude toward tractor planes in his book Takeoff into Greatness: How American Aviation Grew So Big So Fast (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1968), pp. 56-57. On the adoption of tractor planes at San Diego, see pp. 66-69. See also Howard, Wilbur and Orville, pp. 390-92; Foulois, Memoirs, p. 114; Hennessy, Army Air Arm, p. 103. (This is the only source seen by the author that mentions the Inspector General's investigation.) Goldberg, History of Air Force, pp. 8-9. The chief signal officer reports the change to tractor planes in ARSO, 1914, p. 517.
84 ARSO, 1914, pp. 536-37; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 105.
85 WDGO 75,4 Dec 1913.
86 A table of appropriations is published as Appendix 17 to Hennessy, Army Air Arm. The twenty officers are listed on pages 99-100 of that volume.
87 See Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, Appendix 1, for a list of those officers ordered to aeronautical duty through March 1914. An expanded list, to include enlisted pilots, is published as Appendix 14 to Hennessy, Army Air Arm.
88 Hugh G. J. Aitken, The Continuous Wave: Technology and American Radio, 1900-1932 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985), p. 59. Aitken presents an excellent discussion of early radio technology.
89 Wireless Telegraphy: Report of the Inter-Departmental Board Appointed by the President To Consider the Entire Question of Wireless Telegraphy in the Service of the National Government (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1904); Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 62-63, 72-78, and ch. 12. The board's conclusions and recommendations are published as Appendix C. See also Aitken, Continuous Wave, p. 253; Douglas, Inventing Broadcasting, pp. 123-26 and ch. 7, which discusses the impact of the Titanic tragedy on the passage of regulatory legislation.
90 Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, p. 72, n. 20 (The protocol is published as app. B); ARSO, 1903, p. 345.
91 Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 118-30, 159; Douglas, Inventing Broadcasting, pp. 137-42, 216; ARSO, 1907, p. 183; ARSO, 1909, pp. 251-52.
92 Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 165-66; ARSO, 1912, pp. 962-63.
93 ARSO, 1914, p. 511.
94 ARSO, 1906, pp. 181-84; ARSO, 1907, pp. 166, 177-78; ARSO, 1908, pp. 195-96, 200, 207-10, 215; ARSO, 1909, pp. 238 and 248-52; ARSO, 1910, pp. 16-17. (The 1910 citations refer to the report as published in a separate volume. Beginning in 1910 the ARSO is included in vol. 1 of the ARSW.) ARSO, 1911, pp. 730-33; ARSO, 1912, pp. 960-61; ARSO, 1913, pp. 777-80; ARSO, 1914, pp. 510-12 and 554-55; Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 180-81.
95 Benedict Crowell, America's Munitions, 1917-1918 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919), pp. 323-24; Hennessy, Army Air Arm, p. 158.
96 WDGO 49, 15 Mar 1909.
97 ARSO, 1910, pp. 21-22; ARSO, 1911, pp. 735-36; Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 172-73; Dupree, Science in Federal Government, p. 276. The creation of the Bureau of Standards and its laboratory were part of the government's emerging scientific establishment. See chs. 14 and 15 of Dupree.
98 George R. Thompson and Dixie R. Harris, The Signal Corps: The Outcome, United States Army in World War 11 (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, 1966), p. 582, n. 9.
99 ARSO, 1910, pp. 21-22; ARSO, 1911, pp. 735-36. On Squier's work with "wired wireless," see Clark, "Squier," ch. 7. On Squier's reassignment, see pp. 196-98. His reassignment orders were issued in January 1912 (p. 196, n. 1).
100 Douglas, Inventing Broadcasting, pp. 177 and 196; Aitken, Continuous Wave, p. 55, n. 46, and p. 192, n. 54. For a summary of Dunwoody's military career, see his obituary in USMA Graduates Report (1933), pp. 54-56. While most accounts credit Dunwoody with the carborundum discovery in 1906, Squier in Telling the World (New York: The Century Co., 1933), p. 139, claims that Dunwoody made the discovery "at the beginning of the twentieth century" while still a colonel in the Signal Corps and received the patent in December 1906. W. Rupert Maclaurin in Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry (New York: Macmillan Company, 1949) states that Dunwoody made the discovery in 1906 but while a vice president of de Forest's company (p. 118, n. 21). De Forest himself, in his autobiography, Father of Radio: The Autobiography of Lee de Forest (Chicago: Wilcox and Follett Co., 1950), does not clarify these points. De Forest was not the best of businessmen and, with a string of failures over the years, a number of companies bore his name. While the inventor spelled his name de Forest, his companies used the capital "D."
101 As a consequence, Armstrong entered into a protracted lawsuit with de Forest over the invention of the regenerative, or feedback, circuit. The U.S. Supreme Court eventually ruled in de Forest's favor in 1934. Aitken, Continuous Wave, ch. 4; Douglas, Inventing Broadcasting, pp. 168-77, 245-46. See also Tom Lewis, Empire of the Air. The Men Who Made Radio (New York: Edward Burlingame Books, 1991). Lewis focuses on the careers of de Forest, Armstrong, and David Sarnoff.
102 Howeth, Communications-Electronics in Navy, pp. 182-85, 207; Aitken, Continuous Wave, ch. 3.
103 Susan J. Douglas, "Technological Innovation and Organizational Change: The Navy's Adoption of Radio, 1899-1919," in Merritt Roe Smith, ed., Military Enterprise and Technological Change: Perspectives on the American Experience (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985), pp. 117-73; Douglas, Inventing Broadcasting, chs. 4 and 8.
104 ARSO, 1913, pp. 758-60; ARSO, 1914, p. 539.
105 ARSO, 1912, p. 954.
106 ARSO, 1908, p. 182.
107 WDGO 40, 11 Mar 1910; WDGO 53, 5 Apr 1910.
108 WDGO 24, 17 Feb 1911; ARSO, 1914, p. 542.
109 Field Service Regulations, United States Army (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1910). Excerpts are printed in ARSO, 1910, pp. 5-7. The regulations call for a field signal company with four officers and one hundred enlisted men. The aero and wireless companies have the same personnel strength. See also John B. Wilson, "Army Readiness Planning," p. 64.
110 WDGO 55,15 Sep 1913.
111 ARSO, 1913, p. 762.
112 Tables of Organization, United States Army, 1914 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1914); ARSO, 1914, pp. 542-43.
113 ARSW, 1913, p. 29; ARSO, 1913, p. 748.
114 ARSO, 1913, p. 767; ARSO, 1914, p. 513.
115 This and other amendments to the Dick Act are published in WDGO 99, 11 Jun 1908.
116 See, for example, Allen's comments in ARSO, 1909, pp. 240-41. In 1913 there were twenty-two signal companies in the National Guard (ARSO, 1913, p. 775). See the discussion of the impact of the Dick Act on the National Guard in Jim Dan Hill, The Minute Man in Peace and War: A History of the National Guard (Harrisburg, Pa.: Stackpole Company, 1964), ch. 8.
117 ARSO, 1909, p. 244. Benjamin D. Foulois, "The Elimination of the Myer Code in Visual Signaling," National Guard Magazine 2 (Jul 1908): 320-21.
118 ARSO, 1912, p. 956; AR, 1913, par. 1561, secs. 7 and 8.
119 Signal Book United States Army, 1914 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1914), par. 3; WDGO 61, 19 Aug 1914; ARSO, 1914, p. 512. See also Paul D. Bunker, "The Two-Arm Semaphore Code," JMSI 24, extra no. 105 (1880), reprinted in Scheips, ed., Military Signal Communications, vol. 2.
120 ARSO, 1910, p. 14. The regulations governing the school, published in WDGOs, first mention such conferences in WDGO 145, 16 Aug 1906. They were then called journal meetings, but later became known as the Leavenworth Technical Conferences. Clark, "Squier," pp. 117-18, indicates that Squier based these meetings on his experiences at Johns Hopkins. For some insight into the operations of the school, see Knowles, "The Army Signal School," pp. 31-37; George A. Wieczorek, "Technical Training for Line Officers in the Use and Construction of Military Lines of Information," Journal of the United States Infantry Association 4 (Mar 1908): 739-43; and Marvin E. Malloy, "The Army Signal School," Infantry Journal 9 (May-Jun 1913): 826-35.
121 The chief signal officer does not mention Company A's movements in his annual report, but they are given in ARAG, 1911, in ARSW, 1911, vol. 1, p. 241. This report on page 239 also shows Company D, Signal Corps, with the Maneuver Division but does not list Company I. The chief signal officer, while briefly discussing signal operations with the Maneuver Division in his 1911 annual report (p. 721), does not cite the specific units involved. However, he states in his 1912 report (p. 960) that both Companies D and I served with the Maneuver Division. The Department of Texas reports for 1911 and 1912 (in vol. 3 of the ARSW for each year) list only Company A. The adjutant general does not include the movements of units along the border in his 1912 and 1913 reports. The Historical Sketch states (p. 59) that Companies D and I served on border duty in 1912, but it is possible that this is a reference to their subsequent service (see below).
122 Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall, 4 vols. (New York: Viking Press, 1963-1987),1: 113-14.
123 ARSO, 1912, p. 960.
124 ARSW, 1913, vol. 1, p. 10; Weigley, History of Army, p. 335; Thomas F. Burdett, "Mobilizations of 1911 and 1913," Military Review 54 (Jul 1974): 72. The 2d Division was demobilized on 18 October 1915. It is not perpetuated by the current 2d Infantry Division.
125 ARSO, 1913, p. 757; Rpt, Maj Gen William H. Carter, Commander, 2d Division, 30 Jun 1913 in ARSW, 1913, vol. 3, pp. 111-20.
126 ARSO, 1913, p. 761; ARSO, 1914, p. 536; Rpt, Brig Gen Tasker H. Bliss, Commander, Southern Department, to The Adjutant General, 30 Jun 1913, in ARSW, 1913, vol. 3, p. 39. The details of Company I's service given on pages 50-51 indicate that the company began this tour of border duty in September 1912.
127 ARSO, 1914, pp. 536-37, 540, and 543.
128 ARSO, 1914, p. 535; ARSO, 1915, p. 767. The 1915 annual report refers only to Company D's use of visual signaling; it does not specify the heliograph. The use of the heliograph at Vera Cruz is mentioned, however, in Scheips, comp., "The Military Heliograph and Its Use in Arizona and New Mexico," p. 8, and Kelly, "Talking Mirrors at Fort Bowie," p. 3. Although rarely used, the heliograph remained in the Signal Corps' inventory for several years. The British and French continued to use the talking mirrors into the post-World War I period.
129 For details on the Vera Cruz expedition, see Clarence C. Clendenen, Blood on the Border: The United States Army and the Mexican Irregulars (New York: Macmillan Company, 1969), ch. 8.
130 The act is published in WD Bull 35, 4 Aug 1914, as well as in ARSO, 1914, pp. 514-16; see also Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, app. 16. The legislation actually represented a rewritten version of the bill proposed in 1913 to remove aviation from the Signal Corps. Capt. William Mitchell, one of those testifying against the original proposal, claimed to have drafted the revision. Hurley, Billy Mitchell, p. 17.
131 WD Bull 18, 11 May 1914, p. 3.
132 Field Service Regulations, United States Army (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1914). Extracts from the regulations are published in Maurer, comp. and ed., Air Service in World War I, 2: 22-25.
133 ARSO, 1914, p. 507.
134 Ibid., p. 508.
135 WDGO 79, 13 Dec 1913.
136 Foulois, Memoirs, p. 115. See also ARSO, 1914, p. 517; Goldberg, History of Air Force, p. 9; Chandler and Lahm, How Army Grew Wings, p. 276. Chandler and Lahm end their narrative at this point.
137 ARSO, 1914, p. 522.
138 Weigley, History of Army, app., p. 599, gives the Regular Army's strength in 1914 as 98,544.
139 For an excellent discussion of the preparedness movement, see John Patrick Finnegan, Against the Specter of a Dragon: The Campaign for American Military Preparedness, 1914-1917 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1974). See also Weigley, History of Army, ch. 15. Secretary of War Henry Stimson had rearranged the departmental system in 1913. The rationale behind this change is discussed in John B. Wilson, "Army Readiness Planning," pp. 60-73.
140 ARSW, 1914, vol. 1, pp. 1-14; Finnegan, Specter of Dragon, p. 29.
141 Johnson, "The Aero Club of America and Army Aviation," pp. 390-95; Finnegan, Specter of Dragon, p. 100.
142 Clendenen, Blood on Border, p. 216. He discusses the raid in ch. 10.
143 Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, p. 224; Clendenen, Blood on Border, pp. 215, 221-24.
144 Benjamin D. Foulois, "Report of the Operations of the First Aero Squadron, Signal Corps, with the Mexican Punitive Expedition, for Period March 15 to August 15, 1916," (hereafter cited as Foulois report), published as Appendix B, pp. 236-45, in Frank Tompkins, Chasing Villa (Harrisburg, Pa.: Military Service Publishing Co., 1934). See also Clendenen, Blood on Border, pp. 223-25.
145 ARSO, 1916, p. 882; Foulois report, p. 236. The squadron also contained two enlisted men from the Hospital Corps. At El Paso the squadron acquired a medical officer and another enlisted man from the Hospital Corps. Foulois, Memoirs, p. 126. Weigley, History of Army, p. 351, gives the number of planes as six, but this is contradicted by Foulois' report and the ARSO, which both say eight. Weigley may be discounting, however, the two planes that were soon put out of commission.
146 ARSO, 1916, pp. 882-83; Foulois report, pp. 242-43; Clendenen, Blood on Border, pp. 226 and 321. Foulois, Memoirs, ch. 8, discusses aerial operations in Mexico, as does Hennessy, Army Air Arm, ch. 9.
147 Foulois' account of the incident given in his report, pp. 240-41, differs in some details from that in his Memoirs, pp. 129-32. This summary follows most closely the account given in his report. See also Clendenen, Blood on Border, pp. 319-20, and Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, p. 233.
148 Haldeen Braddy, Pershing's Mission in Mexico (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1966), p. 37.
149 As quoted in Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, p. 232.
150 The New York World published an article concerning aviation's woes in which several pilots, including Dargue, were quoted. See discussion in Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, pp. 232-33; Foulois report, p. 243; Foulois, Memoirs, ch. 10. On the appropriation, see ARSO, 1916, p. 882.
151 Foulois report, p. 243. Foulois left Mexico in September for duty in Washington, D.C., and Dodd assumed command of the squadron.
152 Ceendenen, Blood on Border, p. 333. He also remarks on page 251 that "The distances in northern Mexico were too great for the relatively primitive signal communications of the time."
153 Extract from Pershing's Report of Operations, in Robert S. Thomas and Inez V. Allen, The Mexican Punitive Expedition under Brigadier General John J. Pershing, United States Army, 1916-1917 [Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1 May 1954], app. D, pp. A-18 and -19.
154 The chief signal officer refers to the successful operation of two-kilowatt tractor sets along the Mexican border (ARSO, 1916, p. 879). See also Squier, Telling the World, pp. 143-44; Historical Sketch, p. 59.
155 Pershing established his headquarters at Colonia Dublán in June 1918, after active operations ended. Clendenen, Blood on Border, pp. 333-34; Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, pp. 239-40, 256; Pershing Rpt, p. A-18.
156 ARSO, 1916, p. 873.
157 Clendenen, Blood on Border, p. 334.
158 The bill is published as WD Bull 16, 22 June 1916. See the discussion of the Defense Act in Matloff, ed., American Military History, pp. 366-68; Daniel R. Beaver, Newton D. Baker and the American War Effort, 1917-1919 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), pp. 12-14; Finnegan, Specter of Dragon, ch. 9; James L. Abrahamson, America Arms for a New Century (New York: Free Press, 1981), pp. 164-65; John B. Wilson, Divisions and Separate Brigades, draft Ms, pp. 2:32 to 2:39.
159 See Scriven's comments in ARSO, 1915, pp. 743-44.
160 Section 13 of the Defense Act contains the provisions relating to the Signal Corps. For the Signal Corps' appropriation for fiscal year 1917, see WD Bull 33, 9 Sep 1916, p. 4.
161 ARSO, 1916, p. 816.
162 ARSW, 1916, vol. 1, pp. 26-29. The Enlisted Reserve Corps is provided for by Section 55 of the Defense Act.
163 WD Bull 16, 1916, sec. 3, p. 2, and sec. 13, p. 17.
164 General Trevino, head of Carranza's forces, made this demand on 16 June. See copy of his telegram in Tompkins, Chasing Villa, p. 208. See also Clendenen, Blood on Border, p. 275; Hill, Minute Man in Peace and War, pp. 229-43.
165 Casualty statistics from ARSW, 1916, vol. 1, p. 9. As with most statistics, they vary with the source consulted. Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, page 259, gives nine killed and twelve wounded. Clendenen, Blood on Border, chapter 16, discusses the fight at Carrizal and the events that led to it. His statistics indicate that two officers and ten men were killed and one officer and ten men wounded. In addition, a noncommissioned officer was missing and presumed dead (pp. 310-11).
166 Annual Report of the Chief of the Militia Bureau (hereafter cited as ARMB), 1916, in ARSW, 1916, vol. 1, p. 896. 1 The number of signal units includes those called up on 9 May. See also ARSW, 1916, vol. 1, pp. 10-17.
167 Bolling was President Wilson's brother-in-law. During World War I he headed the Bolling Commission (discussed below). Bolling was killed during World War I, and Bolling Airfield in Washington, D.C., is named for him. See ARMB, 1916, p. 917. On the aero company, see Bruce Jacobs, "Pioneer Aviation and the Football Special,"' National Guard 37 (Nov 1983): 40.
168 ARSW, 1917, vol. 1, pp. 9-10; ARMB, 1917, in ARSW, 1917, vol. 1, p. 854. The final demobilization was announced in February 1917. Finnegan, Specter of Dragon, pp. 171,185.
169 Clendenen, Blood on Border, p. 338; Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, pp. 268-69.
170 Barbara W. Tuchman, The Zimmermann Telegram (New York: Dell Publishing Company, Inc., 1958), p. 12. The full text is printed in English on p. 136 and the code text of the telegram is included in the back of the volume.
171 Walter Millis, Arms and Men: A Study of American Military History (New York: New American Library, 1956), p. 205.
172 Motor transportation on the border is discussed in the Annual Report of the Quartermaster General (hereafter cited as ARQM), 1916, in ARSW, 1916, vol. 1, pp. 382-85. No mention is made, however, of the contributions of the 1st Aero Squadron. See also Norman M. Cary, Jr., "The Use of the Motor Vehicle in the United States Army, 1899-1939" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, 1980), pp. 96-105.
173 Clendenen, Blood on Border, p. 341; strength figure from Smythe, Guerrilla Warrior, p. 274.
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