The U.S. Army and the Lewis & Clark
Annex H: United States Army Public
Affairs Campaign Plan for the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Commemoration
1. Purpose. This annex prescribes the role of the Office
of the Chief of Public Affairs (OCPA), Headquarters, Department of the
Army in the Lewis and Clark Expedition Bicentennial Commemoration from
2. Scope. This annex supports the U.S. Army's commemoration
campaign plan and outlines duties and responsibilities for OCPA support
to appropriate commemorations of the Lewis and Clark Expedition by federal,
tribal, state, regional, municipal agency or affiliated non-profit private
3. Applicability. This annex serves as the resource document
and planning tool for OCPA divisions, MACOM PA’s, RC and NG component
Public Affairs activities.
a. Secondary Research. From 2000-2001 Army historians met with
counterpart agencies and found that while they are aware of the military's
integral contributions to the success of the Lewis and Clark Expedition,
many in the public are not. Depictions of Lewis, Clark, and
their men exclusively in buckskin attire, rather than historically
accurate Army uniforms indirectly downplays the role of the officers
and enlisted as soldiers. Awareness of the expedition's success
as a military exploration is thereby diminished. While historical
accounts do detail the expeditionary unit’s military discipline, skill,
training and logistics, popular accounts frequently treat these aspects
of history only in a cursory manner.
b. Primary Research.
1. Army Public Affairs will conduct a series of focus groups
with civilians and military members to determine current awareness
of the Army's role in the Lewis and Clark Expedition, evaluate key
messages, and assess effectiveness of planned tactics.
2. Army Public Affairs will work with planners of military
commemorative events to survey participants on how they learned
of the events and their knowledge of military involvement in the
"Corps of Discovery."
(1) Increase media coverage of Lewis and Clark's Army service
during major bicentennial commemoration events from 2003-2006.
(a) Coordinate all Army Public Affairs efforts with signature
event planners to publicize Army involvement in the event and
reinforce core messages.
(b) Request the participation of an Old Guard commemorative
Color Guard at all signature events. Soldiers will be dressed
in period specific uniforms, thus reinforcing the message that
this was an Army expedition. Also encourage the participation
of an additional military Color Guard at each signature event
to appear in present day uniforms to stand as a comparative example
to the soldiers in period dress.
(c) Honor and commemorate the Corps of Discovery through
the display of the commemorative logo on Army Public Affairs products,
pamphlets, articles, and articles at all signature events, available
through the official website, and distributed electronically Army-wide.
(d) Provide local, regional and internal military media
outlets with press releases and historical articles defining the
role of the Corps of Discovery, along with expedition vignettes
tying the Corps of Discovery to today’s soldiers and Army values.
(2) Increase awareness of and interest in Army history, its
nation-building achievements, seven core values, and the American
soldier throughout the commemoration period.
(a) Highlight the multi-mission role of the U.S. Army during
this historic expedition that helped unite our nation through
targeted engagement of national and regional media outlets.
(b) Showcase the important assistance the expedition received
from native peoples enroute through the messages and articles
written in support of the commemoration.
(c) Reinforce the Army values as demonstrated by the officers
and soldiers through the campaign messages and vignettes.
(d) Highlight the dynamics of small-unit leadership through
the appearance of the commemoration Color Guard and train those
soldiers to be able to answer basic questions as they may apply
to the expedition.
(e) Recognize the civilian participants’ contributions
in the Corps of Discovery by defining their participation and
value to the mission in articles written about the expedition.
(f) Highlight the vast scientific advancements provided
by the Corps of Discovery's detailed efforts by resourcing MACOM
and installation speaker’s bureau with speech products.
(3) Assist recruiting efforts by using the commemoration
as mechanism for attracting and informing potential recruits.
(a) Tie the Expedition's historical role to the modern
Army by providing Army recruiters with speech kits, fact sheets,
and the ACOE brochure for use in the schools.
(b) Coordinate with USAREC to encourage and facilitate
the attendance of recruiters at signature events and at local
(c) Link the Lewis and Clark web page to the OCPA web page
to promote the signature events, history of the expedition, and
an historical vignette highlighting one of the soldiers.
Frequently update applicable sites to add additional vignettes
about soldiers from the expedition and tie their skills and values
to today’s soldiers.
(4) Encourage Army installations to promote the commemorative
events to their commands and in their communities as an Army expedition.
(a) Recognize the Army's role in the exploration of the
West by resourcing installation speaker’s bureaus and community
speaker’s bureaus with speech kits and fact sheets describing
(b) Develop a staff ride itinerary to a trail site or route
along the trail. Commands and installations around the Army
would be able to participate in the staff ride by using this plan
and scheduling it on their own. They could invite community
leaders, teachers, media reps and COI’s from their areas to participate
(at their own expense). The staff ride experience would
expose military and civilians alike to the Lewis and Clark story
and allow the civilians the opportunity to experience the unique
way the military studies history.
(c) Encourage Commands and installations establish commemoration
committees to coordinate and direct events and support to area
and local commemorations.
(d) Provide Commands and installations with fact sheets,
brochures, CMH disk, and information as requested to promote the
Lewis and Clark Expedition.
(5) Increase awareness of and interest in the Corps of Discovery
by the Army and the communities that surround Army installations.
(a) Publish a series of articles throughout the commemoration
period for publication in internal DOD and Army publications.
Encourage Army installations and organizations with a connection
to the history of the expedition to do likewise (I.e., Walter
Reed Medical Center could publish articles on how the Army and
country may have benefited from the scientific and medical findings
of the Expedition.)
(b) Use the Lewis and Clark Commemorative logo on OCPA
Lewis and Clark public affairs products.
(1) Brand the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a highly successful
military exploration in the best tradition of American service,
nation-building and scientific advancement through the use of the
Commemorative logo and the participation of Army forces in the signature
(2) Form a strategic alliance through the U.S. Army Lewis
and Clark Advisory Group (LCAG) to unite the active, National Guard,
Reserve components, and Army major commands to maintain consistent
messages and coordinated efforts.
(3) Develop and distribute public affairs products that reinforce
the role of the Army in the Corps of Discovery.
(1) General Public.
(2) Potential recruits.
(3) Publics in major cities and towns along the Expedition's
(4) Soldiers and Army civilian employees.
(5) Members of Congress.
(6) Tourists and history buffs likely to visit route sites
or retrace the route.
(7) Publics in the communities surrounding military installations.
d. Messages. The following messages should be included in communications
with all audiences and media:
(1) Lewis and Clark commanded an Army expedition that achieved
remarkable scientific discoveries, geographic knowledge, and built
relationships between divergent nations and cultures.
(2) The Lewis and Clark Expedition, the "Corps of Discovery",
is part of a tradition of military exploring expeditions in American
(3) The Corps of Discovery succeeded in large part because
it was a disciplined Army unit dedicated to mission accomplishment.
(4) The Corps of Discovery demonstrates the Army’s reliance
on the Noncommissioned Officer – the backbone of our military then
(5) The President of the United States selected the Army
to assemble the Corps of Discovery because we were the “right tool”
for the arduous job: men, discipline, organization, logistics, and
(6) The Army’s legacy of scientific exploration and innovation
continues as we pioneer into the 21st Century with a
6. Execution. This annex addresses the Army Public Affairs
functions of public information, community relations, and command information.
There are three levels of Public Affairs activities throughout the commemoration
period: (1) national and regional coverage; (2) locales
in and around the signature event sites; and (3) Army installations/organizations
and communities worldwide. The three Public Affairs functions
will be addressed within each activity level throughout the commemoration
period. Army commands and organizations are expected to develop
their own plans to support this commemoration.
a. Level 1 – National and Regional.
(1) Public Information – Army Public Affairs will promote
compelling story ideas about the Expedition's achievements with
prominent national and regionally based media outlets. These
communications will focus on major anniversary dates, signature
events and Army projects designed to promote awareness of the Army’s
involvement in the Corps of Discovery. These planned efforts
(a) C-SPAN – Develop with them a series on Lewis and Clark's
explorations and provide military historians to discuss the Army's
role in the 3 1/2-year expedition.
(b) CNN – Assist them to produce a story on the Army's
role in conjunction with the Jan. 18, 2003, Bicentennial kick-off
event at Monticello.
(c) Travel Magazines – Target airline magazines, regional
city tourist guides and brochures to include information about
the commemoration and the Army's involvement, as well as Army
installations and facilities along the route. Highlight Army museums
and historical collections.
(d) USA Today, The New York Times, The Washington Post,
St. Louis Post Dispatch, Washington State newspapers – Assist
them in producing a story on the Army's role in conjunction with
the January 18, 2003, Bicentennial kickoff event at Monticello.
(e) History Channel – Work with their major documentary
producers to include accurate military depictions and information
in programs to be produced from 2002 to 2006.
(f) The Learning Channel – Work with their major documentary
producers to include accurate military depictions and information
in programs to be produced from 2002 to 2006.
(g) National Network Morning Shows – Highlight the Army's
role in the mission during key dates, such as the commemoration's
start, the Expedition's arrival in St. Louis, the expedition's
arrival at Fort Clatsop, and the commemoration's conclusion in
(h) National Geographic Magazine – Work with them to produce
a new story for 2003 about the "Corps of Discovery"
and the impact the exploration has made on America.
(i) Sunday National Newspaper Magazines – Work with them
to produce stories about the Army Corps of Engineers facilities
along the route, the "Discovery Box" interpretative
presentations by Corps Rangers, and other Army activities.
(j) Strategically place the Commemorative Color Guard at
all signature events to maximize the visual element and reinforce
the Army’s role in the Corps of Discovery.
(2) Community Relations.
(a) Army Corps of Engineers Activities – Nationally publicize
major events at Corps of Engineers facilities through the 2003-2006
period to include exhibits, interpretive presentations and publications.
(b) Commemorative Events – Provide military support to
the planned signature events, as well as other major Lewis and
Clark commemorations. Requests must meet the requirements
of AR 360-1 and DOD 5500.7-R, the Joint Ethics Regulation.
(c) Army Community Relations will work with Department
of Defense Public Affairs to incorporate the Lewis and Clark Expedition
into major joint-service community relations activities.
Possible joint events include the annual Armed Forces Day Open
House at Andrews Air Force Base, July 4th activities,
and regional Armed Forces Day commemorations.
(3) Command Information.
(a) Soldiers Magazine – Periodic articles tied with major
events, historic dates, profiles of "Corps of Discovery"
members, highlights of military equipment used, explanations of
small-unit tactics, highlights of the importance of military structure
to the exploration's success, profiles on the scientific advances
(animals and plants identified, maps made), and contemporary comparisons
to today's Transforming Army.
(b) Soldiers Radio and Television – Periodic video and
radio stories tied with major events, historic dates, profiles
of "Corps of Discovery" members, highlights of military
equipment used, explanations of small-unit tactics, highlights
of the importance of military structure to the exploration's success,
profiles on the scientific advances (animals and plants identified,
maps made), and contemporary comparisons to today's Transforming
Army. Provide these as well to the Armed Forces Radio and
Television Service for international, joint-service viewing.
(c) Hot Topics – A special Lewis and Clark issue in early
2003 to run in Soldiers Magazine
(d) ARNEWS – A series of articles throughout the commemorative
period, highlighting major events and achievements.
b. Level 2 – Signature events and trail site celebrations.
(1) Public Information. Army Public Affairs will publicize
the Army’s participation in any and all signature events by leveraging
the PA efforts of city and event site planners. We will provide
a uniformed Army spokesperson for media opportunities at signature
events to discuss the Army’s role in the Corps of Discovery.
(2) Community Relations. Requests for military support
to the signature events will go to the nearest active military installation,
RC headquarters, or NG headquarters. All components will attempt
to support the requests within their operational abilities and IAW
AR 360-1 and DOD 5500.7-R.
(a) Resource requests for Army support to signature events
and other celebrations if they meet the requirements of AR 360-1
and DOD 5500.7-R.
(b) Assist and facilitate USAR PA functions during all
signature events involving RC soldiers.
(c) U.S. Army Recruiting Command Assets – Leverage USAREC
event marketing and promotional assets along the expedition's
route from 2003 to 2006 to participate in signature events.
(d) The U.S. Army Field Band and installation bands will
incorporate Lewis and Clark Expedition themes into their public
concerts, particularly with school groups (I.e., bands would pay
tribute to the expedition through musical selections).
(3) Command Information.
(a) Army Magazine will publish periodic articles about
major events and activities; always including information about
Lewis and Clark links on the Internet
(b) Website – OCPA web site
www.dtic.armylink.mil will carry the CMH and other Lewis and
Clark links, web banners, and the periodic news stories and events
promotions during the commemoration period.
(c) ARNEWS will publish vignettes about the expedition
in sequence with the execution of the signature events.
These articles would be published in publications Army wide.
c. Level 3 – Army installations/organizations and communities.
(1) Public Information. OCPA will provide MACOM’s and
installations with fact sheets and promotional materials as background
for media queries. All are encouraged to market the Lewis
and Clark story to publications and media contacts in their communities.
Commands and installations throughout the world can draw parallels
to this story and their current operations in many different ways
and are encouraged to build on the messages included in this annex.
(2) Community Relations. OCPA will provide a speech
kit and visual products for use by installation speaker’s bureaus
and Command and installation headquarters. MACOM’s, installations
and command groups are encouraged to market the Lewis and Clark
story to civic organizations, schools, etc, through their speaker’s
bureau and their command involvement in the community. Those
installations and commands with on-site museums and command historians
are encouraged to commemorate the expedition with special events,
displays, classes, and articles for publication. Commands
and installations are also encouraged to seek opportunities to involve
soldiers in local Lewis and Clark commemorations in order to visibly
connect the Army to the expedition.
(3) Command Information. MACOM’s and installations
are encouraged to publish ARNEWS articles and Center for Military
History vignettes in command newspapers and publications, along
with a schedule of the significant commemorative events taking place
around the country. They are also encouraged to develop articles
and features on their own to inform soldiers, civilians and family
members about the Lewis and Clark expedition. All are also
encouraged to provide a link and the Lewis and Clark logo on command
and installation websites, which will link to the official Lewis
and Clark website. The liberal use and duplication of the
logo is encouraged.
a. Objective 1. Increase media coverage of Lewis and
Clark's Army service during major bicentennial commemoration events
from 2003-2006. Measurement – Conduct media monitoring
survey following the event to assess coverage of the event by national
and local media. An increase in coverage compared to the baseline
established during the program's research phase will indicate success.
b. Objective 2. Increase awareness of and interest in
Army history, its nation-building achievements, seven corps values,
and the American soldier through commemoration events. Measurement
– Prior to starting the commemoration, develop a baseline of web site
hits and e-mail queries to the Army and Center of Military History
Web sites and another for requests to Army Public Affairs Community
Relations for Army historical information. Conduct assessments
annually. Additionally, work with military activities and sponsoring
agencies to secure attendance figures from past national-level events
and those of Lewis and Clark commemorations. Comparing past
attendance figures to the commemoration's figures, as well as results
of audience surveys will establish a cause-effect relationship between
the tactics and the decision to attend the event.
c. Objective 3. Assist recruiting efforts by using the
commemoration as mechanism for attracting potential recruits.
Measurement – Work with U.S. Army Recruiting Command to determine
tracking information on leads generated and recruits signed as a direct
result of recruiting activities at major Lewis and Clark events.
This will show a direct relationship between Lewis and Clark Bicentennial
events and recruiting successes.
d. Objective 4. Encourage Army installations to promote
the commemorative events to their commands and in their communities
as an Army expedition. Measurement – Obtain media tracking
results from MACOM’s and website link hits from their websites to
the official Lewis and Clark website. Collect articles and products
produced by the MACOM’s and installations as examples of their efforts
to promote the events and the Army’s history.
e. Objective 5. Increase awareness of and interest in
the Corps of Discovery by the Army and the communities that surround
Army installations. Measurement – Collect information
and data on the distribution of public affairs products bearing the
Lewis and Clark logo through Commands and Army installations.
Also, collect information from base museums on inquiries before the
commemoration vice during and after in order to gauge interest by
soldiers and civilians in the area. Finally, collect publications
and articles written by installations in support of the Expedition
before and during the actual commemoration to gauge an increase in