Chapter XI

1 Gloria A. S. Olson, "Move Over Charlie's Angels, Here Comes Signal Woman," Army Communicator 2 (Spring 1977): 20-23.

2 Bettie J. Morden, The Women's Army Corps, 1945-1978 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1990), p. 397; Weigley, History of Army, pp. 567, 600.

3 Bergen, Test for Technology, pp. 327-29, 339; "Paige, Emmett, Jr.," biographical files, DAMH-HSR; Barnes, "We, Too, Serve Proudly," p. 45.

4 John B. Wilson, Divisions and Separate Brigades, draft Ms, ch. 12; Weigley, History of Army, pp. 573-74.

5 Meanwhile, the Military Police School, which had been located at Fort Gordon since 1948, moved to Fort McClellan, Alabama.

6 Concise History of Fort Monmouth, p. 47.

7 Bernard I. Lewis, "Move It!," Army Communicator 1 (Summer 1976): 20-22; Karl E. Cocke, comp., Department of the Army Historical Summary, Fiscal Year 1974 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1978), pp. 32-33.

8 The redesignation was authorized by DAGO 31, 19 September 1973. Charles M. Rossiter and D. Jean Maire, "Air Traffic Control," Army Communicator 2 (Summer 1977): 52-53.

9 Joe Whetstone, "ACC Marks Anniversary," Army Communicator 2 (Summer 1977): 27.

10 The following discussion of the AirLand Battle is based on John L. Romjue, From Active Defense to AirLand Battle: The Development of Army Doctrine, 1973-1982 (Fort Monroe, Va.: U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1984).

11 Paul H. Herbert, Deciding What Has To Be Done: General William E. DePuy and the 1976 Edition of FM 100-5, Operations, Leavenworth Papers no. 16 (Leavenworth, Kans.: Combat Studies Institute, 1988), ch. 8; Archer Jones, "The New FM 100-5: A View from the Ivory Tower," Military Review 58 (Feb 1978): 27-36.

12 William G. Hanne, "The Integrated Battlefield," Military Review 62 (Jun 1982): 34-44; Weigley, History of Army, pp. 577-83.

13 Earl F. Klinck II, "Improvements in C3: A Comparison of Urgent Fury and Just Cause" (Newport, R.I.: Naval War College, 1990), pp. 6-8; Stephen E. Anno and William E. Einspahr, "Command and Control and Communications Lessons Learned: Iranian Rescue, Falklands Conflict, Grenada Invasion, Libya Raid" (Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Air War College, 1988), pp. 36-48; Mark Adkin, URGENT FURY The Battle for Grenada (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1989).

14 "TRI-TAC and You!," Army Communicator 1 (Spring 1976): 34-36.

15 John F. Mason, "Going Digital," Army Communicator 2 (Spring 1977): 14-15. MSE is based on a similar system developed for the French Army, known as RITA. RITA stands for Reseau Integre Transmissions Automatique or Automatic Integrated Transmission Network. See Remi S. Johnson et al., "RITA: A Look at the French Mobile Subscriber System," Army Communicator 12 (Summer 1987): 18-21. The Summer 1986 issue of Army Communicator is devoted to MSE. See also Mobile Subscriber Equipment System: Reference Guide for the U.S. Army (Taunton, Mass.: General Telephone and Electronics, n.d.); and Fred Dierksmeier, "The Impact of MSE," Military Review 67 (Aug 1987): 40-47.

16 Some of the shortcomings of traditional radioteletype and teletypewriter systems are discussed in Ralph E. Herman, "Facsimile AN/GXC-7A," Army Communicator 3 (Spring 1978): 48-51.

17 Author's interviews with William E. Kelley and others in the Office, Chief of Signal, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 27-30 Nov 1990. On the training of National Guard units, see Jerry L. Campbell, "Leveler Training on the Mark," Army Communicator 15 (Summer/Fall 1990): 3 8-39.

18 Nancy S. Dumas, "Fielding SINCGARS,"Army Communicator 13 (Winter 1988): 52.

19 Rick Makowski, "EPLRS-More Than Just Data," Army Communicator 15 (Winter/Spring 1990): 12-16; Ted Filgrove, "TSM-ADDS Update," Army Communicator 14 (Summer 1989): 58-59; "Commander's Comments," Army Communicator 15 (Summer/Fall 1990), inside front cover.

20 James E. Moffett, "Training with Industry at Boeing Aerospace," Army Communicator 14 (Winter 1989): 24-25.

21 The ROTC Branch Affiliation Program was an Army-wide effort in which other branches, including the Corps of Engineers and the Ordnance Corps, also took part.

22 John L. Romjue, A History of Army 86, 2 vols. (Fort Monroe, Va.: Historical Office, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, 1981-1982), 1: 111, 122, and charts 17-20; see TOE 11-35J (1 Oct 1982) for the organization of signal battalions organic to armored, infantry, and mechanized divisions.

23 Under Chief of Staff General John A. Wickham, heavy divisions had been reduced in strength from 20,000 to 17,000. John B. Wilson, Divisions and Separate Brigades, draft Ms (revised), ch. 13, p. 556.

24 TOE 11-35J (1 Oct 1982) authorizes 32 officers and 752 enlisted personnel for a heavy signal battalion; TOE 11-45L (1 Apr 1984) authorizes 28 officers and 442 enlisted for a light signal battalion.

25 The Signal Corps regiment was established per DAGO 21, 30 May 1986. The details of the Signal Corps' regimental plan are discussed in Kathy Roe Coker, The Signal Corps and The U.S. Army Regimental System (Fort Gordon, Ga.: Office of the Command Historian, Nov 1989). See also AR 600-82, The U.S. Army Regimental System.

26 Campbell Cantelou, "Jumping into a ‘Just Cause,’” Army Communicator 15 (Winter/Spring 1990): 9.

27 For a detailed study of communications during JUST CAUSE, See Jared A. Kline, "Joint Communications in Support of Joint Task Force South During Operation Just Cause" (M.A. thesis, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, 1991). See also William Scott Ramshaw, "Operation Just Cause Command and Control: A Case Study" (Monterey, Calif.: M.S. thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 1991).

28 George P. Scriven, The Service of Information, United States Army, Cir no. 8, Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 1915 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1915), pp. 10-11, 74. The author wishes to thank Col. Archie Andrews of the Computer Science School at Fort Gordon, Georgia, for pointing out Scriven's publication and his use of information terminology.

29 There were two intervening designation changes. In 1967 the position became the assistant chief of staff for communications-electronics and, in 1974, the director of telecommunications and command and control. See chart in appendix.

30 "The Information Mission Area and the Information Systems Command, 1984-1986" (Fort Huachuca, Ariz.: n.d.), p. 3, copy provided to the author by the com­mand historian, Elaine M. Pospishil.

31 Redesignation per DAGO 26, 25 July 1986. Paige retired in 1988 after more than forty years of military service. See Scott Saunders, "Lt. Gen. Paige on ISC, IMA," Army Communicator 13 (Spring/Summer 1988): 18-19; and Emmett Paige, Jr., "AISC: The Leap from Training Camp to Field," Army 35 (Oct 1985): 260-65.

32 DAGO 26, 25 Jul 1984. In 1987 the office was again redesignated as the director of information systems for command, control, communications, and computers (DISC4), per DAGO 49, 17 August 1987.

33 Roy Hinton, "Visual Information and the IMA," Army Communicator 13 (Spring/Summer 1988): 51; L. D. Manion, "A Transitioning Signal Corps: CMF 25," Army Communicator 15 (Summer/Fall 1990): 44-45; L. D. Manion, "A New Look for Visual Information," Army Communicator 16 (Summer 1991): 23-25; "The Information Mission Area and the Information Systems Command," p. 7.

34 William E. Benner, Jr., "USAVIC Has Global Responsibilities," Army Communicator 13 (Spring/Summer 1988): 30-34; "Combat Cameras in Action," Army Communicator 15 (Summer/Fall 1990): 3-7; brief untitled history of the visual information center provided by the USAVIC, copy in author's files; Manion, "Transitioning Signal Corps," p. 44. The 55th Signal Company, a combat camera unit, was activated at Fort George G. Meade, Maryland, in November 1993.

35 As a result of the realignment of functions, the adjutant general became a director within the Military Personnel Center, later redesignated as the U.S. Total Army Personnel Command. Terrence J. Gough, Department of the Army Historical Summary, Fiscal Year 1986 (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1989), p. 71; "The Information Mission Area and the Information Systems Command," p. 13.

36 "Commander's Comments," Army Communicator 14 (Fall 1989), inside front cover; Carol E. Stokes and Kathy Roe Coker, Annual Historical Review, Headquarters, U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, 1989, pp. 6-7. The Information Systems Command is now the proponent for the Army's data processing units, formerly Adjutant General Corps assets.

37 For several articles on this aspect of the Signal Corps' activities, see Army Communicator 14 (Summer 1989).

38 Anon., Computer Science School, A Brief History, undated copy in author's files.

39 Richard E. Hogue, "Fiberoptics: A Light Subject," Army Communicator 2 (Winter 1977): 12-14; Richard A. Cerny and Marshall C. Hudson, "Fiberoptics: A Growing Technology for Digital Systems," Army Communicator 3 (Spring 1978): 56-59; Robert C. Raiford, "EMP," Army Communicator 4 (Spring 1979): 5-10.

40 John Burgess, "Wire War: Putting America on Line," Washington Post, 22 Oct 1989.

41 Curt Suplee, "Scientists Take Big Step Toward Understanding Superconductors," Washington Post, 29 Mar 1991.

42 Clayton R. Koppes, "The Militarization of the American Space Program," Virginia Quarterly Review 60 (Winter 1984): 1-20; Mark J. Deves, "The Slow Road to Army Space Command," Army Communicator 14 (Summer 1989): 48-49; Arthur J. Downey, The Emerging Role of the U.S. Army in Space (Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1985).

43 Cantelou, "Jumping into a 'Just Cause,"' pp. 6-11; Thomas Armeli, "Lightfighter Communications in Operation Just Cause," Army Communicator 15 (Winter/Spring 1990): 48-52; David A. Barlow, "The Evolution of Tactical Satellite Communications," Army Communicator 14 (Summer 1989): 37-39.

44 John W. Beaver, "Tactical Radio: Threats and Alternatives," Army Communicator 2 (Fall 1977): 37-40.

45 Laura Hill, "31Ls Keep Abreast of Changing Technology," Army Communicator 14 (Spring 1989): 4-6.

46 Robert K. Ackerman, "Electronics Research Spurs Information Exchange Horse," Signal 45 (Aug 1991): 89. The Signal Corps had, in fact, first developed a wrist radio during the 1950s. See Michael Brian Schiffer, "Cultural Imperatives and Product Development: The Case of the Shirt-Pocket Radio," Technology and Culture 34 (Jan 1993): 111, n. 37.

47 Joseph P. Englehardt, comp., Desert Shield and Desert Storm: A Chronology and Troop List for the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf Crisis (Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: 25 Mar 1991). This study includes a list of the par­ticipating nations and the forces and/or equipment provided by each.

48 Wrenne Timberlake, "ISC Takes the Desert By Storm," Army Communicator 16 (Spring 1991): 18; "Gulf War Communications Quickly Fielded, Efficient," Signal 45 (Aug 1991): 44; Emily Charlotte Pace, "USAISC Before, During and After Desert Storm," Army Communicator 16 (Summer 1991): 13-17; Carol E. Stokes and Kathy R. Coker, "Getting the Message Through in the Persian Gulf War," Army Communicator 17 (Summer/Winter 1992): 18; Carol E. Stokes, The U.S. Army Signal Corps in Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm, draft Ms, U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, p. 41 (copy in author's files).

49 Lynda C. Davis, "653d Signal Company Provides Key Link in Desert Communications," National Guard 45 (Aug 1991): 94-95; Stokes and Coker, "Persian Gulf War," p. 18.

50 The 6th Signal Command had been inactive since 1977.

51 Interv, Col Charles C. Sutten, Jr., conducted by Elaine M. Pospishil, 29 May 1991, transcript, pp. 18-19, copy in author's files; Stokes, Signal Corps in Desert Shield/Storm, draft Ms, pp. 48, 113.

52 Stokes, Signal Corps in Desert Shield/Storm, draft Ms, pp. 9-13.

53 VII Corps Public Affairs Office, The Desert Jayhawk (Stuttgart, Germany: Hugo Mattheas, n.d.), p. 40; "Signal Soldiers Diagnose Tangled Technical Issues," Signal 45 (Aug 1991): 38.

54 William A. Dougherty, "Storm from Space," U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings 118 (Aug 1992): 48-52; Alan D. Campen, "Gulf War's Silent Warriors Bind U.S. Units Via Space," Signal 45 (Aug 1991): 81-84.

55 Anthony Bell, "E-mail: Anywhere in the World in 30 Seconds," Army Communicator 16 (Fall/Winter 1991): 30-31; Sutten interview, p. 15; Stokes, Signal Corps in Desert Shield/Storm, draft Ms, pp. 73-76.

56 Lee E. Thomas, "Combat Camera Moves Imagery into Vital War Role," Signal 46 (Nov 1991): 49-50.

57 Mike Hunter and Samuel A. Barnes, "Signal Support: IMA in the Desert and Beyond," Army Communicator 17 (Summer/Winter 1992): 11-16.

58 Stokes, Signal Corps in Desert Shield/Storm, draft Ms, p. 96; Byron L. Burrow, "MSE Support of Corps Combat Operations," Army Communicator 16 (Fall/Winter 1991): 28-29.

59 Interv, Col Steven C. Harman, Jr., conducted by Elaine M. Pospishil, 18 Jun 1991, transcript, p. 12, copy in author's files.

60 Louise T. Cooper, "MSE Key to Desert Storm Communications," Army Communicator 16 (Spring 1991): 14-15; Bryan S. Goda and Robert M. Prudhomme, "Communications on a Mobile Battlefield in the 100 Hours War," Army Communicator 16 (Spring 1991): 42-47.

61 "Signal Soldiers Diagnose Tangled Technical Issues," pp. 37-38.

62 "SINCGARS a ‘Key Component’ in Operation Desert Storm," ITT Defense, vol. 1, no. 3 (copy in author's files); Congressional Study Book FY 1993, vol. 1, Unclassified Issues, "Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS)," paper M-2, SAIS-SDT, 9 Mar 1992 (copy in CMH files); Army Focus, June 1991, p. 31.

63 Hunter and Barnes, "IMA in Desert," pp. 8-9.

64 Ibid., pp. 9-10.

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